2 Why us? Kate Niederhoffer Ph.D UT Social Psychology BuzzMetrics/Nielsen Online, Measurement Science Dachis Corporation - Methodology, Social Business Design Marc Smith Ph.D UCLA Sociology Microsoft Research, Community Technologies Group Telligent Systems – Harvest reporting and analysis tools for social media platforms and systems Note: This is a conceptual address. Were talking about ideas; each of our companies have distinct methodologies in place related to these concepts.
Why are we here? 1.Demonstrating the depth of buzz; ways to think about signal within vast universe. 1.Going beyond buzz; learning more about individuals. 3
Why are we here? 3.Highlighting the unique roles individuals play in communities that afford the conversation. 3.Illustrating that aggregated relationships are network structures. 4
Why now? 5
6 Blogs were all the rage In 2005, clients attracted by novelty: Simple question: Whats my buzz? - How much? - Good or bad? Incremental improvement: How important is it? - Are Influencers talking? - How many eyeballs exposed? - Engagement? However, all superficially measured; limited scope of whats important: what kind of influence?
7 Blogs are now features Todays media enable richer social interaction-- and, leave a path of data with more opportunities to capture depth Buzz levels, page views, followers, in isolation miss big picture Must take advantage context to tell whole story and capture value
8 Social networks are all the rage, but rarely do we think about social metrics We need to stop blackboxing: "When a machine runs efficiently, when a matter of fact is settled, one need focus only on its inputs and outputs and not on its internal complexity. Thus, paradoxically, the more science and technology succeed, the more opaque and obscure they become." - Bruno Latour Even if a conversation is running smoothly, we must figure out what makes it tick.
Central tenet: Social structure emerges from the aggregate of relationships (ties) among members of a population Phenomena of interest: Emergence of cliques and clusters from patterns of relationships Centrality (core), periphery (isolates), betweenness Methods: Surveys, interviews, observations, log file analysis, computational analysis of matrices Source: Richards, W. (1986). The NEGOPY network analysis program. Burnaby, BC: Department of Communication, Simon Fraser University. pp.7-16 Social Network Theory (Hampton &Wellman, 1999; Paolillo, 2001; Wellman, 2001)
10 Context of a conversation Relevance Role Mindset Ecosystem What is the pattern of connections? What is the dynamic, en masse? What else do we know about the individuals? Wheres the signal in the noise? Persona Person Environment Signal
12 Context of a conversation Relevance Role Mindset Ecosystem Wheres the signal in the noise?
13 Relevance today As a user, easy to relate to issues with pre-determined filters. As an enterprise, complexity increases. We dont always know what we want to know!
14 Relevance: Which filters are in place to strengthen the signal? Identifying your filters can be inductive: What are people really saying? Which concepts differentiate the posts that mention you vs. posts that don't? All terms on your map have a correlation to the central concept; the closer a word appears to the center, the stronger the association.The groupings of terms indicate the dimensions of discussion: micro-conversations within a broader discussion. * Source: Nielsen Online, 2008
15 Relevance is multi-faceted Rather than looking at associations with, as compared to without, consider discussion this week as compared to discussion over the past year. Not whats being said about her in a more recent timeframe, but instead when you control for whats said about her in general, what pops? * Source: Nielsen Online, 2008
16 Relevance - Summary Information can be visualized in so many different ways; dont take it for granted. Listening can be limited if youre exclusively looking for something in particular; broaden your net. Be inductive. Let the data speak for itself.
18 Context of a conversation Relevance Role Mindset Ecosystem What else can we know about the individuals?
19 Says Who?
20 Mindset By measuring the types of words used, we can tap into how people slice their worlds. Linguistic style is closely tied to: Demographics (e.g. age, sex, class) Emotion (e.g. depression, deception) Cognitive style (e.g. complex thinking) Personality (e.g. Neuroticism) FindingsLinguistic Cues Are you self-oriented?Pronoun use: I and We Are you living in the now? Past, Present, Future tense What is your emotional tone? Positive vs. Negative Are you abstract or concrete? Articles: a vs. the Nouns vs. verbs What else can we know about the person in conversation? e.g. Pennebaker, Mehl, Niederhoffer, 2003
When people make recommendations on blogs, is there something deeper going on? 21 Got the next three PW/GS games for my birthday. And I am one happy gal, there was some stuff that I absolutely LOVED and I would definitely recommend the game to anyone who owns a PS3 regardless of its flaws -- which really were at their heart personal quibbles of mine so your mileage may vary. Plus, I cried like a b*$$ at the end. That's got to be saying something.
22 Getting into the Engaged Mind Recommendations have: More pronouns: intimacy with both the brand/product/ service being recommended, and those to whom theyre recommending. More verbs: sharing experience more than discussion of concrete features. * all differences significant at p<.01 level
Invisible language gives us clues about individuals, and groups 23
24 Changes in work atmosphere, captured in words Tausczik, Scholand, and Pennebaker, 2009 Engineers, economists programmers collaborating on economic simulations of disasters Complexity of thought (-) Cohesion (-) Work information (-) Negative emotion (+) Funding lost
25 Connected Age: relationships are groundwork of work Social: niceties (lol), affirmations (cool), coordination (call), broad communication (http, thinking) Work: economic (production, supply), analytic (results, problem)
26 Mindset- Summary Language is a good way to go beyond the surface and better understand constituents without self- report biases (or effort). Metrics in the hands of users (yourselves) are helpful: know thyself, know how youre perceived.
27 Beyond thoughts and feelings, who comes to roost?
28 Context of a conversation Relevance Role Mindset Ecosystem What is the pattern of connections?
Social Network Analysis with NodeXL: Identify different roles in social media spaces NodeXL
Identify core groups in the network
Answer person –Outward ties to local isolates –Relative absence of triangles –Few intense ties Reply Magnet –Ties from local isolates often inward only –Sparse, few triangles –Few intense ties Distinguishing attributes: 31
Distinguishing attributes: Answer person –Outward ties to local isolates –Relative absence of triangles –Few intense ties Discussion person –Ties from local isolates often inward only –Dense, many triangles –Numerous intense ties 32
Role – Summary Network awareness, like court vision enables strategic play. Know which positions/players are on your team. Social media behavior is differentiated. Rare (~.5-2%) roles are critical and must be cultivated. E.g. Clear and consistent signatures of an Answer Person Light touch to numerous threads initiated by someone else Most ties are outward to local isolates Many more ties to small fish than big fish 35
36 What is the mix in the neighborhood?
37 Context of a conversation Relevance Role Mindset Ecosystem What is the dynamic, en masse?
Pajek without modification can sometimes reveal structures of great interest. The Ties that Blind?
Darwin Bell 40
Two answer people with an emerging 3 rd. Mapping Newsgroup Social Ties Microsoft.public.windowsxp.server.general 43
Adamic et al. WWW 2008 Research shows social media spaces vary and roles are present
45 Ecosystem- Summary Social media is about collective action. A balance of roles and strategies is critical for a healthy/ successful collective good. Harvesting the common good takes many forms, and is the ultimate goal of social media.
46 Why does this matter? This is not measurement for the sake of measurement; we need to measure conversations in order to manage social business. Measuring conversations is about measuring the context in which those conversations arise. Value is an intermediate step in calculating ROI. Moot to bypass it. Techniques from social science help capture the immeasurable in social media and the enterprise. The future of conversations- the enterprise being one- - is about cultivating ecologies of the right balance of relationships.
47 Thank You firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Questions? firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
48 Additional Resources
How uniform are social media producing groups? Individuals Small Groups Variable Contribution Large Groups Uniform Large Groups Heterogeneous Variable Contribution Large Groups
Social Science Theory and Method Interactionist Sociology Central tenet Focus on the active effort of accomplishing interaction Phenomena of interest Presentation of self Claims to membership Juggling multiple (conflicting) roles Frontstage/Backstage Strategic interaction Managing ones own and others face Methods Ethnography and participant observation (Goffman, 1959; Hall, 1990) Collective Action Dilemmas Central tenet Individual rationality leads to collective disaster Phenomena of interest Provision and/or sustainable consumption of collective resources Public Goods, Common Property, "Free Rider Problems, Tragedies Methods Surveys, interviews, participant observation, log file analysis, computer modeling (Axelrod, 1984; Hess, 1995; Kollock & Smith, 1996)