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11 Expanding Audio Access to Mathematics Expressions by Students with Visual Impairments via MathML 2012 GMI Crossover Symposium on Technology for the Blind and Visually Impaired Hosted by the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs May 12, 2012

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22 Presented by Susan A. Osterhaus Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired Outreach Programs 1100 West 45th Street Austin, TX U.S.A.

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33 Agenda What is MathML? Goal of the Project Feedback Survey 1 Student Selection Criteria for Selecting Math Expressions Resources and Acknowledgements Show and Tell of MathType Questions

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What is MathML? Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) is an application of XML for describing mathematical notations and capturing both its structure and content. It aims at integrating mathematical formulae into World Wide Web pages and other documents. It is a recommendation of the W3C math working group. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaXMLmathematicalWorld Wide Web W3Cworking group 4

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5 MathML = Math Accessibility Math Expressions written in MathML can be read by: DAISY (www.daisy.org)www.daisy.org MathPlayer (www.designscience.com)www.designscience.com ReadHear (www.ghbraille.com)www.ghbraille.com

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Goal of the Project Developing Improved Tools for Making Mathematics Accessible to Students with Visual Impairments Who Use Computerized Speech 6

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Feedback Survey 1 Evaluate three different ways (called speech styles) in which a computer using the MathPlayer software can speak math, and lead to the development of enhanced speech that will be included with the free MathPlayer software. MathSpeak Simple Speech ClearSpeak 7

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Student Selection Visual Impairment Blind or Low Vision Currently Taking Algebra 1, Algebra 2, or some other math class for which Algebra 1 is a prerequisite. 8

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Criteria for Selecting Math Expressions Appropriate level (high school algebra) Typical of expressions found in high school algebra curricula. Of sufficient complexity to offer areas of potential ambiguity that a successful speech style should resolve for the listener; that is, not be so simple that students would instantly understand them, no matter how they were spoken. 9

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Criteria for Selecting Math Expressions (cont.) Uses structures that would be understood by a sighted student who is currently taking the second half of an Algebra 1 class. Of sufficient simplicity that excessive computation is not required in order to answer the math questions posed about the statement. Speaks significantly differently in at least two of the three speech styles being tested (ClearSpeak (the style we are developing) vs. the existing MathSpeak and Simple Speech styles). 10

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Criteria for Selecting Math Expressions (cont.) Lends itself to math questions that will be diagnostic of aspects in which the speech style succeeds or fails to make a math expression clear, as opposed to those that assess whether the student can do the mathematics required to work with the expression. For example, if a speech style makes the start or end of a fraction clear, a student is more likely to correctly identify the denominator of the fraction than if the style fails to make those boundaries clear. 11

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Lois Frankel,Ph.D., Project Director Expanding Audio Access to Mathematics Expressions by Students with Visual Impairments via MathMLExpanding Audio Access to Mathematics Expressions by Students with Visual Impairments via MathML Mail: Assessment Development Educational Testing Service Rosedale and Carter Roads MS 14-N Room N157 Princeton, NJ

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Future Presentations Lois Frankel and Susan Osterhaus, Making a Computer Speak Math However you Want, AER International Conference 2012, July , Bellevue, Washington. Beth Brownstein and Susan Osterhaus, Making a Computer Speak Math Like a Teacher Would, 2013 NCTM Annual Meeting and Exposition, April 17-20, Denver, Colorado. 13

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Acknowledgement "The research reported here was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, through Grant R324A to the Educational Testing Service. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the Institute or the U.S. Department of Education." 14

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