Why worry about hazards? zAccidents, or near misses in the workplace lead to lessening productivity: yit costs time and money to retrain a new worker ynew workers are not initially as productive as more experienced workers ygoods or equipment can be lost in the accident, costing the enterprise $ to replace it yother workers will feel afraid or unhappy to be working in a place which could injure or kill them y -this harms productivity.
Categories of Hazards zCzCzCzChemical hazards z Pz Pz Pz Physical hazards
Classes of Chemical Hazards zCompressed gases zFlammable and combustible materials (gases, aerosols, liquids, solids) zOxidizing substances zPoisons zCorrosive substances zDangerously reactive materials zBiological hazards
Poisons zThere are various types of poisons that have different effects on the body; ranging from making someone sick for a long time to killing them instantly. zThree ways of coming in contact with a poison: yingestion (eating, smoking after handling the poison) yinhalation (breathing particles of the poison) yabsorption (soaking in through the skin) zProper gear to wear while handling poisons depends on the substance y Ex: handling mercury which can be absorbed through the skin, wear rubber gloves.
Poisons Different chemicals are harmful in different amounts. (consumption) zEthanol (Pure alcohol) 7060 mg/kg zMethanol (Anti-freeze) 5628 mg/kg zBenzene 4894 mg/kg zDDT (pesticide) 87 mg/kg zDioxin 0.02 mg/kg
Corrosivity zCorrosives are chemicals that will damage ( or burn) skin on contact. Use protective gear: gloves, eye wear, or chemical suit... zAny acid or base near the ends of the pH scale is corrosive.l
Pressurized Gases zAll gases in containers are under pressure. Ex: a balloon. zThey are likely to explode if: ypunctured ycompressed, dropped or dented yheated zPressurized gas explosions, especially flammable ones, (ex: propane, butane or acetylene) are very dangerous. Car-sized tanks can destroy towns kilometres away. zMake sure safety measures are in place and working. Ex: sprinkler systems, emergency release valves... zSome safety measures may not prevent property damage but will save lives, including that of the surrounding community (children, elderly...)
Biological Hazards zBiological hazards come in various forms. If it originates from an animal or has been near an animal, then it is biological waste. Ex: animal parts and manure, hospital waste, city sewage... zBiological hazards contain bacteria or viruses likely to make people sick. zHandle with gloves and other safety precautions dependant on substance. zTreat before releasing into the environment: z (ex: incineration, carbon filtering, distilling, bleaching, settling etc… unique to each substance)
Flammable Substances zFlammable substances are substances that are likely to quite easily catch fire. Ex: gasoline, diesel fuel, paper... zKeep extinguishers and other fire preventive measures ready (sprinkler systems...) zUse the right extinguisher for the right substance. Water wont put out a grease fire. yClass A: Water extinguishers put out wood, paper... yClass B: Gas extinguishers or dry extinguishers put out oil, gas, grease. yClass C: Dry chemical extinguishers put out electrical fires yClass D: Special/specific extinguisher for such things as magnesium fires.
Classes of Physical Hazards zTemperature (heat, cold and their effects) zSlipping, tripping, falling zCollisions with fixed and falling objects, people, machines zEntrapment (excavations, confined spaces, machinery) zAsphyxia (lack of air ) zElectrocution zNoise
Temperature zExcessive heat or cold causes lack of productivity, physical damage or even death. zThe effects of heat are exaggerated by humidity whereby the body cannot cool itself by sweating zThe effects of cold are exaggerated by wind chill whereby the wind steals heat away from the body.
Dealing with Temperature zHEAT: Ways to prevent damage by heat: ycool the body yfans or open doors, windows allowing a breeze to cool the body. yShade yCold fluid, cold drinks zCOLD: Ways to prevent damage by cold: yheat the body ywear warm clothing, especially the torso and head zStop work when extreme temperatures encountered
Noise zHearing can be damaged by noises that are too loud.
Protective equipment zHearing can be lost gradually or all at once. zBeing exposed to very loud noises at work for years can lead to deafness. zHearing is needed to hear things such as emergency alarms or approaching hazards such as forklifts or trucks. zLoss of hearing results in the loss of quality of life and therefore less motivation in the workplace.
Trained employee Good railings Monitoring process
Protecting Against Hazards zLabel and colour code zInstall physical guards zProvide protective equipment zTrain employees in handling procedures zLimit use of dangerous materials where possible
Making an Emergency Plan zPlan for large scale emergencies. (Fires, explosions...) zAn emergency plan will save lives (of workers and community) and property zIn your plan make sure that: yall emergency exits accessible and known to workers ythere is more than one exit yall fire extinguishers, safety valves are in working order yworkers know how to use safety equipment yall the chemicals you are using are known yemergency staff know how to deal with the chemicals
A Safe and Happy Worker is a Productive Worker! zStudies show greater productivity in a clean, safe environment zWorkers are the key to an effective production process zWorker health is a key indicator of environmental, social and economic sustainability
ISO is one emerging approach zKey to managers – means to take control and reduce risk zKey to access to foreign markets zIncreasingly needed to get insurance, bank funding, foreign investment and joint ventures
ISO 18000 and trade zIncreasingly used as a non-tariff barrier along with ISO 14000 to stop goods which are not compliant entering markets like Europe zHealth and environment are considered in many trade agreements to be the only factors which can be used to discriminate against foreign goods
Why ISO? zInternational concern over standards zImporters want to control product quality and environmental impacts zSome nations see ISO as a potential trade barrier (green barrier) zMany firms see economic and market benefit in obtaining international certification zA form of risk management
Why Businesses use ISO 9000, 14000 and now 18000 zImprove control zReduce costs zConfirm compliance zQuality control zShow management capacity to potential clients zGain market access zReduce risk
History zPast approaches based on regulation and compliance (needs legislation and enforcement) zISO approach is proactive. ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 are model for action to prevent problems – done by enterprise or institution zBritish Standards Institute took the lead to develop OHSAS standards ( ISO 18001)
The ISO link zInitial standards were the 9000 series – focus on management accountability zISO 14000 series integrated environmental standards into management (many were also related to health and safety issues) zISO 18000 more explicitly focuses on workplace health and safety
ISO Standards zAll the 9000/14000/18000 standards are process standards – that is an enterprise (state or private) must follow a specific process designed to create accountability – and to document it. zWhile the standards expect the enterprise to meet the actual substantive standards of a jurisdiction, they do not specify these standards – each jurisdiction is expected to have its own – such as amount of toxins in water, noise in workplace, or contents of required training.
Key elements: Initial Phase zOccupational Safety and Health Policy zWorker participation zResponsibility and accountability zCompetence building and training zClear documentation of OSH management system zCommunication zInitial review (aspects and risks) zSystem planning, development, implementation plan zNote that this is parallel to ISO 14000 or 9000
Key Elements: Implementation zSet measurable objectives for OSH zHazard identification and prevention (anticipatory, identify risks, preventative measures, control measures, change management, emergency prevention and response – including supply chain such as procurement and contracting) zPerformance monitoring and measurement (key indicators)
Key Elements: Management zReview of performance re OSH zInvestigation of work related injuries, ill health, disease and impact on performance zAudit zRegular management review zPreventative and corrective action zContinual improvement (re-design, change based on reviews)
Some Tools for ISO 18000 zOn site audit and gap analysis relative to OHMS standards and guidelines zManagement training in OHMS and links to overall management zTraining in: yDocumentation yInternal safety audits yProgress assessments in implementation
Performance Measures zKey to setting substantive goals and targets zWhat are acceptable limits? zWhat are legislated limits? zWhich are monitored regularly as part of ISO 9000/14000/18000 zISO requires that an enterprise monitor on key measures – challenge is to specify what is required and to sustain monitoring and reporting – directly into management decision proceses
Good Health and Safety equals good and sustainable management
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