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G. K. Pennington1 Gospel of John Review. Brief Look At Bible History Adam Great Patriarchs Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Israel in Egypt Exodus Mt. Sinai.

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Presentation on theme: "G. K. Pennington1 Gospel of John Review. Brief Look At Bible History Adam Great Patriarchs Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Israel in Egypt Exodus Mt. Sinai."— Presentation transcript:

1 G. K. Pennington1 Gospel of John Review

2 Brief Look At Bible History Adam Great Patriarchs Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Israel in Egypt Exodus Mt. Sinai Wanderings Conquest Judges United Kingdom Saul David Solomon Divided Kingdom Israel Judah Captivity and exile Return from captivity

3  G.K. Pennington Law History Poetry Prophecy The Bible Books Have A Purpose

4  G.K. Pennington Overview of Bible Structure  Old Testament: Foundation for the story  Gospels: Tell the story of Jesus  Acts: Tells the results of the story  Letters: Encouragement and course correction  Apocalyptic: The victory in figurative language

5  G.K. Pennington John’s Characteristics Emphasizes the Early Judean Ministry Has no parables Calls miracles “signs" Simple style Repetition of words and themes Reflective gospel

6  G.K. Pennington Interpretive gospel Sketches of individual characters Personal relationships of Jesus Called the “Spiritual Gospel” Gospel of belief Gospel of God-Man Continued John’s Characteristics

7  G.K. Pennington John The "Apostle Of Love" Jewish

8  G.K. Pennington John Shows Jesus As 1. Son Of God 2. Personal Savior 3. Incarnate Word

9  G.K. Pennington Simple Outline of John Prologue:1:1-18 Book of Signs:1:19-12:50 Book of Glory:13-20 Epilogue:21 Description Chapter(s)

10 G. K. Pennington10 The Word became flesh The Gospel of John The Prologue John 1:1-18

11  G.K. Pennington Prologue  1:1-18  Introduces the reader to the incarnation  Introduces themes and terms for the Gospel Creation, God, Word, believe, light, darkness, life, truth, witness, glory…  Introduces us to the role of John the Baptist  Connects fullness of God’s grace, His blessings and truth to Jesus

12  G.K. Pennington In the beginning … (John 1:1-2 NIV) In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. {2} He was with God in the beginning. Recalls Genesis 1:1 An affirmation of Jesus’ deity Creation and order are key themes of scripture

13  G.K. Pennington Creation in the Old Testament Genesis 1-2 Counters early pagan cosmology The ten plagues challenge Egyptian cosmology The Psalms revel in creation language Isaiah has several creation references Job has references to creation from Job and God Creation concepts shape our image of God

14  G.K. Pennington Creation in the New Testament (Col 1:16-17 NIV) {16} For by him (Jesus) all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things were created by him and for him. {17} He is before all things, and in him all things hold together.

15  G.K. Pennington (Eph 3:9 NIV) …and to make plain to everyone the administration of this mystery, which for ages past was kept hidden in God, who created all things.

16  G.K. Pennington (Heb 1:2 NIV) …but in these last days he has spoken to us by his Son, whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom he made the universe.

17  G.K. Pennington (Acts 14:15 NIV) … We are bringing you good news, telling you to turn from these worthless things to the living God, who made heaven and earth and sea and everything in them.

18  G.K. Pennington (Rev 4:11 NIV) "You are worthy, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power, for you created all things, and by your will they were created and have their being." Christianity helped reshape the creation concepts of much of the world, moving from pagan myth to a biblical monotheistic model for origins.

19 G. K. Pennington19 The deity of Jesus is a primary point of the prologue. John 1:1-18

20  G.K. Pennington (John 1:1-4 NIV) {1} In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. {2} He was with God in the beginning. {3} Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made. {4} In him was life, and that life was the light of men.

21  G.K. Pennington In him was life… No Condemnation Dead to sin Alive to God Eternal life Form one body Sanctified God’s grace Hope Made alive New creation Reconciled Justified Freedom Faith Every spiritual blessing God’s workmanship Brought near to God God’s eternal purpose Forgiveness Peace of God “In Christ”

22  G.K. Pennington John the Baptist {5} The light shines in the darkness, but the darkness has not understood it. {6} There came a man who was sent from God; his name was John. {7} He came as a witness to testify concerning that light, so that through him all men might believe. {8} He himself was not the light; he came only as a witness to the light. (A Witness)

23  G.K. Pennington Purpose of the Incarnation {9} The true light that gives light to every man was coming into the world. {10} He was in the world, and though the world was made through him, the world did not recognize him. {11} He came to that which was his own, but his own did not receive him. {12} Yet to all who received him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God-- {13} children born not of natural descent, nor of human decision or a husband's will, but born of God.

24  G.K. Pennington The Word Became Flesh {14} The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the One and Only, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.  John skips the genealogy, birth story, and reference of Jesus childhood.  His story focuses on the glory of the glory of the One and Only Son.

25  G.K. Pennington John the Baptist’s Testimony {15} John testifies concerning him. He cries out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me has surpassed me because he was before me.'"

26  G.K. Pennington The Results of Jesus Coming {16} From the fullness of his grace we have all received one blessing after another. {17} For the law was given through Moses; grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. {18} No one has ever seen God, but God the One and Only, who is at the Father's side, has made him known.

27 Themes Originating in the Prologue Words occurring at least this many times in John… Light 23 Truth 38 Life 36 Son 43 Glory 42 Witness 54 World 79 God 82 Believe 98

28  G.K. Pennington John the Baptist Not the Christ Not Elijah Not the Prophet This is what the people were anticipating I am not He, but He is coming!

29  G.K. Pennington First Week of Jesus’ Ministry in John Next day: “Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!” Next day: First disciples called Next Day: Philip and Nathanael Three days later the first miracle

30  G.K. Pennington Philip and Nathanael (John 1:50-51 NIV) Jesus said, "You believe because I told you I saw you under the fig tree. You shall see greater things than that." {51} He then added, "I tell you the truth, you shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man."

31  G.K. Pennington The First of the “Double Amens” Recalls Bethel imagery The essence of John’s story about Jesus God’s redemption coming through Jesus

32  G.K. Pennington Greater things to come… Water to wine the first of greater things Seven spectacular signs The resurrection

33  G.K. Pennington Seven Signs in the “Book of Signs” 1. Water into wine 2: Healing the nobleman’s son 4: Healing the lame man 5: Feeding the multitude 6: Walking on the water 6: Healing the blind man 9: Raising Lazarus11:1-44

34  G.K. Pennington Ascending Emphasis of the Signs Resurrection in plain sight after 3 days Man blind from birth Master over natural world (chaos) Food as a miracle Invalid for 38 years Healing from a distance Water to wine at a wedding

35  G.K. Pennington Anticipating the Main Event

36  G.K. Pennington More than Seven Signs!!! This, the first of his miraculous signs, Jesus performed at Cana in Galilee. (John 2:11 NIV) Now while he was in Jerusalem at the Passover Feast, many people saw the miraculous signs he was doing and believed in his name. (John 2:23 NIV) He came to Jesus at night and said, "Rabbi, we know you are a teacher who has come from God. For no one could perform the miraculous signs you are doing if God were not with him." (John 3:2 NIV)

37  G.K. Pennington and a great crowd of people followed him because they saw the miraculous signs he had performed on the sick. (John 6:2 NIV) and a great crowd of people followed him because they saw the miraculous signs he had performed on the sick. (John 6:2 NIV) Still, many in the crowd put their faith in him. They said, "When the Christ comes, will he do more miraculous signs than this man?" (John 7:31 NIV) Still, many in the crowd put their faith in him. They said, "When the Christ comes, will he do more miraculous signs than this man?" (John 7:31 NIV) … But others asked, "How can a sinner do such miraculous signs?" So they were divided. (John 9:16 NIV) … But others asked, "How can a sinner do such miraculous signs?" So they were divided. (John 9:16 NIV)

38  G.K. Pennington Then the chief priests and the Pharisees called a meeting of the Sanhedrin. "What are we accomplishing?" they asked. "Here is this man performing many miraculous signs. (John 11:47) Then the chief priests and the Pharisees called a meeting of the Sanhedrin. "What are we accomplishing?" they asked. "Here is this man performing many miraculous signs. (John 11:47) Even after Jesus had done all these miraculous signs in their presence, they still would not believe in him. (John 12:37 NIV) Even after Jesus had done all these miraculous signs in their presence, they still would not believe in him. (John 12:37 NIV) Jesus did many other miraculous signs in the presence of his disciples, which are not recorded in this book. (John 20:30 NIV) Jesus did many other miraculous signs in the presence of his disciples, which are not recorded in this book. (John 20:30 NIV)

39  G.K. Pennington The Purpose of the Signs But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name. (John 20:31 NIV)

40  G.K. Pennington Jesus Clears the Temple John places this at the first of his gospel. The synoptic gospels record a clearing of the temple toward the end. (John 2:17 NIV) His disciples remembered that it is written: "Zeal for your house will consume me."

41  G.K. Pennington Jesus and Nicodemus Jesus the “teacher who has come from God.” How can one see the “Kingdom of God?” A statement of irony; How… “As Moses lifted up the snake” 3:14 John 3:16-21 accept the “Word that became flesh”

42  G.K. Pennington John’s Testimony Problem: Jesus “is baptizing and everyone is going to him.” John 3:26 John 3:30 “He must become greater; I must become less.” John 3:31-36 Jesus is the one from above. Jesus is the one who does “greater things.”

43  G.K. Pennington John 3 Jesus and Nicodemus Jesus the “teacher who has come from God.” How can one see the “Kingdom of God?”

44  G.K. Pennington God’s deliverance… “As Moses lifted up the snake” 3:14 “Eternal life”

45  G.K. Pennington For God so loved… John 3:16-21 accept the “Word that became flesh” “Light has come into the world” 19

46  G.K. Pennington John’s Testimony 3:22-36 Problem: Jesus “is baptizing and everyone is going to him.” John 3:26 John 3:30 “He must become greater; I must become less.” John 3:31-36 Jesus is the one from above. Jesus is the one who does “greater things.”

47  G.K. Pennington John 4 Jesus moves from Judea to Galilee Woman at Jacob’s well

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49  G.K. Pennington Shechem Location of the promise to Abraham Gen 12:6-7 Mount Gerizim Mount of blessing Jotham’s fable Samaritan temple circa 300 BC Destroyed 107 BC by Jews Mount Ebal Mount of curses Joshua built an altar there. Joshua 8:30ff Deuteronomy 11:26-29; 27, Genesis 12:6-7, Joshua 8, 24:1

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52  G.K. Pennington John 4…Woman at Jacob’s well If you only knew who I am … 10 Are you greater than Jacob? 11 You have five husbands 18 You are a prophet … 19 Where to worship… The Messiah is coming 25 I…am he. 26

53  G.K. Pennington John 4…Jesus’ disciples Why talk with this woman? 27ff Now is the time for harvest… Samaritans believe… “…we have heard for ourselves, and we know that this man really is the Savior of the world."

54  G.K. Pennington John 4… Healing the official’s son Healing from a distance Healing at once Second sign

55  G.K. Pennington Ascending Emphasis of the Signs Resurrection in plain sight after 3 days Man blind from birth Master over natural world (chaos) Food as a miracle Invalid for 38 years Healing from a distance Water to wine at a wedding

56  G.K. Pennington John 5 Healing at the pool A Jerusalem feast 1 (Some time later) Invalid for 38 years Sabbath issue Jews start to persecute him 16 Breaking the Sabbath Making himself equal with God 18

57  G.K. Pennington Ascending Emphasis of the Signs Resurrection in plain sight after 3 days Man blind from birth Master over natural world (chaos) Food as a miracle Invalid for 38 years Healing from a distance Water to wine at a wedding

58  G.K. Pennington John 5 Life through the Son Greater things than these… 20 “Son gives life to whom he is pleased to give it.” 21 From death to life Graves to give up the dead 28-30

59  G.K. Pennington John 5 Testimonies about Jesus John the Baptist My work 36 The Father37-38 The Scriptures39-40 Moses41-47

60  G.K. Pennington John 6 Feeding 5000 Some time later Crossed the Sea of Galilee Followed by a crowd impressed by miracles 5 SMALL barley loaves & 2 SMALL fish 12 baskets of food left over "Surely this is the Prophet who is to come into the world.“ 14

61  G.K. Pennington Ascending Emphasis of the Signs Resurrection in plain sight after 3 days Man blind from birth Master over natural world (chaos) Food as a miracle Invalid for 38 years Healing from a distance Water to wine at a wedding

62  G.K. Pennington John 6 Jesus walks on water That evening The disciples set off for Capernaum 3-3 1/2 miles out Jesus catches up with them The crowd recognizes the miracle

63  G.K. Pennington Ascending Emphasis of the Signs Resurrection in plain sight after 3 days Man blind from birth Master over natural world (chaos) Food as a miracle Invalid for 38 years Healing from a distance Water to wine at a wedding

64  G.K. Pennington John 6 Jesus the Bread of Life Not all bread and bread givers are equal “… the bread of God is he who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.” 33 “I am the bread of life” 35 The grumbling starts 41 Disciples desert Jesus 60ff

65  G.K. Pennington The Seven “I Am” Sayings “I am the… 1.“bread of life” 6:35, 48, 51 2.“light of the world” 8:12; 9:5 3.“gate”10:7, 9 4.“good shepherd”10:11, 14 5.“resurrection and the life”11:25 6.“way and the truth and the life”14:6 7.“the true vine”15:1

66  G.K. Pennington John 7-8 Record escalating tension Several threats mentioned Jesus rebuts the opposition publicly Reoccurring theme: “his time had not yet come.”

67  G.K. Pennington John 7:1-13 7:1 After this, Jesus went around in Galilee, purposely staying away from Judea because the Jews there were waiting to take his life. Feast of tabernacles Jesus’ brothers chide him His brothers did not believe in him Jesus goes to the feast secretly v. 10 People fear the Jews v. 13

68  G.K. Pennington John 7:14-24 v. 15 "How did this man get such learning without having studied?“ My teaching is from God v. 16 Jews want to kill him v. 19 They want to kill him on account of a miracle It is OK to circumcise on the Sabbath v. 23 I healed the whole man on the Sabbath v. 23 “…make a right judgment.” v. 24

69  G.K. Pennington John 7:25-44 …the Christ V Confusion: is Jesus the Christ? V. 30 “they tried to seize him but…” V. 32 “…When Christ cometh, will he do more miracles than these which this man hath done?” Attempt to arrest Jesus v. 32 Discussion moved from miracles to death. v A greater thing to come v “…no one laid a hand on him.” v. 44

70  G.K. Pennington John 7:45-52 …faithless leaders Guards return empty handed. Nicodemus defends Jesus. V The response in v. 52 is one of anger, not scripture or reason.

71  G.K. Pennington John 8:1-11 An adulterous woman Story not in many early manuscripts The event is staged as a trap of Jesus The law was clear "If any one of you is without sin, let him be the first to throw a stone at her.“ If “caught in the act” where was the man? Jesus does not deal with the “what if” questions.

72  G.K. Pennington The Seven “I Am” Sayings “I am the… 1. “bread of life” 6:35, 48, “light of the world” 8:12; 9:5 3. “gate”10:7, 9 4. “good shepherd”10:11, “resurrection and the life”11:25 6. “way and the truth and the life”14:6 7. “the true vine”15:1

73  G.K. Pennington John 8:12-30 …the light of the world” His testimony challenged v. 13 My testimony is valid I know where I come from and where I am going The Father is my other witness v. 18 “His time had not yet come” v. 20 Challenge “Many put their faith in him” v. 30

74  G.K. Pennington John 8:31-59 Children of Abraham v “Truth will set you free” “Everyone who sins is a slave to sin” You are not acting like Abraham! Children of the Devil v More claims from Jesus v

75  G.K. Pennington John 9 Healing a blind man Born blind Who is responsible? v. 2 Pharisees investigate because of the Sabbath healing. His parents fear the Jews v “Nobody has ever heard of opening the eyes of a man born blind. If this man were not from God, he could do nothing.“ Spiritual blindness v

76  G.K. Pennington Ascending Emphasis of the Signs Resurrection in plain sight after 3 days Man blind from birth Master over natural world (chaos) Food as a miracle Invalid for 38 years Healing from a distance Water to wine at a wedding

77  G.K. Pennington The Seven “I Am” Sayings “I am the… 1. “bread of life” 6:35, 48, “light of the world” 8:12; 9:5 3. “gate”10:7, 9 4. “good shepherd”10:11, “resurrection and the life”11:25 6. “way and the truth and the life”14:6 7. “the true vine”15:1

78  G.K. Pennington John 10:1-21 Jesus’ shepherding analogy The shepherd enters the pen by the gate The sheep know their shepherd “I am the gate” v. 7 “I am the good shepherd” v. 11

79  G.K. Pennington John 10:22-42 …Is Jesus the Christ? “tell us plainly” v. 24 “I did tell you” v. 25 There is also the miracles v. 25 They try to stone Jesus: "but for blasphemy, because you, a mere man, claim to be God.“ v.33 Back across the Jordan v

80  G.K. Pennington John 11 …Lazarus Pre-resurrection events v Jesus with Mary and Martha v Jesus raises Lazarus v A plan to kill Jesus v

81  G.K. Pennington Ascending Emphasis of the Signs Resurrection in plain sight after 3 days Man blind from birth Master over natural world (chaos) Food as a miracle Invalid for 38 years Healing from a distance Water to wine at a wedding

82  G.K. Pennington The Seven “I Am” Sayings “I am the… 1. “bread of life” 6:35, 48, “light of the world” 8:12; 9:5 3. “gate”10:7, 9 4. “good shepherd”10:11, “resurrection and the life” 11:25 6. “way and the truth and the life”14:6 7. “the true vine”15:1

83  G.K. Pennington John 12:1-11 Anointed Six days before Passover Dinner for Jesus Mary anoints Jesus Judas objects V. 7-8 "Leave her alone," Jesus replied. "It was intended that she should save this perfume for the day of my burial. You will always have the poor among you, but you will not always have me."

84  G.K. Pennington John 12:12-19 Triumphal Entry The next day Procession like that of a king Donkey’s colt (Humility not war) Zech. 9:9 V. 16 “…Only after Jesus was glorified did they realize that these things had been written about him…” V. 19 "See, this is getting us nowhere. Look how the whole world has gone after him!"

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86  G.K. Pennington John 12:20-36 Death Coming Greeks want to see Jesus V. 23 “The hour has come…” Voice from heaven V. 31 “Now is the time…” V “Lifted up” …”kind of death”

87  G.K. Pennington John 12:37-50 Unbelief V. 37 Even after Jesus had done all these miraculous signs in their presence, they still would not believe in him. John reflects from Isaiah 6, 53 V. 41 Isaiah said this because he saw Jesus' glory and spoke about him. Some believed but feared the Pharisees V My words…

88  G.K. Pennington Preparation for Jesus’ leaving John Most of this material is found only in John. This section shifts from Jesus’ ministry to the coming ministry of the disciples. It is suggested that this section is patterned after Moses’ farewell address using the terms “love, obey, live, know, and see”. Andreas J. Köstenburger, Encountering John, P. 144

89  G.K. Pennington John 13:1-17 Washing Feet V. 1 “Jesus knew that the time had come…” Things Jesus knew The Father had put all things under his power That he had come from God That he was returning to God Jesus knew why he was there v Do we know these things? V. 17

90  G.K. Pennington John 13:18-30 Betrayal Predicted Foretold to build faith v. 19 Disbelief one would betray Jesus v. 21ff Judas identified v V. 30 “…and it was night” Darkness as true night? Darkness in contrast to John as a gospel of light?

91  G.K. Pennington John 13:31-38 Peter’s Denial V. 31 "Now is the Son of Man glorified…” A new command… V “Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another." Jesus predicts Peter’s denial

92  G.K. Pennington John 14 Preparation of disciples … Comfort for the future v. 1-4 Jesus “the way” 5-14 The promised Holy Spirit “another Counselor” v. 16 “will remind you” v. 26 “the Father is greater than I” v. 28 “I do exactly what the Father has commanded me” v. 31

93  G.K. Pennington The Seven “I Am” Sayings “I am the… 1. “bread of life” 6:35, 48, “light of the world” 8:12; 9:5 3. “gate”10:7, 9 4. “good shepherd”10:11, “resurrection and the life”11:25 6. “way and the truth and the life”14:6 7. “the true vine”15:1

94  G.K. Pennington John 15 The True Vine Jesus the “true vine” “You are the branches” v. 5 Repeated use of preposition “in” Branches must remain “in” the vine A key to remaining in Jesus “Love each other.” v. 17

95  G.K. Pennington The Seven “I Am” Sayings “I am the… 1. “bread of life” 6:35, 48, “light of the world” 8:12; 9:5 3. “gate”10:7, 9 4. “good shepherd”10:11, “resurrection and the life”11:25 6. “way and the truth and the life”14:6 7. “the true vine” 15:1

96  G.K. Pennington John 15:18-27 The world “hated me first.” v. 18 V. 23 “He who hates me hates my Father as well.” V. 27 “And you also must testify, for you have been with me from the beginning.”

97  G.K. Pennington John 16 V. 1 "All this I have told you so that you will not go astray.” Holy Spirit and the disciples 5-16 Disciples coming difficulty 17-33

98  G.K. Pennington John 17 Jesus Prayer For Himself v. 1-5 For the disciples v For all believers v

99  G.K. Pennington John 18 Jesus Arrested Trial before Annas Peter’s denials Sent to Caiaphas Sent to Pilate

100  G.K. Pennington :1 When he had finished praying, Jesus left with his disciples and crossed the Kidron Valley. On the other side there was an olive grove, and he and his disciples went into it.

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102  G.K. Pennington Olive Grove Across the Kidron Valley

103  G.K. Pennington Jesus and Pilate No true charges v. 30 Is Jesus a King? Discussion of truth “no basis for a charge” Crucify! Crucify! 19:6 Jesus becomes the risen savior Pilate’s nameplate becomes a step for an arena

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105  G.K. Pennington John 19:16-37 Crucifixion Mockery Inscription Clothing Jesus’ mother Thirst “It is finished” Burial

106  G.K. Pennington The Main Event

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110  G.K. Pennington John 20 Resurrection First day of the week Mary Magdalene The orderly tomb

111 G. K. Pennington111 No Condemnation Dead to sin Alive to God Eternal life Form one body Sanctified God’s grace Hope Made alive New creation Reconciled Justified Freedom Faith Every spiritual blessing God’s workmanship Brought near to God God’s eternal purpose Forgiveness Peace of God GOD In Christ Water and Blood SIN Out of Christ

112  G.K. Pennington Some Appearances Two angels Jesus appears to Mary The disciples Thomas

113  G.K. Pennington The Purpose of Signs (John 20:30-31 NIV) Jesus did many other miraculous signs in the presence of his disciples, which are not recorded in this book. {31} But these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name.

114  G.K. Pennington John 21 Epilogue A miracle catch of fish Peter reinstated (John 21:25 NIV) Jesus did many other things as well. If every one of them were written down, I suppose that even the whole world would not have room for the books that would be written.

115  G.K. Pennington The Gospel of John “I am the resurrection and the life”


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