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Sample Items and Performance Tasks

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1 Sample Items and Performance Tasks
Smarter Balanced Sample Items and Performance Tasks October 11, 2012 OSPI – Assessment and Student Information

2 Today’s Topics Website and teaser item
CCSS context for these items and Smarter Balanced tests Navigating Sample Item webpage Resources for reviewing Customer support FAQ Smarter Balanced timeline Welcome to our introduction of sample items and performance tasks that have been developed by the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium to assess the ne Common Core State Standards. Smarter Balanced released these items on Tuesday so some of you may have already explored the site, but we wanted to do today’s webinar to assist DACs and CCSS leads in reviewing it so you can share it with your colleagues. We want to begin today with the website and an item or two but then do need to take a step back to set the context of these items with respect to CCSS. I will be passing the mic to several folks here with me today, from OSPI’s assessment division and Teaching an Learning division.

3 Sample Items Smarter Balanced Website
Link is toward bottom of page

4 Sample Item Teaser Swimmers

5 Sample Item Teaser The Contest

6 Purpose of Sample Items and Performance Tasks
Demonstrate rigor and complexity of ELA/literacy and mathematics items Showcase variety of item types: Selected response Constructed response Technology enhanced Performance tasks Help teachers continue planning shifts in instruction related to Common Core State Standards (CCSS) The sample items and performance tasks represent a milestone in the development of the assessment system. For the first time, teachers, policymakers, and interested stakeholders can see what the new assessments will look like. The sample items represent the first of many steps to help familiarize teachers, students, and parents with the expectations of the Common Core State Standards and next-generation assessments. The sample items illustrate the knowledge and skills students will be expected to demonstrate on the Smarter Balanced assessments, giving educators clear benchmarks to inform their instruction. In addition, the sample items showcase the variety of item and task types under development by Smarter Balanced. Selected response: Prompt students to select one or more responses for a set of options Constructed response: Prompt students to produce a text or numerical response in order to collect evidence about their knowledge or understanding of a given assessment target Technology enhanced: Take advantage of computer-based administration to assess a deeper understanding of content and skills; collect evidence through a non-traditional response type, such as editing text or drawing an object Performance tasks: Measure capacities such as depth of understanding, research skills, and complex analysis, which cannot be adequately assessed with selected- or constructed-response items It is important to note that these samples represent only a small fraction of the 10,000 items and tasks currently in development to support the Pilot Test in early 2013. While the items are not intended to be used as sample tests, educators can use the items to begin planning the shifts in instruction that will be required to help students meet the demands of the new assessments. To talk about those shifts and set the context of these items with respect to the CCSS, I’d like to pass the mic to Greta Bornemann, OSPI’s Mathematics Director.

7 Career and college ready learning expectations for k-12
All students leave high school college and career ready Vision Purpose Core Values Every Washington Student and Educator Our Vision: Every student will have access to the CCSS standards through high quality instruction aligned with the standards every day; and every educator is prepared and supported to implement the standards in their classrooms every day. Our Purpose: To develop a statewide system with resources that supports all school districts in their preparation of educators and students to implement the CCSS.

8 Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Implementation Timeline
Phase 1: CCSS Exploration Phase 2: Build Awareness & Begin Building Statewide Capacity Phase 3: Build State & District Capacity and Classroom Transitions Phase 4: Statewide Application and Assessment Ongoing: Statewide Coordination and Collaboration to Support Implementation

9 Smarter Balanced Assessment System Components
Summative assessments Benchmarked to college and career readiness Teachers and schools have information and tools they need to improve teaching and learning Common Core State Standards specify K-12 expectations for college and career readiness All students leave high school college and career ready Teacher resources for formative assessment practices to improve instruction Interim assessments Flexible, open, used for actionable feedback

10 Exploring the Sample Items

11 Key features of Sample Item Tool
Mathematics and English Language Arts/Literacy items Computer Adaptive Testing items and Performance Tasks: Selected response Constructed response Technology enhanced Meta-data for each item On the spot scoring for many items Items and tasks will be similar for summative and interim assessments

12 Sample Items and Tasks Navigation
View English Language Arts/Literacy or Mathematics items Advance to next item, or go back to previous Users can select mathematics or ELA/literacy items and cycle through them using the next and back buttons on the top right corner of the screen.

13 Claims for the ELA/Literacy Summative Assessment
“Students can demonstrate progress toward college and career readiness in English Language arts and literacy.” Overall Claim for Grades 3-8 Overall Claim for Grade 11 “Students can demonstrate college and career readiness in English language arts and literacy.” Claim #1 - Reading “Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts.” Claim #2 - Writing “Students can produce effective and well-grounded writing for a range of purposes and audiences.” Claim #3 - Speaking and Listening “Students can employ effective speaking and listening skills for a range of purposes and audiences.” Claim #4 - Research/Inquiry “Students can engage in research and inquiry to investigate topics, and to analyze, integrate, and present information.”

14 Sample Items and Tasks Navigation
Content Claim Grade band

15 ELA Comparison Washington State & Smarter Balanced
Similarities Differences Multiple Choice/Selected Response Short Answer/Constructed Response Online Essay Writing Computer Adaptive Listening Items Text Complexity Brief Write, Revise and Edit Performance Tasks

16 Technology Enhanced Vocabulary Grade 4 Item
For Smarter Balanced, students may be asked to select more than one phrase to support the meaning of a word as it is used in context. Students are now evaluating multiple sentences within a paragraph as opposed to three to four options presented with the stem. This adds a higher level of rigor than our current vocabulary items.

17 Measurements of Student Progress Reading Vocabulary Item
This is an example of a current Washington State vocabulary item. Currently, all Washington State vocabulary items are in a multiple-choice format.

18 Listening Task This is an example of a listening item. After listening to the audio, students will answer a set of items.

19 Item Metadata About this item
Note the Common Core standards connected to this target Evidence Each item also includes metadata: Item name Grade level Content claim Assessment targets Common Core State Standards Evidence to show how the student demonstrates understanding Scoring rubrics (downloadable PDF) Text complexity analysis for ELA/literacy items (downloadable PDF) View the rubric Access information on text complexity

20 Item Rubric Item Scoring Rubric
This is an example of a Smarter Balanced rubric for a reading constructed response item. Scoring Rubric

21 Text Complexity Analysis
The Placemat The placemat is a tool used to organize quantitative and qualitative data to identify the recommended placement of the reading stimulus. Text complexity placemats are available for the three sample texts. Most teachers are familiar with quantitative measures (Flesch-Kincaid and Lexile are 2 examples). Qualitative measures are determined using a matrix of qualitative criteria. The blank placemat template and the qualitative matrices can be found on the Smarter Balanced website.

22 Brief Write with Text Evidence
This is an example of a brief write item. The item has been written with text evidence from both sides of the argument embedded. The item asks students to write a paragraph (considered a brief write) using evidence from the text stimulus to support their position. Different writing sample items ask students to revise or edit text.

23 High School Proficiency Exam Writing Grade 10 Persuasive Argumentative Writing
Experience-based persuasive prompt Curfews Community officials have proposed that individuals under the age of 18 cannot be out after 9:00 p.m. unless they are with an adult. Take a position on this proposal. Write a multiple-paragraph letter persuading community officials to support your position.

24 Smarter Balanced Grade 11 Performance Task
Smarter Balanced – Nuclear Power Source-based performance task 20-minute classroom activity (accessibility) Part I: Research and evaluate sources (take notes and answer questions) Part II: Write argumentative essay citing evidence from sources

25 Performance Task: Classroom Activity

26 Performance Task: Introduction to Activity

27 Performance Task: Research
Performance Task: Research

28 Performance Task: Research (continued)

29 Performance Task: Research Questions

30 Performance Task: Argumentative Essay Assignment

31 Performance Task: Essay Scoring Criteria

32 Claims for the Mathematics Summative Assessment
Overall Claim for Grades 3-8 “Students can demonstrate progress toward college and career readiness in mathematics.” Overall Claim for Grade 11 “Students can demonstrate college and career readiness in mathematics.” Claim #1 - Concepts & Procedures “Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts and interpret and carry out mathematical procedures with precision and fluency.” Claim #2 - Problem Solving “Students can solve a range of complex well-posed problems in pure and applied mathematics, making productive use of knowledge and problem solving strategies.” 4 Claims in mathematics. Claim 1 is mathematical content, and Claims 2-4 incorporate the mathematical practices. Claim #3 - Communicating Reasoning “Students can clearly and precisely construct viable arguments to support their own reasoning and to critique the reasoning of others.” Claim #4 - Modeling and Data Analysis “Students can analyze complex, real-world scenarios and can construct and use mathematical models to interpret and solve problems.”

33 Smarter Balanced Grade 5 Item
In the Common Core State Standards, fifth grade students have two standards specifically addressing whole number multiplication and division. They are: 5.NBT.5 Fluently multiply multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm. 5.NBT.6 Find whole-number quotients of whole numbers with up to four-digit dividends and two-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. In addition, students must understand the patterns in the number of zeros when multiplying and dividing by powers of 10 (5.NBT.2). Likewise, they have been working with equations for a number of years. This 1-point item requires that a student have a full understanding of all of these standards and the student would benefit from the good number sense that would bring. In part A, a student may be able to do this work mentally, illustrating that they understand division by 10 and simple multiplication. If not, they could work both sides of the equation, check for equality, and answer True or False. In parts B and C, number sense would be handy. Dividing 2487 by 3 would be about 800. With this knowledge and realizing the left side of the equation is much greater than 800, B is False. Approximately 4000 x 7 is close to 28,000 so C is also False. If students don’t have this number sense, they could work each problem and check for equality and if their work is correct, they would see these are both False. In part D, however, a student would have to do this full multiplication to check for equality. They cannot make a calculation error as they must answer True or False to the item. It takes correct responses of True or False on all parts of this item to be correct. This item adequately explores these standards and the student’s ability to fluidly move between them. As compared to a current Washington item in the next slide.

34 Measurements of Student Progress Grade 5 Mathematics Item
Find the quotient. 9,018 ÷ 3 What is the quotient? A. 36 B. 306 C. 3,006 In Washington State, in fourth grade students delve deeply into multiplication and then develop division in fifth grade so a division item was chosen for this comparison. The particular PE is 5.1.C: Fluently and accurately divide up to a four-digit number by one- or two-digit divisors using the standard long-division algorithm. We sometimes assess this PE as a completion item but for comparison purposes a multiple-choice item was selected. This item only covers one part of that PE (a four-digit number divided by a one-digit divisor). We also use misconceptions in Washington State as distractors and provide the correct answer as one of the options. Students usually struggle with the place position of zeros in this type of problem, hence the choice of answer options. We do not do true/false questions as in the previous item. Therefore, a student can do the work and, if the answer calculated is not present, can rework the problem to try again. There is a potential self-correction process in these types of standards in WA. Good number sense would help a student with this answer as well because of the focus on misconceptions but, if they get it correct, it still may not tell us whether the student is truly fluent in the PE being assessed. Because this is only part of the PE, one cannot generalize on a larger scale about the student’s fluency with division.

35 Smarter Balanced Grade 8 Item
CCSS 8.EE.7a – Solve linear equations in one variable. a. Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers). b. Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms. In the Common Core standards, grade 6 students generate equivalent algebraic expressions, in grade 7 these are expanded to include expressions with rational coefficients, and in grade 8 students use earlier strategies to solve increasingly complex equations. In this 1-point item, the focus is on part a of the standard, though students would have to use skills from part b to “simplify” the equation into a form where a decision about the nature of the solutions can be made. The student must show that they understand the procedures to solve one-variable equations, but also interpret the “simplified” versions of the equations. Rather than just working through a series of procedures to combine terms, this item requires that a student make decisions about the end result of those procedures. For example, in the first equation, when the student comes to 36x = 36x or 24=24 or 0=0, do they know what that means about the number of solutions that exist for the equation? Likewise, though there is likely little “work” that the student would do to “solve” the second equation, they have to consider what the equation 0=1 means if they do subtract x from both sides. If the student guesses, they have a 1 in 27 chance of being right.

36 Smarter Balanced High School Item
Similar to the short answer problems in WA state – this is a constructed response (CR). This item demonstrates how students use data to make decisions. The student should find the slope of each segment of the line to determine where the profit per dollar exceeds money spent on advertising. Mathematical Content: Slope of a line, reading a graph, interpreting data, mathematical reasoning

37 Mathematics End of Course Exam Item
The cylinder shown has a volume of 36 cubic feet. What is the height of the cylinder? 2 ft G.6.C – Apply formulas for surface area and volume of three-dimensional figures to solve problems. In this problem, the student is required to use the formula for volume of a cylinder and the volume given to solve for the height. The answer can be given in terms of pi.

38 Smarter Balanced High School Item
Claims 2A & 2B – Apply mathematics to solve well-posed problem arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace & Select and use appropriate tools strategically. The student must use the volume from a rectangular prism and the formula for a cylindrical tank to determine the possible radius. The cognitive complexity is increased for this item as the student needs to transfer the volume from one-shaped container into another. Also, multiple approaches are possible. Different portions of the water can be transferred and the radius determined at many points.

39 Item Score Selected response and technology enhanced items are machine scorable Selected response and technology enhanced items can be scored automatically. Some constructed-response items and performance tasks can be scored automatically; many will be hand-scored by professionally trained readers.

40 Sample Items and Tasks Navigation
Filter by item type, themes Sample items can be filtered by item type (technology enhanced and performance tasks) and by themes (connections across grades and difficulty progressions). Connections across grades: The Common Core State Standards include a sequence of concepts that build through the grades in a logical and coherent fashion. These sample items show how the vertical articulation of content in the standards will be evident in Smarter Balanced assessments. Difficulty Progressions: Computer adaptive tests require items that span a wide range of difficulty levels to provide precise measures of what students know and can do. These sample items show the range in difficulty for items designed to measure the same assessment targets. Capturing the full range of item difficulty across assessment targets is essential for creating high quality adaptive tests, and final difficulty estimates for items will be validated through field testing.

41 Sample Items and Tasks Navigation
Filter by item type, themes

42 Feedback and Support available through first week of November
Online feedback and phone support available Smarter Balanced welcomes feedback on the sample items and tasks. Users will be able to submit feedback or questions through an online form or by calling a number.

43 http://www.smarterbalanced.org/sa mple-items-and-performance-tasks/
Additional Resources mple-items-and-performance-tasks/ FAQ Washington State Lead: The Smarter Balanced assessment system will provide valid, fair, and reliable measures of achievement and growth for English language learners and students with disabilities.   The sample items are displayed in a simulated test platform that does not include accessibility and accommodations tools that will be available when the assessments are administered to students—such as Braille, translation options, and the ability to change font size, highlight text, or magnify portions of items. The operational system in the school year will include tools to address visual, auditory, and physical access barriers—as well as the unique needs of ELLs

44 Accessibility and Accommodations
Sample items do not include accessibility and accommodations features Full range of accessibility tools and accommodations options under development guided by: Magda Chia, Ph.D., Director of Support for Under-Represented Students Accessibility and Accommodations Work Group Students with Disabilities Advisory Committee Chair: Martha Thurlow (NCEO) English Language Learners Advisory Committee Accessibility & Accommodations Framework Learn more online: represented-students/ The Smarter Balanced assessment system will provide valid, fair, and reliable measures of achievement and growth for English language learners and students with disabilities.   The sample items are displayed in a simulated test platform that does not include accessibility and accommodations tools that will be available when the assessments are administered to students—such as Braille, translation options, and the ability to change font size, highlight text, or magnify portions of items. The operational system in the school year will include tools to address visual, auditory, and physical access barriers—as well as the unique needs of ELLs

45 Smarter Balanced Items Developed with Educators and Other Experts
Early 2012: Assessment claims for ELA/literacy and mathematics approved by Governing States April 2012: Item/task specifications and review guidelines published June 2012: Training modules available for item writers/reviewers review Summer 2012: Educators from Governing States begin writing items and tasks; cognitive labs / small scale trials begin September 2012: Sample items reviewed by Smarter Balanced staff and advisors, Student Achievement Partners October 2012: Sample items and tasks available February / March 2013: Pilot Test of first 10,000 items and performance tasks Smarter Balanced sample items and performance tasks were developed in collaboration with educators and content experts. This process began with the development of content specifications in ELA/literacy and mathematics. The specifications ensure that the assessment system will cover the full range of college- and career-ready knowledge and skills in the Common Core State Standards. Earlier this year, Governing States adopted assessment claims for ELA/literacy and mathematics, following two rounds of public review and comment. These guide development of assessments, providing descriptions of knowledge and skills (“assessment targets”) that items/tasks will assess. Item/task specifications were finalized in April to provide detailed instructions to writers for developing items. Review guidelines ensure that all items and performance tasks are reviewed consistently for content, accessibility, bias and sensitivity. Smarter Balanced recruited K-12 teachers and higher education faculty to participate in the writing and review of items and tasks. The sample items and tasks were reviewed by content experts, including Student Achievement Partners. The Pilot Test will occur this spring and will be open to all schools in Smarter Balanced states.

46 Our guiding beliefs and approach for CCSS Implementation in WA
2-Prongs: The What: Content Shifts (for students and educators) Belief that past standards implementation efforts have provided a strong foundation on which to build for CCSS; HOWEVER there are shifts that need to be attended to in the content. The How: System “Remodeling” Belief that successful CCSS implementation will not take place top down or bottom up – it must be “both, and…” Belief that districts and communities across the state have the conditions and commitment present to engage wholly in this work. Professional learning systems are critical

47 The “What”: ELA and Math Content Shifts
Shifts in ELA Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction and informational texts in addition to literature Reading and writing grounded in evidence from the text Regular practice with complex text and its academic vocabulary These apply to content area (social studies, science, and technical subject) teachers as well as to English teachers. Shifts in Mathematics Focus: 2-3 topics focused on deeply in each grade Coherence: Concepts logically connected from one grade to the next and linked to other major topics within the grade Rigor: Fluency with arithmetic, application of knowledge to real world situations, and deep understanding of mathematical concepts 47

48 Smarter Balanced Timeline (Summative tests)
47 districts invited to conduct Small Scale Trials in October/November 2012 Limited pilot in Need 22% of state Available to all Comprehensive field test in Operational use in

49 Testing System Transition
Current Testing System Reading and Math: Grades 3–8 and 10 Writing: Grades 4, 7, 10 Science: Grades 5, 8, 10 SMARTER Balanced (SBAC) / Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Testing System English/Language Arts and Math: Grade 3–8 and 11* Science exams are required under ESEA but are not included in SBAC *11th grade to measure college and career readiness. We are working with higher ed to explore the possible use of these measures as an alternative for college placement (or entrance).

50 Current Statewide Summative (Student) Assessments
Reading Mathematics Science Writing Grade 3 MSP Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 High School HSPE EOC MSP= Measurements of Student Progress; HSPE = High School Proficiency Exams; EOC= End of Course exams

51 Washington’s Context… Likely Summative Assessments in 2014–15
English/LA Mathematics Science Grade 3 SBAC Grade 4 Grade 5 MSP Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade 8 Grade 10 E/LA using SBAC items EOCs EOC Grade 11 SBAC=SMARTER Balanced Assessment Consortium EOCs= End of Course exams * SBAC is vertically scaled; MSP/HSPE are not. *

52 Questions?

53 Feedback and Support available through first week of November
Online feedback and phone support available Smarter Balanced welcomes feedback on the sample items and tasks. Users will be able to submit feedback or questions through an online form or by calling a number.


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