Presentation on theme: "Individual PBS Module 3: Instructional Issues and Strategies"— Presentation transcript:
1 Individual PBS Module 3: Instructional Issues and Strategies
2 Positive Behavior Support (PBS) Training Modules This is the third of four PBS training modules.3. Instructional Issues and StrategiesThe other modules should be taken in the following order:1. Collaborative Teaming and Person-Centered Planning2. Functional Behavior Assessment4. Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating Positive Behavior Support PlansThese modules are designed to support a team as they go through aPositive Behavior Support process with a child or adult with problembehaviors. Let's begin with the first module by reviewing the goal ofFlorida's PBS Project and the definition of Positive Behavior Support.
3 Link Between Curriculum & Instruction & Behavior? Is there a link between curriculum and instruction and behavior?
4 Learning & Challenging Behavior Learning and behavior problems result frominteraction between the individual and his orher environment.
5 Rationale for an Educational Approach to Behavior Support Because behavior problems are often areflection of skill deficits teaching is often thebest intervention.Instructional and curricular variableshave been found to influence studentbehavior. Modifications to curriculum and instructioncan result in improved behavior and increasedopportunity for learning.
7 Good Teaching Practices Researchers have found a number of teachingstrategies that have proven to be effective.Use of good teaching strategies benefits ALLstudents; both typically developing and studentswith disabilities.Using proven effective strategies results in moreeffective teaching and learning.
8 Effective Instructional Practices Westling & Fox (2000) identified the following effective instructional practices: Carefully plan instructionManage instructional time efficientlyManage behavior effectivelyDesign instructional groups that meet learning needsCarefully present instructional materials and proceduresEstablish smooth, efficient classroom routinesProvide frequent feedbackMonitor performanceReview and re-teach material as necessaryIntegrate skills needed for adulthood into instruction (e.g. problem solving skills)Have appropriate high expectationsInteract in a positive, caring mannerIn general, these practices should be reflected in all instructional practices impacting all students.
9 Beyond Good Practice Using proven effective teaching strategies is not always enough to engage students in learning.Researchers have also identified promisinginstructional practices for teaching studentswith disabilities.The problem behavior of students can signal aneed to further address teaching strategies and thecontent of curriculum.
11 When to Address Curriculum & Instruction in Dealing with Behavior Problems Consider curriculum and instruction as potential areas to intervene when:Hypotheses generated during the Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) include avoidance of academic tasks/activitiesProblem behaviors occur upon receiving instruction and/or direction that may include:Off-taskOut-of-areaMisuse of materialsNon-compliance
12 Steps for Making Individualized Adaptations Making individualized adaptations can occur outside of afunctional assessment process. The steps for makingadaptations for individuals follow the same series of stepswhether they are imbedded in a traditional functionalassessment process or not.Step 1. Identify problem behavior(s)Step 2. Gather information about the student & the task/settingStep 3. Develop a hypothesis about the behaviorStep 4. Develop adaptationsStep 5. Monitor and evaluate adaptations
13 Step 1. Identifying Problems Review the information gathered during the FBA process relatedto the context of problem behaviors. Look for anything thatindicates that problem behaviors may be related to learningactivities or tasks.What were the problem behaviors? Did problem behaviors occur during learning activities or tasks? Did any hypothesis statement refer to a learning activity or task?
14 Step 2. Gathering Information about the Student & Task/Setting Review information gathered during the FBA process related to studentcharacteristics. Look for details related to functioning level, preferences,strengths, areas of need, learning style, preferred response, etc?Investigate the curriculum, instructional methods, and ecologicalelements of the task and situation during which problem behaviorsoccur. Consider the following factors:Curricular: Scope and sequence objectivesPresentation modesContentTopics
15 Step 2. Gathering Information about the Student & Task/Setting Instructional Teaching methodsResponse opportunities for studentsActivities for acquisition & masteryTeacher responsesEcological Physical arrangementPredictability of environmentEquipment & materials availableDownload the Classroom Assessment Tool from our the classroomsection on our website.
16 Step 3. Developing Hypotheses Review the hypotheses developed during the FBA process. Remember that themore precise the hypothesis is, the more likely that the intervention developed willadequately remedy the problem.A hypothesis may have been developed that specifically addresses a curricularor instructional issue. Consider whether the hypothesis can be improved to moreclearly establish a link between instructional and curricular elements and thestudent’s behavior.If there were no original hypotheses that addressed a task or activity specifically,and your additional reviews indicated that problem behavior is occurring duringcertain tasks or activities, you will need to develop an additional hypothesis. Asalways, this hypothesis should be based on data collected and logically relatethe behavior to the situation.
17 Step 4. Developing Adaptations Using the existing or newly created hypothesesand that information collected about theindividual student, create modifications to thecurriculum, instruction or ecology.
18 Step 5. Monitoring & Evaluating As with any intervention, it is important that the teammonitors and evaluates the outcomes of the plan.Monitor student behavior problems as well asacademic participation. Determine if adaptationsare having a positive effect; are problem behaviorsless frequent??, is the student more engaged inlearning activities??.If outcomes are not positive, consider additional ordifferent adaptations and continue to monitor.
20 Adaptations If we understand that a student’s behavior problems are a result of curricular andinstructional issues, what do we do to assist thestudent?Often we can start by making adaptations tothe curriculum, to the instruction, or theecology in which instruction occurs.
21 What are Adaptations? Adaptations are changes to learning task requirements, such as changes to the instructionalcontent, teaching methods, materials or physicalenvironment.These changes are temporary or reduced in intensityover time.Example: Use of a calculator instead of paper andpencil
22 Types of Adaptations There are three (3) general types of adaptations related to the learningenvironment:Curricular AdaptationsInstructional AdaptationsEcological Adaptations
24 The first of the three categories of adaptations is Curricular.
25 Curricular Adaptations Curricular adaptations require an evaluation of student learninggoals. There may be occasions when instructional objectivesare modified in the adaptation process, but typically,instructional objectives can remain constant in the midst ofadaptation.Curricular adaptations involve changes to any part of theteaching-learning process including:Teacher instructional methods and strategiesInstructional materials and learning activitiesPerformance requirementsTesting procedures
26 Three Types Curricular Adaptations There are three types of curricular adaptations.
27 Task DifficultyFor some students, facing a task that is challenging, or that the student“perceives” to be challenging, may lead to problem behaviors.There are a variety of ways to address tasks which are perceived to be difficult, including:Incorporating or alternating mastered skills/activities with novel skills/activities (i.e. addition with subtraction) Adjusting difficulty level (i.e. reading the same novel at a lower reading level)Providing errorless learning opportunities (increases confidence)Shorten difficult assignmentsCompleting task steps at a lower difficulty level (i.e. science project with a less complex topic) The intentions of these modifications are to keep the student engaged through careful adjustments that still allow for academic progress.
28 Student Snapshot Task Difficulty Read the following Student Snapshot relevant to task difficulty. Note: Student Snapshots will be provided throughout this module. Each Snapshotprovides some basic background information and a hypothesis about the functionof the behavior. For this first Snapshot, an adaptation is provided for you. As youprogress through this module, you will be asked to generate appropriateadaptations.Sam is a highly articulate 14-yr. old high school student with characteristics ofpervasive developmental disorder. He has a wide range of academic skills; hisvocabulary skills, reading comprehension, and general knowledge are hisstrengths, whereas he finds math and other skill areas that require close decisionmaking more challenging.Hypothesis: When Sam is presented with tasks that require high order thinking skills,he engages in self-injurious behavior to avoid completing the assigned task.Curricular Adaptations: The content was simplified by eliminating technical,conceptually difficult or confusing material. Sam completed the new tasksappropriately.
29 Preference/InterestA student who has difficulty remaining engaged in a task willcertainly miss opportunities for making achievement gains, andmay become disruptive to the learning environment.Incorporating student preferences and interests can increasestudents engagement in tasks.Student preferences are those things that the student prefersincluding tasks, activities, modes of response, order of activities,Etc.. Preference can be identified by quick and/or successfulcompletion of tasks, good quality of work, evidence that astudent is proud of his or her work, positive attitude regarding a particular task/activity, etc.
30 Incorporating Student Preferences To incorporate student preferences, modify the assignment to include somepreferential aspect: Jack prefers manipulative activities over fine-motor activitiesActivity is to count and color on a worksheetIncorporate preference - provide manipulatives in counting lessonCount specified number of milk cartons and sort them into groupsAnother way to incorporate student preference is to alternate preferred activitieswith non-preferred activities:Jack prefers manipulative activities over fine-motor activitiesIncorporate preference - alternate manipulatives with paper/pencil tasks in counting lessonCount specified number of milk cartons and sort them into groups, then record and color on worksheet
31 Interests When student interests or preferences are incorporated into an activity, the activity becomesmore reinforcing to the student, increasing thelikelihood of task engagement and reducing thelikelihood of problem behavior.Student interests can be determined throughobservation or simple questioning. The interests maybe curriculum content related (civil war, outer space),or recreational in nature (playing basketball, drawing).
32 Incorporating Student Interest Student interests can be incorporated into tasks by modifying thecontent topic or by providing choices. When modifications aremade to incorporate student interest, instructional objectivesshould remain constant.Examples:Number concepts using items of interest as manipulatives (i.e. dogs, cars, dolls, coins)Provide a menu of choices (choice as a means of expressing interest)Tracing objects of interest
33 Adaptation Exercise Read the following Student Snapshot related to: Preference/Interest and generate an appropriate adaptation:Juan is a student of average intellectual ability in a classroom for children with severe emotional disturbance. He rarely completes the daily handwriting activity and often engages in disruptive behavior.Hypothesis:When presented with typical handwriting sheets to copy, Juan engages in off-task and disruptive behavior, to avoid completing the assignement.Now take a few moments and create an appropriate adaptation.
34 Sample AdaptationDid you come up with an adaptation? Read the actual adaptation that was made for Juan.Curricular Adaptation: Juan’s teacher noted his interest in Nintendo games. She created new handwriting copy sheets that detailed hints for playing his favorite Nintendo game. Juan completed the new handwriting assignments in a timely manner without disruptive behavior.Was your adaptation similar? Maybe not. There are many ways of incorporating student interest, let your imagination run wild!
36 Task MeaningfulnessIf a task is meaningful to a student, the student will bemore likely to be engaged in the task. A task which ismeaningful is one that the student finds relevant totheir life and/or has a functional outcome. Itemphasizes the skills needed to participate in priorityactivities in the community.Traditional tasks can be made more meaningful bydeveloping “functional” or “purposeful” activities thatmeet overall learning objectives.
37 Meaningful/Functional Example Student: Jill Objective: Correctly form letters using manuscriptTraditional Activity: Copy words from handwriting book onto a blanksheet of lined paper for duration of 15 minutes.Traditional Mastery: Time Limit. Upon completion, Jill raises her hand toinform the teacher that she is finished, turns in paper, and goes on tonext activity.******************************************************* Functional Activity: Develop and write captions related to photos takenearlier in the week onto a blank sheet of lined paper for duration of 15minutes.Functional Mastery; Time Limit. After completion, Jill adds completedcaptions to photo album being created as a product.
38 Meaningful/Functional Example Student: Jerry Objective: Complete a multi-step assembly task Traditional Activity: Six parts of a pen are presented in individual pieces; Jerry assembles each pen by placing parts of the pen together and then placing the completed object in a bin. Traditional Mastery: Completion. Place completed pen in designated area, indicate completion by checking off activity on the board, move on the next activity. **************************************************** Functional Activity: Five-step task to make peanut butter and jelly sandwiches; pieces of the task are laid out sequentially; Jerry is required to complete the steps and put the finished sandwich on a plate. Functional Mastery: Completion. Student places plate of sandwiches aside to be given to class for snack later. Check off activity on board and continue with next activity.
40 Instructional Adaptations The second category of adaptations is Instructional.
41 Instructional Adaptations Instructional Adaptations involve changing the way inwhich material is presented and/or the way thestudent practices or demonstrates learning.There are two (2) general types of instructionaladaptations: Instructional PresentationStudent Response or Output
42 Adapting the Presentation Adaptations to the presentation involve changes to:The information provided during a lessonThe directions provided for an activityThe manner in which the information is provided(i.e. brief lectures, cues, prompts)The materials provided for a student during practice or evaluation
43 Adapting the Presentation Presentation can be adapted through a variety ofmeans including:Task AlternationModalityPrint MaterialsTask DivisionChoicesStudent Response
44 Task AlternationTask alternation is the interspersing of different types ofactivities usually involving a variety of levels of interest,difficulty, and format. Some suggested ways tointersperse activities are:Novel activities with familiar activitiesPreferred activities with non-preferred activitiesTeacher directed with independent workLecture with interactive activitiesPaper and pencil with manipulatives
45 Task Alternation Snapshot Read the following Student Snapshot related to task alternation.Generate an adaptation for Sally.Sally is a 7-year old diagnosed with autism and severe mentalretardation. She is non-verbal, has poor attending skills and exhibitsrepetitive behaviors (e.g. rocking). During attempts to teach Sally simplesigns, she becomes decreasingly engaged and increasingly upset to thepoint of terminating the activity.Hypothesis: When Sally is engaged in frustrating learning activities, shebecomes off-task and disruptive, to avoid participating in the task.How can the presentation of the task be adapted for Sally? (Move tothe next frame after you have thought of an adaptation).
46 Task Alternation Snapshot Did you think of an adaptation? Read the actualadaptation created for Sally below: Curricular Adaptation: Instruction of new signs waspresented intermittently with directions to engage inpreviously mastered skills such as hand clapping andpointing to familiar items upon request
47 Adapting the Presentation: Modality Modality has to do with the type of sensory involvement that isimportant to the learner. Learners respond to various types ofsensory input in different ways. Sensory channels include visual,auditory, tactile and kinesthetic.Adaptations to presentation modality involve providing the instructional“input” in various ways including: Reading text aloud to studentsAccompanying oral information with overheads, graphic organizers, visual pictures, maps or outlinesProviding audio or videotapes to accompany or supplement textsProvide models or physical demonstrations
48 Adapting the Presentation to Print Materials Adaptations to print materials are somewhat similar to adaptations tomodality except that this type of modification is related solely to theprinted materials provided to students.Examples of adaptations to print materials:Highlight a content area textbook (yellow for vocabulary words, blue for definitions)Provide large-print materialsProvide answer boxes or more room to write on tests and worksheetsAdd pictures and/or symbols to text
49 Print Materials Snapshot Student Snapshot:Susan is a middle school student diagnosed with severe learningdisabilities including dyslexia & ADHD. She is served in regular educationclasses. During social studies activities involving the use of the textbook,Susan is frequently off-task and disruptive. However, Susan participatesduring social studies discussion activities.Hypothesis: When Susan is presented with new reading material in acontent area textbook, she becomes disruptive to avoid participating inthe task.What kind of adaptation could be made to the print materials forSusan? (Move to the next frame after you have thought of anadaptation)
50 Print Materials Snapshot Did you think of an adaptation? Read the actualadaptation created for Susan.Curricular adaptations: The social studies text wascopied in a large font with increased space betweenthe lines. This text was assigned as homework on theday before they were to cover it in class. Susan wasable to “save face” by using the same text as othersduring class, yet she felt more confident with readingthe content because she had reviewed it in a formatthat was more comfortable for her.
51 Adapting the Presentation: Task Division Task division is a simple means of adapting an activity. Thestudent will be assigned and complete the entire assignment, but thatassignment is divided into smaller increments.Typically, task division involves reducing the amount of task presented tothe student at any given time. Instead of giving a student an entirepage of spelling words to review, give the student 3 words at a time untilall the work has been completed.By dividing the task, the student will be less likely to becomeoverwhelmed by the amount of work to be accomplished, they willhave greater opportunity to experience successful work completion,and they may have more opportunity for staff recognition andfeedback.
52 Task Division Snapshot Student Snapshot:Josh is an elementary age student in a classroom for students with mildmental retardation. During math skills practice, he would refuse to do hiswork and often destroyed his worksheets. In response, the teacher oftenstopped requiring him to complete the math tasks.Hypothesis: When Josh is presented with a full page of math problemsto complete, he refuses to comply and destroys his materials to avoidthe task.Develop a possible adaptation for Josh that involves task division.(Move to the next frame after you have thought of an adaptation)
53 Task Division Snapshot Did you think of an adaptation? Read the following adaptation that was made for Josh:Curricular adaptations: Considering Josh’s comments such as it’s too much, his teacher cut his worksheet into strips by row. Strips were then presented one at a time with feedback after each completed strip. After adaptations, Josh generally completed all his work with no problems.
54 Adapting the Presentation: Present Choices Researchers have clearly linked the opportunity to make choicesto reductions in problem behaviors. Additionally, the ability tomake choices is an important social skill. However, theopportunity to make choices during the school day is generallylimited. For students with disabilities, it is usually even morerestricted.The opportunity to make choices can be provided in many areasthroughout the school day. Opportunities to make choicesregarding academic activities can include choice of task,response method, who to work with, where to complete work,and others.
55 Present Choices Snapshot Student Snapshot:James is an animated 11-yr. old student with severe mentalretardation. When presented with tasks using manipulatives, heoften throws them across the room. During free-time, Jamesoften chooses those same items to play with.Hypothesis: When the teacher assigned James a learningactivity, he becomes disruptive to avoid engaging in the task.Develop an adaptation for James that involves choice.(Move to the next frame after you have thought of anadaptation)
56 Present Choices Snapshot Did you come up with a means of providingchoice for James? Read the followingadaptation that was made for James:Curricular adaptations: James was allowed tochoose from a list of 3-4 activities which allmet the teacher’s learning objective for the day.James selected the task and remained engaged.
57 Adapting Student Response Adapting the student response concerns the way inwhich students demonstrate their knowledge or skill;their “output.” Student responses include listening toa lecture, reading a resource book, note taking,organizing and writing information, selecting frommultiple choice options, verbal response, and others.Sometimes student behaviors can be improved whenthe method of response required is changed ormodified. Changes to student response may addressmodality or print material.
58 Adapting Student Response: Modality Modality, as discussed in adaptations of presentations, is relatedto sensory channels (sometimes referred to as learning styles).Adaptations to response modality involve changes in the meansby which a student demonstrates knowledge or skill.Examples of response modality adaptations are:Dictate answers, rather than writing them on paperUse a computer to demonstrate spelling word knowledgeMake models of entities with labels (i.e. plant cell from Playdoh)
59 Modality Snapshot Student Snapshot: Rylee, a 6-yr. old kindergarten student in a classroom for studentsidentified with severe emotional disturbance, was frequently off-task and disruptive during math activities involving worksheet topractice counting.Hypothesis: During paper and pencil math activities, Rylee engages inoff-task and disruptive behavior to avoid completing the assignedactivity.How can the response modality for Rylee be adapted?(Move to the next frame after you have thought of an adaptation)
60 Modality Snapshot Did you develop an adaptation for Rylee? Read the actual adaptation below:Curricular adaptations: After identifyingRylee’s interest in Lego’s, the worksheetcounting activity was replaced with countingLego’s as she constructed objects.
61 Adapting Student Response: Print Material Students are often required to respond in print format that usuallyinvolves pencil/paper tasks. However, there are a variety of other waysto demonstrate knowledge and skill. Adapting student response in printmaterial involves minimizing the use of pencil/paper, limiting the lengthof paper/pencil activities, and using alternatives to print.Some samples of adaptations to print material include:Count, add, or subtract with play money rather than printed worksheetsComplete a chart, map or outline instead of writing an essay about a novel or storyUse a computer rather than paper/pencil to record answers
62 Print Material Snapshot Student Snapshot:Amy is a 10-year old child diagnosed with autism. During herdaily letter tracing assignments using a paper and pencil, Amybecomes disruptive; yelling and throwing her materials.Hypothesis: When Amy is presented with paper/pencil tasks; shebecomes disruptive to avoid working on the task.Consider what kind of adaptation could be made to the printmaterials used with Amy.(Move to the next frame after you have thought of anadaptation)
63 Print Material Snapshot Did you think of an adaptation for the print materials?Read the actual adaptation below:Curriculum Adaptations: Amy’s teacher noticed thatduring free time, Amy often chose to use the dry eraseboard. She obtained a small dry-erase board for Amyto use in her handwriting practice. (In the future, thedry-erase assignment will be alternated with typicalpaper/pencil tasks.)
65 Ecological Adaptations Research shows that the most effectiveschools are those with a well-orderedenvironment and high academic expectations.
66 Ecological Adaptations Adaptation to the ecology involvesmodifications to the physical surroundings ofthe situation; the setting for the task/activity,sights, sounds and arrangements.The purpose of ecological adaptations is toenable a student with social, behavioral, or emotionalneeds to cope with the demands of the environmentwhile learning new skills.
68 Ecological Adaptations: Where Change the place in which the student is to work on the task or activity:Provide a “private” place for a student who has difficultyconcentrating or staying on task (e.g. study carrel, quiet room)Minimize congestion and clear traffic lanesGroups/stations positioned to minimize distractionsClear lines of vision to the studentsStudents see all instructional displaysClearly post behavioral expectations
69 “Where” Snapshot Student Snapshot: Andy is a 9-yr. old in a classroom for students with varyingexceptionalities. He is an intelligent and conscientious boy whoexperiences a significant amount of frustration in his work. Duringindependent seatwork his frustration at becoming distracted by thingsaround him lead him to self-injurious behaviors.Hypothesis: When there is movement and noise around him duringseatwork; Andy becomes distracted and engages in self-injuriousbehavior to get himself to attend to the task at hand.How could you adapt the “where” aspect of the ecology for Andy?(Move to the next frame after you have thought of an adaptation)
70 “Where” Snapshot Did you consider an adaptation to “where” for Andy? Read the actual adaptation madebelow.Ecological Adaptations: Andy was given theopportunity to work at his regular desk, or in astudy carrel. When things around him distractedAndy, he could move to the carrel where he couldfocus on his work.
71 Ecological Adaptations: When Change the time during which the student is expected to workon a particular task.Adapt the daily schedule to provide additional breaksFind opportunities for a student to spend extra time with preferred adults or peersPost the daily scheduleDevelop individualized student schedules when neededPost procedures for transition and non-transition timesIntersperse preferred with non-preferred tasksProvide predictable routinesColor code scheduling information
72 “When” Snapshot Demetrius is an engaging 8 yr. old boy in a classroom for studentswith mild to moderate mental retardation. During groupactivities such as circle time, story time, and calendar, Demetriusis engaged. During independent work activities, especially thosethat require him to remain seated and quiet, he becomesdisruptive.Hypothesis: During independent work activities, Demetrius becomes disruptive to get attention from others.How can the “when” of the ecology be adapted for Demetrius?(Move to the next frame after you have thought of anadaptation)
73 “When” Snapshot Did you think of an adaptation for Demetrius? See how your adaptation compares to the actualadaptation described below:Ecological Adaptation: The schedule was adjusted toensure that independent activities were alternatedwith interactive activities. A picture schedule wasdeveloped to cue Demetrius that a preferred activityis coming.
74 Ecological Adaptation: Who Change the people involved in completing a particular task or activity:Use a different teacher for a particular subject or activityReduce the adult-to-student ratioChange the number of peers with whom the student is grouped for instructionPromote friendships between students with and without disabilitiesProvide inclusive opportunities for students with disabilitiesPut mechanisms in place for regular and effective communication between student and teacher
75 “Who” Snapshot Student Snapshot: Alena is a 15-yr. old student diagnosed with autism, who ismainstreamed in regular classes. In math and science, Alena isfrequently non-compliant and occasionally becomes disruptive. Inlanguage arts, Alena participates appropriately. It was identified thatAlena’s math and science classes contained over 30 students, while herlanguage arts class had only 20.Hypothesis: When working in a large group of students, Alena isdisruptive to get attention from the teacherHow can the “who” of the ecology be adapted for Alena?(Move to the next frame after you have thought of an adaptation)
76 “Who” Snapshot Did you think of an adaptation for Alena? Was it similar to the actual adaptation described below:Ecological Adaptation: Alena was switched to math and science classes that contained fewer students and was moved to a seat near the teacher to enable the teacher to give her that additional attention that she needed to be successful in class.
77 Review Problem behaviors in the classroom can often be eliminated or generally reduced by making adaptations to the learningenvironment including curriculum, instruction, and the ecologicalenvironment.The adaptation of curriculum and instruction can result inimproved behaviors and increase the opportunity for learning.
78 AccommodationsAccommodations are modifications that are documented by the eligibilityprocess and specified in a student’s Individualized Education Plan. Theyare provided to enable the student to gain access to the classroom or thecurriculum.Many of the Adaptations described in this module may be identified asaccommodations in a student’s IEP or 504 plan.Sample accommodations:Extra time for a testAccompany oral directions with written directionsTape recorded versions of printed materialsLarger bubbles on multiple-choice questions