Presentation on theme: "Edward chose John Balliol"— Presentation transcript:
1Edward chose John Balliol The Award of Berwick17 Nov 1292 King Edward announced his decisionEdward chose John BalliolThis was no surprise – even 29 auditors Bruce had chosen voted for Balliol
2The Reaction of the Bruce‘s The Bruce family were:AngryWould not accept Balliol as KingDetermined to continue their claimRobert Bruce of Annandale‘The Competitor’Robert BruceEarl of CarrickBruce ‘the competitor’ handed over his claim to his son Robert Bruce, Earl of CarrickRobert Bruce(later to become Robert I - Robert the Bruce)The Earl of Carrick also had a son Robert Bruce who was eager for the family to succeed
3John Balliol’s coronation Took place at SconeSt Andrews Day (30 Nov 1292)Balliol sat on the Stone of DestinyList of Balliol’s ancestors was read out
42 weeks later at Newcastle John Balliol paid homage to Edward I 26 Dec 12922 weeks later at Newcastle John Balliol paid homage to Edward IDuring the ceremony Balliol:Knelt in front of Edward IPromised to obey EdwardAccepted Edward as his overlordAccepted if he broke his promise he would be punished severely
5Collect a worksheet from your teacher My Lord, Lord Edward, lord superior of the realm of Scotland, I, John Balliol, King of the Scots, hereby become your liegeman for the whole realm of Scotland….and I will maintain faith and fealty to you and your heirs, the kings of England.Group Work – source Questions – 10/15mins to answer questionsBalliol was to become a puppet KingCollect a worksheet from your teacher
7King John Balliol – A bad King? Chosen because Edward 1st saw him as weak & Easy to manipulateHe had the better legal claim to the throneHis subsequent performance had little to do with the reason why he became king?5mins to answer questionExplain in detail why John had the better legal claim
8Edwards InterferenceEdward demanded all claimants accepted him as overlord of ScotlandThe agreement is known as the “Award of Norham”12th June 1291 – all had signed the agreement5mins to answer questionsExplain why the “Award of Norham” was so important (p15 of textbook)What did the Scots think would happen when the new King was crowned?
9Collect a worksheet from your teacher Johns ProblemsMany powerful nobles who thought that John had been the wrong choiceInexperienced as a politicianThe administration system needed a strong hand to make sure Royal authority was recognisedGroup work – source questions – 10/15minsCollect a worksheet from your teacher
10Issues with Edward A burgess of Berwick The Macduff Case Edward reminded John to be a fair & Just King or he would face interference from EdwardA burgess of BerwickThe Macduff CaseUsing the textbook:Give a description of the above cases that were taken to Edward’s court
11It was the Prospect of war that caused Rebellion War With FranceIt was the Prospect of war that caused RebellionEdward demanded all his feudal lords to send knights/soldiers to fight in FranceThe assumption that Scotland was just another big estate of England was bad enoughBut the assumption that the scots were to fight against the French their biggest trading partner was worseAdded to this was Edwards demands for taxes from the Scottish nobility to pay for the war
12Rebellion129524th Feb 129612 Guardians were appointed by the Community of the Realm to defy EdwardThey sent envoys to the King of FranceA treaty against Edward was signedIt included a marriage deal:Edward Balliol should marry the eldest daughter of Charles, Count of Valois & Anjou (Brother of French King)It is more likely that the new king had at last found supporters he needed to stand up to EdwardDid the Scottish nobles get fed up with the humiliating reign of King John?
13Edwards Invasion of Scotland A direct response to the refusal of the Scots to assemble for military dutyScottish Nobles began assembling their forces at Berwick10,000 menMost were leviesThere was a solid fighting core of nobles and their trained retainersArmy's Confidence was HighIt was confidence based on nothing, in fact the scots had very little real experienceThere is evidence that Edward was already planning the invasion
14“none within the town shall be spared” “Corpses were dumped in huge numbers in the sea.”(Modern Historian)Source B:“A great quantity of booty was seized and no fewer than 15,000 of both sexes perished, some by sword, others by fire in the space of a day and a half, and the survivors, including even the little children were sent into permanent exile(Chronicle of Lanercost)Siege of Berwick“Even a woman giving birth was hacked to pieces during her labour.” (Modern Historian)12th March 1296ScotlandEnglandSource A:“When the city was taken they killed more than 8,000 of the enemy. The women of the city were sent away to their people after some days and went in peace”(Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough)StrengthAbout 10,000 infantry500 cavalryAbout 30,000 infantry5,000 cavalryLeadersUsing textbook pages 23 & 24Sir William DouglasRobert de CliffordLosses10,000 Civilians & SoldiersLight“none within the town shall be spared”How Useful is Source A when investigating the Siege of Berwick
15Battle of Dunbar 27th April 1296 The Earl of Dunbar had made peace with Edward at Berwick and had handed over the keys of the castle, but his wife was a Comyn and she handed the Castle over to the scots when her husband was awayScotlandEnglandStrength40,00012,000LeadersJohn BalliolJohn de WarenneLosses1+ killed c.130 prisonersNone known
16Edwards March North By July Edward had reached Elgin 10th July 1296 – John forced to apologise publically & the royal badge was ripped symbolically from his surcoat. It was made clear to all that John was no longer KingJohn Fled to Montrose but surrendered on 2nd July 1296SconeMontroseDunbarStirlingStirling Castle was abandoned by defendersBerwick
17ActivityWhy was Scotland defeated so easily in 1296?Include: Battles, Sieges march north, failure of leadership, loss of moraleWhat Happened to King John following his surrender?Surrender ceremony, house arrest & where he diedAnswer in full sentences and in as much detail as you can, these answers will be used as part of your notes and for revision
18His tabard is torn and his Sceptre broken The Ragman’s RollEverything that showed Scotland as a separate nation was taken down to EnglandOn 28 August, 1296, Edward held a "parliament" at Berwick.All the prominent Scottish landowners, churchmen and burgesses were summoned to swear allegiance to Edward and sign the parchments and affix their sealsHis tabard is torn and his Sceptre broken
19“Toom Tabard” – is this really John Balliol’s legacy NewTraditionalClearly had problems, but even In his short reign he managed to summon annual parliamentsHe appointed his own Justicars, 3 new sheriffs and he silenced the Bruce faction and kept the powerful Comyns HappyActivity 1 on page 30 of textbookFrom 1309 onwards the general trend has been to blame John for his failure to stand up to EdwardHe was held in such poor esteem that no Scottish king would ever bear the name JohnIt is clear he was not a strong king, but could any other king have managed any better?