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Colorado State Extension Community Collaboration Training Program February 2013 Session: Deliberative Issue Framing Trainer: Martín Carcasson, Director.

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Presentation on theme: "Colorado State Extension Community Collaboration Training Program February 2013 Session: Deliberative Issue Framing Trainer: Martín Carcasson, Director."— Presentation transcript:

1 Colorado State Extension Community Collaboration Training Program February 2013 Session: Deliberative Issue Framing Trainer: Martín Carcasson, Director CSU Center for Public Deliberation

2 Overview of Session I. The National Issues Forum model II. Initial issue analysis to set up framing III. Naming IV. Framing the approaches V. Available resources

3 I. Review of key deliberation concepts Three Primary Forms of “Politics” as Public Problem Solving 1. Adversarial politics (competitive, pro/con, activists, campaigns, interests groups, mobilizations, elections, votes, coalitions, etc.) 2. Administrative/Expert politics (experts, data focused, research, facts, technical solutions, bureaucracy, etc.) 3. Deliberative politics (cooperative, participatory, collaborative, public participation, conflict resolution and transformation, mediation, community focused, civic participation, etc.)

4 Public/ Advocates Experts Decision-makers/ Politicians The deliberative practitioner Adapted from Throgmorton, “The Rhetorics of Policy Analysis,” 1991

5 I. Review of key deliberation concepts Key Products of Deliberative Inquiry 1. the identification and attempted resolution of key obstacles to collaborative problem- solving, 2. the identification and building upon of common ground, 3. the identification and working through of tough choices or tradeoffs, 4. the identification and development of support for complementary and creative action from a broad and inclusive range of stakeholders.

6 I. National Issues Forums Basic Features One time meetings, 2-3 hours long Use of particularly framed background material Overall frame: What should we do about “X”? Common problem with 3-4 approaches to address it Approaches designed to insure full conversation and spark understanding, not as “options” from which to choose or vote on

7 Land Use Conflict: When City and Country Clash Approach 1: Reestablish the Free Market Approach 2: Protect Farmland and Open Space Approach 3: Redevelop Central Cities Approach 4: Manage Growth on the Rural-Urban Fridge

8 The “Placemat”

9 Stages of an NIF forum Welcome Ground Rules and Goals Introduce Framework Personal Stake Deliberation (Dedicated time for each approach focused on appreciations and concerns) Reflection Questionnaire

10 National Issues Forums Pros of the Model Helps shift conversation from zero-sum frame and entrenched perspectives Places focus on arguments and interests, not simply positions Very adaptable and easy on facilitators Insures a broader conversation Works against wishful thinking (magic bullets and devil figures), but still supports action Facilitates “working through” (common ground and tensions are revealed both within and across approaches) Allows for good data to serve its purpose Allows for a broad range of actions

11 Sam Kaner, Facilitator’s Guide to Participatory Decision-Making

12 National Issues Forums Cons of the Model Puts a lot of pressure on the framing to jumpstart the conversation; requires trust Issue framing works well for divergent thinking, and the forums work well to work through groan zone, but convergent thinking tends to require other techniques

13 Steps in Issue Framework Development 1. Identify a public issue ripe for deliberation 2. Identify the underlying values and concerns (i.e. common ground and key tensions) 3. Name the overall issue 4. Develop potential approaches 5. Identify specific actions, arguments for and against, tradeoffs, and key discussion questions 6. Research and refine the approaches 7. Test the framework

14 II. Initial issue analysis to set up framing Issue analysis is based on qualitative analysis on how various stakeholders talk about the issue, informed by traditional expert research Significant examples of public discourse to analyze may already be available, but often some sort of open ended survey is used to help gather additional insights Survey data is often collected and posted to support transparency Typically not scientific, though asking demographic questions can be helpful

15 Typical initial issue questions How do you see the issue? Why is the issue important to you? What concerns do you have? What do you see as the main causes of the problem? How does the issue affect others they know, and what concerns do those people have? What should be done about the issue and by whom? What are the key challenges to addressing the issue? What does success look like?

16 Initial issue questions Answers to such open ended questions provide more clarity concerning the four key products: Obstacles are derived from how participants define the issue and how they discuss opposing views Key values are directly derived from questions about what is important to them and what concerns they have Tensions are indirectly derived from dilemmas arising from expressed values and interests between participants. If a particular tension is clear, you may consider asking about it directly to see how people respond or asking about key challenges. Potential actions directly derived from questions concerning actions from various stakeholders

17 Sample Initial Surveys Stadium I am excited about... I am concerned that... What additional information would you need to decide about this issue? What is the most important thing you want the advisory committee to understand about your view of this issue? What questions/concerns/suggestions do you have for the public engagement process? Additional questions or comments.

18 Sample Initial Surveys – Poudre River Project I am concerned that… One thing that is particularly valuable to me is… I need more information about… One question I have is… I am struggling with… One tension I need to work through is… I believe we should…

19 Sample Initial Surveys - Dropouts Are you concerned about the number of high school dropouts in our community? In what way? What do you think concerns others in our community? What are the most difficult challenges facing us related to this issue in our community? What are the hard choices we have to confront? What do you think causes students to drop out of high school? What could be done to reduce the number of students who dropout ? Who should be involved? What other thoughts about this issue would you like to offer? What aspect of this issue does the public most need to talk about?

20 Sample Initial Surveys 1. What do you think is the biggest success the Colorado Wine Industry has achieved in the last 5 years? 2. To what do you attribute that success? 3. What issues do you have as an individual/business concerning the CO wine industry? 4. What do you think the top 3 challenges currently facing the further growth of the Industry? 5. How would you suggest best facing those challenges? 6. What would you like to be involved in as the Industry moves forward (e.g. task force, CAVE Subcommitee, special events)? 7. Any other comments, suggestions, or questions?

21 Sample Initial Surveys Silver Tsunami 1) Fort Collins has received many awards and accolades for being a great place to live, including many awards that specifically celebrate Fort Collins as a great place to retire. For you, what is at least one thing about Fort Collins that helps make it a wonderful place for older residents? When we are at our best, what do we do well? 2) For all of us, we need to be thinking of the years we grow older as a time to live our dreams, to challenge ourselves, to embrace what might be, to experiment, to invest ourselves in other possibilities. Regardless of your current age, what are you most excited about doing with your time during that stage of your life (50+)? 3) Imagine it is 10 years from now, and Fort Collins is recognized nationwide as the community that got it right and reacted beautifully to the changing demographics by creating the ideal community for older Americans. What happened? What did we do? If you like, you can utilize the categories from the Community Readiness Chart to help you think about potential areas of improvement.

22 Sample Initial Surveys What do you see as the key benefits to building the local food economy? What do you see as the key concerns that could arise as our local food economy grows? What obstacles do you feel are currently limiting the local food economy? What actions, either by government, organizations, or individuals do you suggest? Who are the key stakeholders and organizations you feel would need to be involved in this issue? A key issue with building the local food economy is finding the right balance between providing support and flexibility, while also protecting public health and the local environment. What thoughts do you have on these challenges? What are some of the key questions we need to be asking at this point?

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25 Analysis of Surveys Read through them question by question (not person by person) Identify key recurring themes, particularly around the 4 key products When possible, multiple passes and additional people can assist with coding and analysis Grouping related key themes assists with approach development later

26 Using GoogleDocs for Online Surveys Step 1: Create new “Form”

27 Step 2: Choose Title and Theme

28 Step 3: Add questions

29 Question types 1. Paragraph text 2. Multiple choice (choose one) 3. Checkboxes (choose all that apply) 4. Choose from a list (dropdown menu) Typical progression: Demographic questions Open-ended More specific

30 Three Main Page Types Edit form (to build and make changes) Live form (the public face) The Responses (a spreadsheet)

31 Moving between types

32 Live form

33 Responses

34 CSU URL Shortener s.colostate.edu From https://docs.google.com/forms/d/11mQJHG-5dvwue7fL7xUqNr2RSPYxfEiNJAOe4OwYJNk/viewform to

35 Steps in Issue Framework Development 1. Identify a public issue ripe for deliberation 2. Identify the underlying values and concerns (i.e. common ground and key tensions) 3. Name the overall issue 4. Develop potential approaches 5. Identify specific actions, arguments for and against, tradeoffs, and key discussion questions 6. Research and refine the approaches 7. Test the framework

36 Naming Choose a broad frame for the issue that can include all key stakeholder’s concerns Avoid inflammatory terms and think carefully about word choice and imagery Overall frames typically focus on a common problem or a common goal Overall frames are often a question: ◦ What should we do about X? ◦ How can we achieve x? ◦ How can we optimize safety in our schools?

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38 CPD Framings How should we improve high school graduation rates in Colorado? What should we do about medical marijuana dispensaries? How should we meet our future water needs in Colorado?

39 Steps in Issue Framework Development 1. Identify a public issue ripe for deliberation 2. Identify the underlying values and concerns (i.e. common ground and key tensions) 3. Name the overall issue 4. Develop potential approaches 5. Identify specific actions, arguments for and against, tradeoffs, and key discussion questions 6. Research and refine the approaches 7. Test the framework

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41 Different approaches could focus on: Different primary actors for the action, particularly individuals, different groups, communities, or government. Different policy ideas Different views of the source or cause the problem Different degrees of response Distinctions between the “three E’s” of education, engineering, or enforcement (or incentives). Different ideal futures p.47

42 What is our food future? Approach 1: Taking Personal Stock: Reassessing Lifestyle, Values, and Choices Approach 2: Local Matters – Re-embedding food in community Approach 3: Increase Food Production – More People = More Demand

43 Land Use Conflict: When City and Country Clash Approach 1: Reestablish the Free Market Approach 2: Protect Farmland and Open Space Approach 3: Redevelop Central Cities Approach 4: Manage Growth on the Rural-Urban Fridge

44 Affordable Housing: What Are our Options? Approach1: Create and implement government programs to encourage more development of affordable housing Approach 2: Community members and stakeholders must accept responsibility for the well-being of all residents Approach 3: Improve education and communication for all stakeholders

45 Intimate Partner Violence: What Can We Do? Approach 1: Make it Easier to get Help Approach 2: Stop the Bleeding (stronger enforcement, punishment, and assistance to victims) Approach 3: Break the Cycle (change the culture of violence)

46 What should we do about childhood obesity? Approach 1: Families must take responsibility Approach 2: Schools should step up Approach 3: Government must use its power

47 How should we meet our future water supply needs? How should we meet our future water supply needs? Approach One: Focus on Addressing Growth Approach Two: Focus on Urban Conservation Approach Three: Focus on Storage Projects Approach Four: Focus on Agriculture Conservation and Transfers

48 What should we do about medical marijuana dispensaries? Approach 1: Regulate production and distribution to the greatest extent possible Approach 2: Focus on health and safety of community and patients foremost Approach 3: Let the industry self-regulate and the market work

49 Focus on Longmont: Share Your Vision, Create Our Legacy Direction for the Future 1 : Enrich the Experience of Living in Longmont Direction for the Future 2: Enhance the Environment, Natural and Built Direction for the Future 3: Expand Prosperity through Innovation, Efficiency and Education Direction for the Future 4: Extend the Principles of Cooperation and Shared Responsibility Throughout the Community

50 What are the 21 st Century Responsibilities of Citizenship? Approach 1: Citizens should be personally responsible. Approach 2: Citizens should also be engaged and informed constituents. Approach 3: Citizens should also be collaborative problem solvers in their local communities. Approach 4: Citizens must take a global view of their responsibilities.

51 Different approaches could focus on: Different primary actors for the action, particularly individuals, different groups, communities, or government. Different policy ideas Different views of the source or cause the problem Different degrees of response Distinctions between the “three E’s” of education, engineering, or enforcement (or incentives). Different ideal futures p.47

52 Issues with Issue Framing Avoid directly opposing approaches (each approach should include discussion of its opposite inherently) Usually avoid status quo as an option Popular framings v. reframing How to deal with popular options that aren’t realistic or supported by data Length/Level of detail Order of the approaches Minimizing making the document the focus: frame the framing as a starting point, a living document, something to react to, etc.

53 Steps in Issue Framework Development 1. Identify a public issue ripe for deliberation 2. Identify the underlying values and concerns (i.e. common ground and key tensions) 3. Name the overall issue 4. Develop potential approaches 5. Identify specific actions, arguments for and against, tradeoffs, and key discussion questions 6. Research and refine the approaches 7. Test the framework

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55 Placemat Template

56 Common Forms The One Page Placemat The Four Pager ◦ Intro, one page per approach ◦ Intro, approaches on pp.2-3, reflections questions on the back The Eight Pager ◦ Intro, 2 pages per approach with writing space The full book with the 2 page “placemat” summary

57 Resources for NIF framings National Issues Forum (www.nifi.org)www.nifi.org Public Agenda (www.publicagenda.com)www.publicagenda.com Everyday-Democracy Issue Guide Exchange (http://www.everyday- democracy.org/Exchange/index.aspx)http://www.everyday- democracy.org/Exchange/index.aspx

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62 Steps in Issue Framework Development 1. Identify a public issue ripe for deliberation 2. Identify the underlying values and concerns (i.e. common ground and key tensions) 3. Name the overall issue 4. Develop potential approaches 5. Identify specific actions, arguments for and against, tradeoffs, and key discussion questions 6. Research and refine the approaches 7. Test the framework


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