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RFID and the Printing Industry

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Presentation on theme: "RFID and the Printing Industry"— Presentation transcript:

1 RFID and the Printing Industry
A ten year view Dr Peter Harrop IDTechEx Phone

2 IDTechEx is an independent strategic analyst on RFID, smart labels, smart packaging and printed electronics. Our core services provide: Consultancy Publications Conferences Clients include: Hewlett Packard Shell Oil Rexam Whirlpool Europe Guinness UDV Thin Film Electronics Schiphol Airport Major Japanese computer, printing and packaging companies Independent market and technology research reports covering RFID, printed electronics & smart packaging topics Smart Labels Analyst – monthly. Printed Electronics Review World’s largest RFID case study knowledgebase-1800 Global Conferences: USA, Europe and Asia RFID Smart Labels Printed Electronics Smart Packaging Active RFID

3 What is RFID? Radio Frequency Identification is the electronic reading of data on small objects called tags using radio frequencies or thereabouts Compared to barcodes, magnetic stripes, print etc, RFID has few problems of orientation, obscuration or reading many at a time. It is also useful for other tasks. RFID is an enabling technology

4 Reader sends signal and “reads” response
RFID System Basics Tag Reader sends signal and “reads” response For range of more than a few meters, the tag may have a battery in it = “active”

5 Cumulative sales in millions of tags 1943- start of 2006

6 Evolution of RFID applications
Item level postal, retail, drugs etc in very high volumes

7 Possible sales in 2006 Application Number million Why Drugs item level
Pfizer, GSK anticounterfeit …. Library, laundry, apparel 80 1-2 year payback: cost, service Pallets/ cases 500 $0.09 billion Big problems but will save cost/ improve service Cards 285 $0.63 billion China national ID: financial, security, transport Tickets/ secure documents 25 Portugal, Japan: security, speed Air baggage 85 Las Vegas, Hong Kong: cost, service, security Livestock 100 $0.2 billion New laws: safety, cost Car clickers 46 Consumer demand Passports 10 New laws: security Other 131 Manufacture, health, vehicle etc

8 RFID tag numbers Mainly apparel drugs postal retail

9 RFID “Other” tag numbers

10 Global Potential (Billion/Year)
A few examples of RFID tag potential Global Potential (Billion/Year) RFID Leadership Library 0.1 Singapore Museums, art galleries 0.1 Europe National ID cards 0.1 China Laundry 1 Europe Animals 1 Thailand, S America, US, Eur. Tires Europe Military items 2 US Blood 2 Europe/US Archiving paperwork 2 US Air baggage 2 US, China Air freight 2 US Drugs US Pallets, cases 40 US, Europe Books 50 Japan Postal 650 Europe Retail items 10,000 Europe/Japan/US ITEM LEVEL IN RED

11 Passive RFID Examples

12 Passive RFID – largest item level application in retailing is apparel
Marks & Spencer, UK Tokyo Shirt Japan Liti, Japan Goldwin Sportswear, Italy Metro Germany (trials only) DHL Fashion France

13 Many large niche markets for RFID
RFID + GSM Press the button and the incident is recorded centrally with ID and alarm Active with passive RFID Locating children in theme parks and sending messages Some use RFID + Bluetooth or WiFi

14 More roads have tolling
Reader deployment – open flow traffic at LAX airport

15 Monitors blood samples, foods, drugs
RFID labels with sensing KSW Microtec RFID tag with printed paper battery and temperature sensing MHz, range one meter $1-2 Infratab $0.45? Partly screen printed Monitors blood samples, foods, drugs

16 Applications of Low Cost RFID
Logistics Security Safety Traceability / product recall Anti-counterfeiting Proof of ownership Product handshaking Carrying information around Transactions Positioning / locating Amusement – toys Brand enhancement Diagnostics Often more than one application: 20% of applications replace nothing e.g. car clicker, talking drugs, Star Wars toy…

17 The Electronic Product Code (EPC) System – unique ID of vast numbers of things, interrogated over the internet EPCglobal: Managed by GS1 Standardisation of EPC tag types and common infrastructure Over 550 sponsor companies RFID Tagged Products, Cases or Pallets

18 Smart Shelves A smart shelf system for DVDs in a Tesco supermarket in the UK that has increased sales by 4% due to reducing stockouts

19 Main Uses of Low Cost RFID
2006 Secure access/financial Transport Supply chain Yearly: 1.3 billion 2016 Supply chain Security Transport Yearly: 593 billion Starting to be printed directly onto packages and products for highest volumes – no need for a label?

20 The peak in numbers is later
One day, highest volume RFID will be printed directly onto things but special inks and press adaptation will be needed RFID printed direct Barcodes printed direct The peak in numbers is later

21 RFID value chain

22 The end game for highest volume RFID is direct printing

23 Pallet/case tagging – largest volume in 2006/7
Mandates and recommendations e.g. Wal-Mart, Tesco, Metro, Target, Albertson’s, Best Buy, US Military etc A relatively unproven frequency – UHF – was chosen because it sometimes has long range without a battery Wal-Mart is making RFID data it reads available to suppliers within 30 minutes though its Retail Link extranet website   Wal-Mart gets a payback, even though there are technical problems

24 Item Level Tagging – largest volume after 2008
… happening faster than most think Pfizer Viagra in US NOW, ten other drug brands by end FDA mandate expected 2006/7 Library – 50 million RFID labels yearly already, laundry, large retail items, parts in manufacture, aircraft parts, luxury goods – ongoing DHL trials on courier parcels – tender taken for one billion yearly

25 Item level RFID labelling is the big opportunity
27 billion Item Pallet/ case a few billion 0.5 billion

26 Large niche opportunities for label and label-like RFID
National ID – contactless cards (HF) $2-3 each E.g. Italy – 50 million U.K. – 58 million? India – 600 million? China – 970 million (anticipated completion 2010) Electronic passport labels (HF) $3-4 each 400m E.g. Australia (2004 roll out) USA (2004 roll out) Thailand Europe etc.

27 Hot applications driving volume to 2015
Conveyances (e.g. pallets, containers), baggage etc – smart labels (UHF) Potential demand 35 billion per year. E.g. Pallets and cases for consumer packaged goods Airline baggage (2 billion yearly e.g. McCarran Airport, 100m) plus airline cargo “5 cent tag price needed to tag all conveyances” Procter & Gamble, Coca Cola Billions 10c 5c Tens of Billions

28 Progression of item level tagging
First high volume retail products are expensive items eg computers, printers, white goods, apparel, drugs etc Next will come other expensive products plus high shrinkage products eg DVDs, CDs, razors, batteries, perfume, cigarettes “One cent tag price needed to tag most items” Unilever, Procter & Gamble “Apparel and footwear economically tagged at today’s prices” Accenture 2016: <10% of products/primary packages carry an RFID smart label (in addition to a barcode).

29 The Printing of RFID Printing of the antennas at UHF (around 900MHz) and above – mainly screen then gravure Printing antennas at lower frequencies – some screen but faster printing of thick, high definition patterns needed Printing the replacement for the silicon chip –Thin Film Transistor Circuits TFTCs – exploring offset litho, gravure, flexo, ink jet Wild card – ink stripes flexo, ink jet

30 Technology overview EAS (Electronic Article Surveillance 1 to 4 cents)
Acoustomagnetic, swept RF (LC), electromagnetic. Chipless RFID (0.1 to 200 cents) For highest volume – TFTCs, ink stripes (many others) Passive chip RFID (10 to 800 cents) Ticket, label, card. Chip powered by the reader. Active chip RFID (with battery from $1 to $100) Long range (m), real time location, sensors. Emits continuous signal for positioning. Increasing cost & sophistication

31 How to make high volume RFID tags today
The only fully proven technology involves a silicon chip and an antenna Choose between putting the chip on a strap then putting the strap on the antenna or putting the chip directly on the antenna STRAP

32 Choose substrate and antenna technology
Experimental screen printed UHF antenna on low grade card. Chip is applied on a strap Polyester film is the most popular substrate at present. Antenna production is still often done by subtractive processes such as copper or aluminium etching but additive processes such as printing are more economical

33 Passive RFID: Main operating frequencies
125KHz=LF MHz=HF UHF GHz Electric antenna - beaming Inductive antenna - flooding A rod like “dipole” on the tag – many shapes for different applications but poor conductance and resolution OK A coil talks to a coil – high conductivity and accurate shape needed

34 RFID challenges and considerations
Frequency characteristics Directionality of tags Range Tag size Antenna shape Radio regulations (e.g. global variances) Application environment Data on tag or network Read-only or read-write Multi-tag reading Healthcare: absolute performance criteria Cause dangerous interference in e.g. hospitals and airports

35 Tags Dead on Arrival (DoA) from supplier!
RFID Challenges and Considerations –problems with the UHF types chosen for pallets, cases and airline baggage Tags Dead on Arrival (DoA) from supplier! Some cases reports of >20% Tags dead on touch (static electricity) Severe problems with water and metal, especially at UHF Need to print antennas at high speed with little ink – so they are cheap and do not crack Range depends on antenna design and size and environment – many different antenna designs needed

36 FREQUENCIES – good things

37 Negatives become more extreme Negatives become more extreme
FREQUENCIES – bad things kHz (LF) MHz (HF) UHF 2.45GHz Best compromise for most appllcations. 55% of tags ever made are HF and over 70% will be in 2016 Easily reflected or absorbed (read reliability problems with metal and fluids) Health issues Busy frequencies Large tag for a few cms range Range is unpredictable Expensive reader Range usually under 1m (signal drops as cube of distance) Slow data transfer Bulky tag e.g. “bullet” or “button” at 125KHz Negatives become more extreme Negatives become more extreme

38 Value of sales shifts to UHF being more important but still number two
2016 MHz MHz 2. UHF (but the largest number) 2. UHF Cards (credit cards, secure access, national ID etc), tickets, library, laundry, drugs, postal, passports, most other items, many conveyances Pallets, cases, airline baggage, some conveyances and vehicles

39 UHF tags need very different antennas for different applications

40 Solve some of the remaining problems
HF tags sometimes have screen printed antennas but they are bigger and have less range. Make them in high volume, cheaper and better UHF tags are too large for highest volume item level and are too expensive Good news – both UHF and HF silicon chip RFID labels will get down to 5 cents in billions and may get down to 3 cents in much larger quantities. Fully printed versions will eventually be one cent or less

41 It’s tough to handle the new very small chips
The new Hitachi Mew chip in 2006 0.15mm across, 7.5 µm thick No supply famines? No brittleness problems Can go in paper etc. Very low cost – potentially one cent naked in tens of billions This is the enormous old 0.3 mm version

42 Develop chipless tags – the end game for highest volumes
Acoustomagnetic million sold Remote magnetics Simple Electromagnetic Radiation hard. Thinnest option, Barkhausen effect million sold. Very secure Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) < 1M sold, Meets standards. Radiation hard Transistorless Diode based Suitable for insect tracking circuits Coil-capacitor (LC) Hundreds of thousands sold Thin and robust Transistor circuits Polymer Electronics Printable onto products. Meets standards. Silicon film High frequencies possible

43 Develop entirely printed chipless tags – the end game for highest volumes
FIRST GENERATION: Closed systems i.e. single service provider, no standards, usually little memory - anticounterfeiting, antitamper, secure access, product diversion, in house- track and trace, automated error prevention. Acoustomagnetic, electromagnetic, LC Array SECOND GENERATION: Open systems i.e. multiple service provider, global standards e.g. EPC. Barcode replacement and more - SAW and later polymer TFTCs and maybe thin film silicon TFTCs and maybe the secret VTT/Panipol printed polyanilene label which has 96 bits read only but only at a few mm range and needs movement.

44 RFID without transistors Hidden Electronic Product Code (HidE)
Concealed printable memory for item level identification. Compliant with RFID EPCTM Tag Data Standards* Integrated to the package structure Can be integrated to other functionalities Tamper evidence, temperature sensing Short range reading method (range up to ~mm’s) A local electric field generated by a reading device HIDE is decoded in less than a second when it passes through the field lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll *Defined by EPCglobal IncTM

45 Printed thin film transistor circuits
50+ companies Xerox, Toshiba, Plastic Logic, Epson, Canon,, IBM, PolyIC, OrganicID, 3M… 13.56MHz EPC label in 2007

46 Offset litho, flexo and gravure being tried
Experimental fully printed RFID labels - insulating, semiconducting, conducting and protective patterns Offset litho, flexo and gravure being tried

47 IDTechEx forecast for item level tags
Billions of tags 45% chipless? 99% labels

48 The RFID Knowledgebase – World’s largest database of RFID in action
For further information read: Reports RFID Forecasts, Players, Opportunities Active RFID Item Level RFID Real Time Location Systems Conferences RFID Smart Labels Europe, London Sept Printed Electronics USA 5-6 Dec The RFID Knowledgebase – World’s largest database of RFID in action Over 1800 case studies listed and growing every month. Covering more than 1900 companies, 68 countries Learn from the successes and failures of others Tel: + 44 (0)

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