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Chapter 1 Introduction to the Computer-Based Information System MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8/E Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell Copyright 2001.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Introduction to the Computer-Based Information System MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8/E Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell Copyright 2001."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Introduction to the Computer-Based Information System MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8/E Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell Copyright 2001 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1-1

2 Information Management Information: The most valuable resource 1-2

3 Five Main Resources n Personnel n Material n Machines –(including facilities and energy) n Money n Information (and data) Physical Conceptual } 1-3

4 How Resources are Managed n Acquire n Assemble, or prepare n Maximize use n Replace 1-4

5 Factors Stimulating Interest in Information Management n Increasing complexity of business activity –International economy –Worldwide competition –Increasing complexity of technology –Shrinking time frames –Social constraints n Improved computer capabilities –Size –Speed 1-5

6 Who are the Users? n Managers n Nonmanagers n Persons & organizations in the firm’s environment 1-6

7 The Influence of Management Level on Information Source Strategic planning level Management control level Operational control level Internal Environmental 1-7

8 The Influence of Management Level on Information Form Strategic planning level Management control level Operational control level Detail Summary 1-8

9 Managers Can Be Found on All Levels and in All Functional Areas of the Firm Finance Function Human Resources Function Information Services Function Manufacturing Function Marketing Function Strategic planning level Management Control Level Operational Control Level 1-9

10 What Managers do -- Fayol’s Functions Strategic Planning Level Management Control Level Operational Control Level 1-10

11 What Managers do -- Mintzberg’s Roles n Interpersonal roles –Figurehead –Leader –Liaison n Informational roles –Monitor –Disseminator –Spokesperson n Decisional roles –Entrepreneur –Disturbance handler –Resource allocator –Negotiator 1-11

12 Management Skills n Communications n Problem solving How can an information specialist help? 1-12

13 Problem Solving Information Comes in Many Forms Computer Reports Noncomputer reports Electronic mail Periodicals Telephone Problem Solving Written Media Oral Media Internal Sources External Sources Scheduled Meetings Unscheduled Meetings Voice Mail Tours Business Meals Letters & Memos 1-13

14 Management Knowledge n Computer literacy n Information literacy n What’s the difference? 1-14

15 System Components Component parts of a system that can control its own operations Objectives Control mechanism Transformation InputOutput 1-15

16 Open-Loop System Transformation InputOutput 1-16

17 Open versus Closed Systems n Open system –Connected to its environment by means of resource flows n Closed system –Not connected to its environment 1-17

18 Systems Can Be Composed of Subsystems or Elemental Parts Systems Can Be Composed of Subsystems or Elemental Parts Subsystem A-2 Subsystem A-3 Subsystem B-2 Subsystem B-1 System Subsystem ASubsystem B Elemental Part C Subsystem A-1 Elemental part B1 1-18

19 Physical and Conceptual Systems n Physical system –The business firm –Composed of physical resources n Conceptual system –Represents a physical system –Uses conceptual resources »Information »Data 1-19

20 A Systems View n Business operations are embedded within a larger environmental setting –Reduces complexity –Requires good objectives –Emphasizes working together –Acknowledges interconnections –Values feedback 1-20

21 Data and Information n Information processor –Key element in the conceptual system –Computer –Noncomputer –Combination n Data is the raw material transformed into information 1-21

22 Evolution of the CBIS n n Data Processing (DP) n n Management Information Systems (MIS) 1964 – –IBM promoted the concept as a means of selling disk files and terminals n n Decision Support Systems (DSS) 1971 – –Text book’s distinction: » »MIS: Organizational/group - general » »DSS: Individual - specific n n Office Automation (OA) 1964 n n Artificial Intelligence (AI)/ Expert Systems (ES) s – –Heavy investment by businesses 1-22

23 The CBIS Model Computer-based Information System (CBIS) Accounting Information System Management Information System Decision Support Systems The Virtual Office Knowledge-based Systems Decisions Problem Information ProblemSolution 1-23

24 Information Services Information specialists have full-time responsibility for developing and maintaining computer-based systems 1-24

25 Traditional Communication Chain Database Administrator User Systems Analyst Programmer Operator Computer Network Specialist 1-25

26 End-User Computing (EUC) n End-user computing –Development of all or part of applications –Information specialists act as consultants n Stimulants to EUC –Increased computer literacy –IS backlog –Low-cost hardware (the PC) –Prewritten software (electronic spreadsheets) 1-26

27 IS and EUC The End-User Computing Communication Chain User Computer Information Specialists Support Communication 1-27

28 Justifying the CBIS n Justify in the same manner as any other large investment n Economic –Cost reduction –Reduced inventory investment –Increased productivity (CAD/CAM) n Noneconomic –Perceived value 1-28

29 Achieving the CBIS 1-29

30 Reengineering the CBIS n Business Process Reengineering (BPR) –Reworking systems –Good system features retained –Becoming development methodology of choice 1-30

31 Roles Played by the Manager and by the Information Specialist Implementation PhaseManagerInformation Specialist Control Planning Analysis Design Use Define problem Support System Study Design system Implement system Make available 1-31

32 Summary n Information is one of five main resources n Computer output used by managers and nonmanagers n A system is an integration of elements working toward an objective –Physical –Conceptual n Data vs. Information 1-32

33 Summary [cont.] n CBIS composed of various components –AIS –MIS –DSS –Virtual office –Knowledge-based systems n End-user computing trends n CBIS development 1-33


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