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Biogas in Denmark - status and framework conditions

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1 Biogas in Denmark - status and framework conditions
BIOGASS11 March Biogas in Denmark - status and framework conditions Lars Rohold Danish Biogas Association

2 Biogas as renewable energy in EU
In relation to the objective of 20 to 30% renewable energy in the EU there is a long way before biogas becomes more common to use as energy source. We are here !!! Source: European Environmental Agency

3 Renewable energy in Denmark
Heat pumps Waste Biogas Wood Straw Wind Danish Biogas Association

4 Biogas in the Danish Energy System
Biogas is a “Small player” Renewable energy is depending on political will Competition with other RE, Combustion and wind energy. Danish Biogas Association

5 Renewable energy in Denmark
Heat pumps Waste Biogas Wood Straw Wind ’11 Danish Biogas Association

6 Central biogas plants in Denmark
Nordic BIoEnergy Reference plant Endeavour of the Danish Energy Authorities: About 20 central biogas plants were built in the late 80s and early 90s. They represent a total unique international reference

7 Danish biogas plants Danish Biogas Association Number of plants
 21 centralized biogas plants  60 farm scale biogas plants Joint and farmscale biogas plants 2003 Manure t Organic residues t Total t Danish Biogas Association

8 Methan for heat and electricity
Linkogas A.m.b.a 15 – 20 years experience in operation of biogas plants Co-operative owned by 60 farmers Methan for heat and electricity Liquid biomass and Raw Slurry Solid Biomass Tank Digested biomass Storage tank

9 Linkogas A.m.b.a

10 Co-digestion Manure Organic waste Digested Renewable biomass energy
Co-digestion Renewable energy Digested biomass Manure Organic waste Biogas Plant Danish Biogas Association

11 Biogas Potential for selected types of biomass
Biomass Gaspot. TS% Pig/Cattle Manure 20 – 30 m3/ton 5 – 10% Slaughter house Waste 50 m3/ton 15% Conc. Manure m3/ton 25% Energy Crops (In general) m3/ton 33% Maize Silage/Corn Silage m3/ton 33% Wheat Straw m3/ton 90% Pure Fat m3/ton % Biofuel residuals Ethanol Effluent (wheat) m3/ton 12% Glycerin (from Biodiesel) m3/ton ---

12 Danish energy sector From centralized power plants to decentralized production Centralized production in the mid 80’s Decentralized production of today Legend: Decentralized CHP Centralized CHP Wind mill park The expansion of DH during last two decades is shown at this map. The map at the left side show the CHP structure 20 years ago. By the mid-80’s, Denmark had about 15 large scale CHP’s. To day – that is the map on the right side – Denmark has a extensive decentralised supply structure. Denmark has 670 CHP’s. Most are decentralized CHP’s are owned by local communities, that is the orange spots. The green spots are wind mill parks. Danish Biogas Association

13 Danish Political Model
Biogas to Decentralized CHP for heat and power production Subsidized by the electricity producer Utilization of heat in the district heating (Only one “costumer” and only one “integration” ) Danish Biogas Association

14 Advantages of biogas plants
Greenhouse gas reduction Efficient heat and power: 220 % transportation: 167 % Cheap 0 to 5 CAD Danish Biogas Association

15 Advantages of biogas plants
Greenhouse gas reduction Utilisation of organic waste Win-win situation increased gas production tipping fee reduced costs for industry new types of biomass: energy crops animal by-products glycerine from biodiesel Danish Biogas Association Joint biogas plants 2002

16 Advantages of biogas plants
Advantages of biogas plants Greenhouse gas reduction Utilisation of organic waste Redistribution of manure from livestock farmers to plant producers farm to field tractors to lorries 20-30 km distance 10 km Danish Biogas Association

17 Advantages of biogas plants
Advantages of biogas plants Greenhouse gas reduction Utilisation of organic waste Redistribution of manure Organic fertiliser declarated nutrient content free of pathogens and weed seeds Kg/ton Total N: 5,0 NH4-N: 4,0 P: 0,9 K: 2,8 Hygiejniseres – proces eller særskilt tank Prøvetagning for tungmetaller, patogener m.v. Danish Biogas Association

18 Advantages of biogas plants
Greenhouse gas reduction Utilisation of organic waste Redistribution of manure Organic fertiliser Smell from slurry reduced thinner liquid disperses quicker into soil Wind direction Raw manure Digested manure 5 minutes 12 hours Danish Biogas Association

19 Advantages of biogas plants
Greenhouse gas reduction Utilisation of organic waste Redistribution of manure Organic fertiliser Smell from slurry reduced Improved nitrogen utilisation Reduced risk of leaching Separation of digested biomass low technology net energy surplus Danish Biogas Association

20 Biomass potential in Denmark
Overall inventory shows that there is enough biomass to hundreds of biogas plants (All values in TJ)

21 Political Energy Settlement (2004)
Energiforlig giver fremtidstro for biogas Fredag 2. april 2004 Med regeringens energiforlig i denne uge med alle Folketingets partier på nær Enhedslisten gennemføres omsider sidste års aftale om at sikre den danske biogas en afregningspris på 60 øre pr. kWh i 10 år frem.

22 Biogas production in Denmark
Biogas production in Denmark Danish Biogas Association

23 Biogas development Government January 19 2007:
Biogas development Government January : Biogasproduction to be trippled before 2025 Første gårdanlæg 1975 første fællesanlæg 1984 jævn udbygning i 90’erne udviklingen stoppede efter år ikke fordi anlæggene ikke fungerer, men fordi rammevilkårene blev usikre - og efterfølgende forringede…. Danish Biogas Association

24 Political Energy Settlement (2008)
Fakta: Energiaftalens hovedpunkter Her er de 14 hovedpunkter fra torsdagens energi-forlig, som alle partier undtagen Enhedslisten står bag. Af Thomas Djursing, fredag 22. feb 2008 kl. 10:32 - Biogasanlæg – både gamle og nye - får en fast elafregningspris på 74,5 øre per kilowatt-time. (Kilde: Ingeniøren) Danish Biogas Association

25 Payment for electricity from biogas
Payment from 2008 - All plants Danish Biogas Association

26 Political influence With palyers in the business Show examples:
Danish Biogas Association

27 Energipolitisk Udvalg Levering af biogas til naturgasnettet
Præsentation for Energipolitisk Udvalg Torsdag den 15. januar 2009 Levering af biogas til naturgasnettet

28 Opfordring Afsætning af biogas til naturgasnettet bør
kunne finde sted under samme vilkår som afsætning til kraftvarmeproduktion. Derved skabes der bedre muligheder for biogas skabes der mulighed for optimal udnyttelse sikres den fremtidige udvikling

29 Hvorfor naturgasnettet?
Afsætning via naturgasnettet giver optimal anvendelse af gassen – intet spild fleksibel placering – bedst mulig logistik udvidelsesmuligheder – sikret afsætning flere anvendelsesmuligheder for gassen

30 Hvorfor naturgasnettet?
Afsætning via naturgasnettet giver mulighed for udvidelse af bestående anlæg intet ”monopol” for kraftvarmeværket biogas i tyndere befolkede områder total fremtidssikring

31 Government Green Growth Plan 2009
Promotion in biogas through From currently 5 % to 50 % of manure into biogas in 2020 Co-ordination plan for construction of biogas plants Plan for integration of biogas into the energy sector Obligation for municipalities to point out where to build plants Distribution in natural gas grid on equal terms as direct co-generation Equal opportunities for biogas to earn money as natural gas suppliers Financing 20 % construction subsidy (in total 300 mill. DKK from 2010 to 2012) loans guaranteed by municipalities capital from investors Danish Biogas Association

32 Next Energy Settlement (2011)
Danish Biogas Association

33 Next Energy Settlement (2011)
Danish Biogas Association

34 Denmark 1.1 TWh – 4,000 TJ power/heat 82 manure based plants
64 sewage sludge plants 5 industrial wastewater plants 25 landfill gas plants Danish Biogas Association

35 Sweden – origin of biogas
Gas production (pct) 1.4 TWh – 4,900 TJ 8 farm and 17 (14) co-digestion plants 140 (138) waste water treatmant plants 4 (3) industrial wastewater plants 58 (60) landfill gas plants Danish Biogas Association

36 Filling stations in Sweden
Distribution Local grids Natural gas grid By truck Danish Biogas Association Source: Swedish Gas

37 Transportation - Sweden
Danish Biogas Association

38 Transportation - Sweden
Danish Biogas Association

39 Sweden – gas utilisation (pct)
Heat most important Transportation fastet growing Danish Biogas Association

40 Norway - waste in 29 biogas plants
Source sep. household/food waste Food waste retailers Food waste hotels & restaurants Slaughterhouse waste (cat. 2) Slaughterhouse waste (cat. 3) Fish waste (cat. 3) Fats - sewage in foodindustry Danish Biogas Association

41 Start up Sludge March 2008, Food waste April 2008
Ecopro, Verdal Norway Total area 9000 m2 Start up Sludge March 2008, Food waste April 2008

42 WASTE FEEDSTOCKS Food waste (source separated household waste)
Approx t/a Sludge (from waste water treatment plants) ABP (has not started to receive ABP yet) Approx t/a (slaughterhouse waste and dead salmons from fish farms)

43 Typical mass balance Product I/O Comments Biowaste 1000 kg
Food waste 70-82% Sorting reject+grit kg This number can be improved with better participation Bio-fertilizer ~300 kg Biogas at 60% CH4 m3 150 m3 on pure biowaste kWh Electricity kWh 300 kWh on pure biowaste

44 DIGESTATE – BIO-FERTILIZER
The produced digestate (approx t/a) do not need to go through any maturing process At Ecopro they intend to distribute the organic bio-fertilizer to the agricultural sector and to the private sector. Attractive bio-fertilizer due to: - 100% pathogen-free & nutritious - Minimal odour (smells like soil) - 30% DS content - < 0,5% plastic in weight Cambi bio-fertilizer as produced Scotland: Spreading the Cambi bio-fertilizer into grasslands

45 Suggestions for Norway
Look at the neighbors (Denmark and Sweden) …do not repeat bad experience! Find the political argumentation for Biogas in the RE strategy (…you need political support) Calculate the economical “break even” for investment (…you need investors) Find the biomass and waste available for biogas production (…you need biomass and preferably a “waste problem”, ex fish industry) Recycling og Nutrients as a part of future strategy. Danish Biogas Association

46 Thank you for your attention www.biogasbranchen.dk lars@cambi.dk
Danish Biogas Association


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