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Infusing Diversity into the Curriculum March 11, 2011

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1 Infusing Diversity into the Curriculum March 11, 2011
Connie Schroeder Center for Instructional and Professional Development Anj Petto Biological Science

Inclusive Excellence represents a shift not in the essence of our work but how we approach it and carry it out. Above all, Inclusive Excellence asks us to actively manage diversity as a vital and necessary asset of collegiate life rather than as an external problem.

3 Success in IE will look like:
Improved campus climates that provide a strong, abiding sense of belonging and community for all UW students Better alignment and cohesiveness between diversity efforts and other institutional initiatives, particularly those that focus on excellence in undergraduate education Greater numbers of UW students who possess the requisite multicultural competencies they need to navigate an increasingly diverse democracy

4 Our Session: Part 1 – 10-11:30 Assessment 30 minutes
What is meant by infusion, diversity, and curriculum? What examples or models, both here at UWM and beyond, can help us understand and imagine infusion at a curricular or course level?

5 Visioning Exercise 60 minutes
What should UWM look like in 5 years? Please brainstorm your visions/priorities. Each session will have chart-size Post-it pads to use for this brainstorming exercise. To prioritize (as part of closing out this session), please post items on your brainstormed list on the wall using the chart-size Post-it wall pads, and then ask everyone to use the small Post-its (write numbers 1, 2, 3, etc. on them) to post on the wall by the brainstormed items of their choice.

6 Visioning Questions: What would infusion in the curriculum look like?
What types of strategies, new collaborations, and recommendations would help move forward UWM forward in infusing diversity into the curriculum in the next 5 years? Why is infusion happening, or not, in the curriculum – what are the real challenges and obstacles and what is working? What would be the benchmarks or milestones that help us know we are getting there?

7 Part II - Break, 15 minutes –11:30 a.m. – 11:45 a.m.
Next Steps, 90 minutes – 11:45 a.m. -1:15 p.m. How do you organize your visions into 3-4 priority areas? What strategic steps do we need to take to accomplish these visions/priorities? Wrap-Up, 15 minutes 1:15-1:30 p.m. finalize discussion and put outcomes of Visioning/Priorities and Next Steps on flip chart papers.

8 Our Output: Infusion Looks Like (5 yrs.) 60 minutes
Recommended Strategies Obstacles/challenges Benchmarks/milestones

9 Framing our dialogue: Definitions
What do we mean by: Infuse? Curriculum? Diversity?

10 Infuse vs. diffuse? infuse diffuse
to introduce, as if by pouring; cause to penetrate; instill (usually followed by into ): The energetic new principal infused new life into the school. 2. to imbue or inspire (usually followed by with ): The new coach infused the team with enthusiasm. 3. to steep or soak (leaves, bark, roots, etc.) in a liquid so as to extract the soluble properties or ingredients. 4. Obsolete . to pour in. 1. to pour out and spread, as a fluid. 2. to spread or scatter widely or thinly; disseminate. 3. Physics . to spread by diffusion. –verb (used without object) 4. to spread. 5. Physics . to intermingle by diffusion. –adjective 6. characterized by great length or discursiveness in speech or writing; wordy. 7. widely spread or scattered; dispersed. 8. Botany . widely or loosely spreading. 9. Optics . (of reflected light) scattered, as from a rough surface ( opposed to specular).

11 Diversity? UW System IE DIVERSITY: Individual differences (e.g. personality, learning styles, and life experiences) and group/social differences (e.g. race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, country of origin, and ability as well as cultural, political, religious, or other affiliations) that can be engaged in the service of learning.

12 At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the debate is not whether to do it, but how.
Although many terms over the years have been used, such as multiculturalism, multicultural education, and ethnic studies, the term diversity will be used here. A more encompassing term, diversity is meant to represent all perspectives from groups that have traditionally been excluded from or insufficiently examined in the curriculum. -ALMA R. CLAYTON-PEDERSEN | CARYN MCTIGHE MUSIL

13 Levels of “curriculum”
A. Institutional Shared values and learning outcomes General education outcomes/Cultures and Communities Course requirements for all students Assessment Policy (syllabus, religious holidays, behavior, access) B. Departmental/Programs Program outcomes Assessments C. Courses: Multiple strategies, models and examples to follow

14 Rationale for Infusing Diversity
Calls for inclusion stem from the argument that a singular, Eurocentric perspective has had negative consequences for individual students and for the larger society. Proponents of diversity in higher education argue that excluding diverse perspectives in the curriculum has truncated students' learning, leaving them ill-prepared to function in an increasingly diverse democracy. The very purpose of higher education–to deepen students' understanding of what is known, how it has come to be known, and how to build on previous knowledge to create new knowledge–is thus undermined by eliminating the voices of those whose experiences differ from those traditionally represented.

15 Mission of Higher Education?
If students graduate with the ability to think critically, act responsibly, and negotiate borders that might otherwise divide, then higher education will come closer to meeting its historic mission of not only advancing knowledge, but contributing to stable, more equitable democratic societies.

16 Value Different diversity experiences appear to positively and significantly influence growth in critical thinking during college. Students experienced growth in critical thinking if they participated in meaningful discussions with the potential to encounter challenging and new ideas about the perspectives and experiences of people culturally different from themselves. Racially oriented diversity experiences were particularly important for enhancing critical thinking of white students. (National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment)

17 In a longitudinal study of 4,403 college students attending nine public universities it was reported that students who have an opportunity to take a diversified curriculum by the second year of college scored higher on 19 of 25 outcomes of the study. The strongest effects of diversity courses were evident on complex thinking skills, retention, cultural awareness, interest in social issues, the importance of creating social awareness, and support for institutional diversity initiatives.

18 The world our graduates face
In a survey conducted for the Association of American Colleges and Universities, more that 60 percent of employers polled said recent graduates lacked the skills to succeed in a global economy (Fischer, 2007). Committee for Economic Development, a nonprofit group of business and academic leaders, noted that demand for graduates with strong international skills was outstripping supply (Fischer, 2007).

19 Infusing through Learning Outcomes – AAC&U Learning Outcomes Intercultural Knowledge and Competence
Intercultural Knowledge and Competence is "a set of cognitive, affective, and behavioral skills and characteristics that support effective and appropriate interaction in a variety of cultural contexts.” (Bennett, J. M Transformative training: Designing programs for culture learning. In Contemporary leadership and intercultural competence: Understanding and utilizing cultural diversity to build successful organizations, ed. M. A. Moodian, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.)

20 Institutional Curricular Level: All students – one course
The most common model, surfacing at 68 percent of the AAC&U survey respondents, asks students to take one diversity course among many offerings.

21 UWM Current General Education Requirement
CULTURAL DIVERSITY: Three credits in a course relating to the study of life experiences of African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, American Indians or Asian Americans. Many, but not all, courses which satisfy Cultural Diversity also satisfy one of the required distribution areas. (You will need to satisfy this requirement if you started attending UWM in fall 1989 or thereafter.)

22 UWM Cultures and Communities
Certificate Requirements Students must complete 15 credits of Cultures and Communities courses in order to complete the certificate: 3 credits in a section of the required CC core course in addition to 12 credits in CC approved courses. In addition to coursework students must engage in hours of community engagement through a Service Learning experience. The summary below outlines the five areas of the CC Certificate distribution requirements: Area 1 (core course): Multicultural America (3 credits). Currently offered as English 150, History 150, or Women's Studies 150 (satisfies Humanities and Cultural Diversity GER requirements); Anthropology 150, Sociology 150, or Urban Studies 150 (satisfies Social Sciences and Cultural Diversity GER requirements); or Film 150 or Art 150 (Peck School of the Arts; satisfies Arts and Cultural Diversity GER requirements); Urban Planning 350 (School of Architecture and Urban Planning). Area 2: Cultures and Communities of the United States (3 credits). Issues and methods in the comparative study of cultures and communities of the U.S. May be fulfilled by appropriate accredited GER or Cultural Diversity courses in any discipline, school, or college. Students may also opt to take a second MA 150 course in another discipline to satisfy their area 2 requirement. Area 3: Global Perspectives on Culture and Community: (3 credits). Issues and methods in the comparative study of cultures and communities outside North America and Europe. May be fulfilled by appropriate accredited GER courses in any discipline, school, or college or through an appropriate study abroad experience. Area 4: Art, Culture, and Community: (3 credits). May be fulfilled by courses that relate the theory and production of art (dance, music, visual arts, film, and theater) to cultural and community contexts. Restricted to courses in the Peck School of the Arts except through special petition. Area 5: Science, Culture, and Society: (3 credits). Includes courses that examine how scientific knowledge may be understood in relation to issues in culture and society. May be fulfilled by enrollment in classes with a Natural Sciences or Social Sciences accreditation.

23 Reflection Is this our vision?
What will the current infusion of diversity look like in 5 years given these efforts?

24 Infusing the curriculum through “course requirements”
AAC&U's survey: 78 percent of colleges responding from the West had diversity requirements 68 percent of those in the Middle States (Mid-Atlantic) region 60 percent in the North Central region By contrast, only 45 percent of the institutions in the New England region had diversity requirements in 2000, 36 percent of those in the South 35 percent in the Northwest.

25 2000 Progress in U.S. according to AAC&U
Sixty-three percent of colleges and universities reported either having a diversity requirement in place or being in the process of developing one. Fifty-four percent of survey respondents had diversity requirements in place another 8 percent were in the process of establishing them.

26 General Courses: Curricular Level
Of course, general education courses cannot carry the intellectual and moral weight of accomplishing all this in one required course, or even in a sequenced series of courses. Each institution needs to take a holistic look at the entire curriculum, the interrelationship between general education and the major, the cumulative kinds of developmental experiences a student might have in progressing towards a degree, and the increasingly complex and demanding questions students are able to pose and answer as they are challenged to use their new knowledge and civic, intercultural capacities to address real-world problems.

27 Course level infusion of diversity
Models and examples Inclusive Excellence represents a shift not in the essence of our work but how we approach it and carry it out.

28 Course Levels of Infusion-Visioning http://www. asjmc
1. Stand-alone diversity courses. “While offering such courses certainly emphasizes the importance we place on understanding the role of diversity in modern society, there is a tendency to see diversity in this context as a special topic lying somewhere outside the core principles of journalism.” 2. Dedicated class sessions on diversity or tied to a textbook chapter on diversity. “Again, such special treatment can create a sense that this subject matter is an isolated topic, marginalized, taken up in an obligatory bow to political correctness.” 3. Finding natural points of entry for diversity to be discussed across the curriculum. “It potentially is the more effective approach to ‘doing’ diversity in the classroom…. Diversity is introduced to students in an organic, less self-conscious way that encourages them to cross their own boundaries in search of that untold story.”

29 Common misconceptions
All too often, the common assumption is that only certain classes lend themselves to infusing diversity. This stems, in part, from limiting the understanding “infusion” to the choice of authors of content.

30 Overemphasis on content strategies
Carr (2007) in her article, “Diversity and Disciplinary Practices, ” argues that much of the revision work done by faculty has been limited to revising and adding content in courses rather than attending to all four factors. In addition, Carr noted that the diversity ‘agenda’ has been primarily articulated by experts in humanities and social sciences – women’s studies, black and ethnic studies, sociology of education, and feminist psychology.”

31 Four Dynamics of Diversity in Teaching and Learning
A framework… Students Course Content Teaching Methods Instructor (Marchesani & Adams)

32 Visioning Course Level Infusion: Diversity Infusion Rubric In Use
Course description and objectives that reflect diversity—How does my discipline help prepare students to live and work in today’s multicultural democracy and interdependent world? Content integration that includes multiculturalism—What issues of diversity, social justice, and civic engagement are infused in my course curriculum and how? Instructional resources and materials—How inclusive are my selected materials? Faculty and student worldviews and learning styles—How do student and faculty worldviews, learning styles, and teaching strategies match, and how are my students’ learning styles accommodated? Instructional strategies—How diversified are my strategies for facilitating instruction and classroom dynamics? Assessment diversification—How do assessment activities accommodate my students’ learning styles?

33 The Faculty dimension includes knowing oneself, being aware of one‟s past socialization, and examining one‟s beliefs, attitudes, and assumptions. Teaching Methods looks at how we teach, broadening teaching strategies to address multiple learning styles, and developing classroom norms that emphasize respect, fairness and equity. The Course Content includes what we teach in a curriculum of inclusion that represents diverse perspectives. The fourth dimension represents the Students and understanding who they are, being sensitive to their various social and cultural backgrounds and the different ways in which they experience the classroom environment.

34 Learning criteria from others: According to Cohn and Mullenix (2007), “a diversity rich curriculum:
1) Includes other voices – the focus is on the inclusion of writings, speeches, dialogues, films, etc. that originate from people of different social identities, cultural backgrounds, gender, and disabilities; 2) Communicates interconnectedness - the development of a sense that we are connected to others beyond our immediate experience and geographic area; 3) Values diversity and equity – embeds information and techniques designed to impart a sense of why diversity and equity are important; and 4) Promotes transformative thinking – challenges traditional views and assumptions; encourages new ways of thinking; and re-conceptualizes the field in light of new knowledge, scholarship, and new ways of knowing” (p.13).

35 Infusing diversity need not require special knowledge/training
Include diverse images as examples in PowerPoint slides Example: in social psychology, photo of African American physician on slide covering helping behavior Highlight research by members of groups that are underrepresented in your field Example: in research methods, select article by female scientist whenever possible; usually include photo of the researcher on slide Use diverse names/themes on test questions Example: Alex and Tom feel passion and intimacy toward each other but they cannot foresee themselves committing to each other because both believe that commitment means marriage and their state does not recognize same-sex marriages. Sternberg’s triangular theory would characterize their love as a.romantic. b. fatuous. c. companionate. d. empty. Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Department of Psychology IUPUI

36 Infusing diversity need not take time away from standard curriculum
Use clips, examples that highlight diversity even when the topic does not involve diversity per se Examples “A Girl Like Me” (see to teach about cultural influences on attraction in social psychology course Madera, J.M., Hebl, M.R., & Martin, R. C. (2009). Gender and letters of recommendation for academia: Agentic and communal differences. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, , to teach about structure of empirical articles in research methods course Leslie Ashburn-Nardo, Department of Psychology IUPUI

37 Natural Points of Entry Strategies
Interaction with individuals of various backgrounds in the community. This can be done in several ways, simple observation, reaching out to the community, involvement in cultural activities in the area (Greekfests, visiting a Senior Center or Nursing Home, attending a religious service of a faith different than yours, helping feed the homeless, doing a good deed without telling the person you did it, and so on). Small group activities or discussions with results being brought back to the entire group.

38 Natural Points of Entry: Assignment Strategies of Infusion
Student research into diverse people who have made important contribution to a particular field, for example, women or people of color who have made a significant impact on a science discipline such as chemistry, physics, biology, math, etc. Student research into how a discipline is taught in different countries. For example, how is math taught in India, or in Japan? Research papers on various topics related to diversity. -Dr. Bonnie A. Gray; Dr. Paul N. Grocoff 7 September 2007 University of York, United Kingdom

39 Natural Points of Entry Examples:
The basic broadcasting course discusses the rise of ethnic channels such as the Black Entertainment Network and Telemundo for Hispanic audiences. Students in an advertising sales course discuss ads that target minors, minorities and other special audiences. Students in a media writing course do articles on diversity issues such as physical access for disabled persons on campus and the views of female Islamic students regarding women’s issues. An advanced reporting course is paired with a Spanish Conversation and Translation course to interview and write articles for the local Hispanic community. Corporate communication students learn that increased sales and market share are enhanced by implementing diversity plans throughout an organization.

40 Natural Points of Entry Strategies Content and Activities/pedagogy
Readings about topics in diversity or readings by diverse authors, followed by class discussion or a paper. Guest speakers – always followed by an opportunity for questions and answers. Make sure you set guidelines for having guest speakers. Using newspapers or TV news to bring up diversity issues within current events. Class activities. There are a whole host of activities you can have students do which teaches them different aspects of diversity. There are workbooks available that provide lots of different options that you can use directly or modify for your classroom. Dr. Bonnie A. Gray; Dr. Paul N. Grocoff 7 September 2007 University of York, United Kingdom

41 Assigment Strategies of Infusion
Group (or individual) class presentations on particular diversity topics; can be done in various formats: debates (where students need to take opposite viewpoints on a particular topic), panel presentations, student PowerPoint presentations, and so forth. Exploring diversity on the Internet (both the positive and the negative aspects of diversity). Diversity portfolios, where students build a portfolio over the module of a semester on a particular topic, or on several topics related to diversity and the subject matter

Humanities Legal Studies Mathematics Nursing Performing Arts Philosophy Physical Education Political Science Psychology Reading Religion Science Sociology Anthropology Art Business Communication Counseling Economics Education Engineering English Health Science History

43 UWM Anj Pett0:

44 Maricopa: Intermediate Algebra INFUSION: (MAT120 & MAT122)
ABSTRACT OF DIVERSITY INFUSION WITHIN COURSE: I implemented a mathematics project at the intermediate/college algebra level that infuses diversity of world views. This project asked students to model world population growth, density of population in terms of arable surface area, and depletion of non-renewable resources, using exponential and logarithmic functions. A total of 50+ students in three different classes were assigned this project during the Fall semester of 2002. Students were asked to analyze geographical data for 8 different countries of the world with widely varying physical geographies, cultures, and political, socio-economic, and technological conditions. The eight countries were Bangledesh, Brazil, China, Germany, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, and the United States. For each country students computed values

45 Natural Points of Entry-example
A media ethics professor wrote in a self-study about incorporating a discussion of racist hoaxes into a broader discussion about manipulations of media. He wrote, “My students don’t know we’re covering diversity. We do not cover diversity from a political view. We approach it through journalism – as an aspect of our jobs….Embrace diversity as an aspect of good journalism. Our goal is sharpening perceptions and deepening consciences.”

BIO 160 Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Since this course deals with anatomical structures and their functions, we focused on the prevalence of diseases common to different racial, ethnic, cultural and religious groups. Each student evaluated his/her own family background and medical history to determine if there was a common illness or practice among family members. They chose a topic based on that or a different topic that was appealing to them. Throughout the semester, the topics were presented during the appropriate body system to promote awareness and cohesion of the course competencies. Students submitted a written report at the time of their oral presentation.

47 On the first day of class, the topic of diversity was introduced and discussed in a lecture form. After explaining to the students that diversity issues would be discussed throughout the semester, the students were asked to offer their opinions and thoughts relating to diversity. An interactive discussion was conducted until it was clear to all students the purpose of the diversity project.

Women are poorly represented in Chemistry. For students, 52% of undergraduates in 1997 were women but only 37% of undergraduates in chemistry were female (Royal Society of Chemistry report). If this trend continues, there won' t be parity for men and women till 2070. Infusing diversity into the CHM 130 curriculum helps achieve a better balance between males and females in CHM 130. infusing two aspects of diversity, gender, and geographical region into the curriculum, wherein students participated in gathering information on the biographies and contributions of European women to the field of chemistry. Students presented their work in the form of Power points. This was followed by written reports on the reasons for the underrepresentation of women in chemistry.

49 Engineering We began the engineering workshop by asking faculty members to think about engineering's potential and limits in addressing social problems. A primary focus was the issue of technology's unintended consequences. After introducing the concepts of power and privilege, we discussed the example of the Toyota Prius. Engineers designed the Prius to be extremely quiet--so quiet that it poses a danger to vision-impaired people, who cannot hear it. Vision-impaired people are now asking the automotive industry to design automobiles that have minimum noise levels. Other unintended consequences include the impingement on Native American fishing rights caused by hydroelectric dams and the rampant consumerism driven by engineering's focus on creating new products. We also examined two case studies that faculty members can utilize to explore the complex issues of privilege, power, and difference in relation to engineering: the Manhattan Project and Hurricane Katrina.

A. The first project involved student Power point presentations (oral) of the biographies and contributions of women chemists. To name a few: Marie Curie Eva Curie Irene-Joliot Curie: 1, 2, 3. The Curies' struggles and valuable contributions to nuclear chemistry was highlighted . Lise Meitner, the woman whom Einstein called 'The German Madame Curie' (a high honour indeed: both to be praised by Einstein, and to be compared to Curie) was always unassuming. Students find out that In 1992, Element 109 was named "Meitnerium" (Mt) in her honour. Her work led directly to the possibility of nuclear weapons, but Meitner would have no part in building a weapon of such destructive force. She went to great lengths to distance herself from the negative possibilities her discoveries created. Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin determined the structure of insulin in Students are amazed to learn that this culminated a study pursued over three decades. The details of the structure provided insight into the function of this vital hormone. Rosalind Franklin The students learn that Rosalind Franklin obtained excellent X-ray diffraction photographs of DNA. They found that Franklin died of ovarian cancer which was quite possibly caused by exposure to radiation in the course of her research.

B. Reading Assignments: (i) Brush, Stephen G "Women in Science and Engineering". American Scientist, 79, (ii) "A Celebration of Women in Science" (cover story) Discover. 12:8, 10-33 C. A 2-page report on why women are under-represented in Chemistry (information obtained from a report published by the Royal Society of Chemistry) D. A 1-page report on the European country the chemist belonged to, its culture, language, climate, customs and traditions, science museums of interest, etc.

SUCCESSES AND DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED: The students thoroughly enjoyed the project. A lot of them felt that the project had great inspirational ability. It helped in the facilitation of peer-to-peer dialogues and iteractions. The impact of including this activity was dramatic after every group made its presentation in the form of Microsoft Power Point. Animated discussions resulted by having each group voice its opinion on the factors that it felt were responsible for promoting or hindering the progress of women in Chemistry. Giving pupils opportunity to voice opinions about Science helps in the creation of an environment conducive to learning. Students had the opportunities to have discussions among themselves, including constructive dialogue, and this motivated them to learn and become effective communicators.

53 LAS131, Legal Writing Example: Legal Writing
ABSTRACT OF DIVERSITY INFUSION WITHIN COURSE: This course teaches legal writing skills to Legal Assisting and Tribal Court Advocacy students. Writing assignments in past semesters have addressed a variety of law-related tasks and topics not necessarily related to diversity. My project infused diversity into this course, and thereby into these two occupational programs, by developing lesson plans and writing assignments based on diversity topics. Tasks included, for example, writing letters and articles and preparing legal analyses summarizing the law on particular diversity topics. Subjects included disability access, age discrimination, racial segregation, and diversity-related topics of the students’ choice. No modification of official competencies or course outline was necessary.

54 Course Level Examples:
a microbiology course, Disease and Society, examines the movement of disease at the microbial level in relation to issues of race, gender, and social class. A course in exercise and sport science, Power and Privilege in Sport, examines how the unequal distribution of resources across gender, race, social class, sexual identity, ability, and age plays out in sports. Social Ethics in Engineering asks students to apply concepts of systems of oppression as they consider their professional development as engineers. A geosciences course, Environmental Justice, explores the impact of environmental racism on people of color, and a fisheries and wildlife course, Multicultural Perspectives on Natural Resources, considers how diverse social values affect changes in the physical landscape and biodiversity in the American West.

55 In the veterinary medicine workshop
We began by discussing climate issues related to the discipline's changing demographics (women now outnumber men in veterinary medicine programs). As we moved on to discuss content, we talked about animals' vulnerability in human society and asked how faculty members might assess animal-human relations in the context of power and privilege. We concluded by asking faculty members to imagine how they might help their students think about issues of difference, power, and privilege in light of a range of questions, including: What is poverty's impact on the practice of veterinary medicine? How do cultural and gender differences affect the practice of veterinary medicine? What role do veterinarians play in organizations that help humans, and do veterinarians have an obligation to work toward improving human conditions? What ties does veterinary medicine have to pharmaceutical companies? What role do veterinarians play in global development work, in disasters, and in wars? What role do veterinarians play in developing legislation about animal welfare issues?

56 Anj Petto [tba] The goal comes out of my training in anthropology --- both to recognize and to understand the impact of cultural perspective ... even on biology. We consider lactose intolerance a "disorder" or disease. However, lactose intolerance is not only more common in human populations than lactose tolerance (after weaning), it is also the normal state of affairs for all post-weaning mammals. A Eurocentric perspective sees lactose intolerance as an abnormal condition and so defines it as a disease. A proper perspective identifies the European variant as a genetic mutation that has fitness benefits in cultures where dairy products make up an appreciable proportion of available foods, even for adults. There are two issues here: (1) A redefinition of "normal" so that the unusual condition in Europeans is the standard condition, and the condition of the rest of the world now becomes a disease or disorder; and (2) the renaming of the normal condition to call it "lactose intolerance" as though it were a deviation from the usual state of affairs in mammals. (We could do a similar bit with the sickle-cell trait or any of the hemoglobin variants) I have a data set based on students in my past classes in which they report ethnicity and many of them include skin color information (based on paint samples that match their skin). When we look at the 20 or so genetic traits that are recorded there, we find that none on these tracks the ethnic and color variables very well. We can then talk about concepts such as hypodescent (one-drop rules) and "blood quantum" measures. We also have problems that students work on that have to do with sex differences in head measurements and so on. Clouds of data to be parsed, graphed, queried and understood.

57 Infusing Diversity Accompanied by Assessment

58 Infusion Efforts Should be Accompanied by Assessment
Brief low stakes assessments How perspectives changed How view of field changed How approach to solving, thinking has changes Higher Stakes Assignments directly measure application of and inclusion of diverse viewpoints, data, facts, evidence, and arguments: Rubrics Criteria Before/After Case analysis comparison Predictions/Assumptions, Biases

59 Rubric “inserts” example

60 How will we know when we’ve done this?
The highest level of cultural competency results when “every policy, issue, and action is examined in its cultural context and assessed for its strengths and limits.” From Bennetts’ Cultural Sensitivity Model

61 How should we measure infusing diversity into the curriculum?

62 Infusion of Diversity into the Curriculum: Cultural Change?
Models of Institutional Programs How do some institutions become more successful at infusing diversity into the curriculum and into courses?

63 Culture: What is culture change? Structure/policies
Norms, practices, habits, behaviors Values, beliefs (Miles & Huberman, l984)

64 Change strategies The annual report alone does not appear to generate sustained institutional change. The literature shows that the most successful diversity curriculum revision initiatives, “engage people in reading, thinking, and debating over time in a sustained group that fosters development of collegial and personal relationships” (McTighe Musil et al., 1999, p. 25).

65 Infusing the Culture: Where is the curriculum situated?
Structure/policies General Ed. Learning Outcomes Cultures and Communities Rewards and incentives, recognition Instructional development resources Faculty senate? Departmental? Practices/norms Syllabus and course design Sharing strategies/examples Accessing instructional development oppt’s Values/beliefs Diversity infused in curriculum is important for graduates/society Specific value for majors/programs Improves learning for all My course can be infused Institutional Departmental Programs Courses individual

66 Example: A Sustainable Campus-wide Program for Diversity Curriculum Infusion
Diversity Curriculum Infusion Program (DCIP), established in 2003 University of Missouri–Kansas City

67 Change strategies The annual report alone does not appear to generate sustained institutional change. The literature shows that the most successful diversity curriculum revision initiatives, “engage people in reading, thinking, and debating over time in a sustained group that fosters development of collegial and personal relationships” (McTighe Musil et al., 1999, p. 25).

68 a yearlong institute Four daylong workshops
participants revise an existing course by infusing the curriculum with diversity and social justice, implement the course the following semester, and make a presentation about the experience at the campus-wide culminating celebration held in April.

69 The first workshop: Orientation, community building, collectively define critical diversity examine their teaching using the rubric of the six areas of potential diversity curriculum infusion (see sidebar) The second workshop: self-transformation examine their biases and their commitment to diversity The third workshop present preliminary drafts of their course revisions receive constructive feedback from the group The fourth and final workshop is a celebratory experience: present the pre- and post-syllabi discuss the implementation experience.

70 DCIP Faculty Outcomes:
aroused faculty interest in the scholarship of diversity appreciation for the opportunity to be empowered and challenged; chance to discuss diversity and curriculum infusion; raised consciousness of diversity and its enrichment in the curriculum; newly energized teaching; increased knowledge of diversity; new teaching strategies they have learned; heightened sensitivity and responsiveness to diverse groups of students.

71 Recreation Administration Agribusiness Kinesiology English
The inventories were distributed by David Conn to every Cal Poly department chair/head with undergraduate major(s) and the Multiple Subject Credential program.  Column A %  None-Low Columns C & D % medium-high and high Nutrition Recreation Administration Agribusiness Kinesiology English Modern Languages Literatures History Social Sciences Multiple Subject Credential engineering mathematics life and physical sciences


73 Example: Maricopa This program provides funding to support faculty as they seek to infuse diversity issues and perspectives into courses they currently teach. These projects are completed within the framework of the Program for Infusing Diversity into the Curriculum. There is a one-year commitment to the Program, which runs from summer each year to the end of spring semester the following year.

74 Maricopa Example Selected participants receive a stipend for 90 hours during their one-year commitment. This stipend is approximately equivalent to one, 3-hour course load.

75 Barriers and Challenges to Infusion

76 What are the perceived barriers to infusing diversity into teaching?
Student barriers Perceived student defensiveness Concern over student evaluations Perceived multicultural fatigue Perceived lack of connection to content from IUPUI Multicultural Teaching Community of Practice Faculty Survey,

77 Students think that addressing bias is better than ignoring it
From Boysen et al., 2009, Journal of Diversity in Higher Education

78 If students are not the barrier, what is?
Teaching resources e.g., Where would I begin to acquire knowledge, gain confidence about how to teach about diversity? Perceived especially by instructors who are not “diverse” Time constraints e.g., I’ve got a standard curriculum to cover; there’s no time for covering extras like diversity Lack of knowledge e.g., My graduate training did not include diversity, cultural competence from IUPUI Multicultural Teaching Community of Practice Faculty Survey,

79 Learning Environment Since resistance is an expression of fear, anxiety, and discomfort, educators need to create an environment of “psychological safety and readiness” (Friedman and Lipshitz 1992). Robert Kegan (1982) discusses the need for “confirmation” (an environment of support) before “contradiction” (conditions that challenge current meaning-making systems). Educators jump to “contradiction,” providing new and challenging perspectives without first establishing environments and relationships of trust (among the students, but especially with the teacher).

80 Resistance Resources: Diane J
Resistance Resources: Diane J. Goodman, Promoting Diversity and Social Justice: Educating People from Privileged Groups (Sage 2001). References Friedman, V. J., and R. Lipshitz Teaching people to shift cognitive gears: Overcoming resistance on the road to model II. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 28 (1): 118–36. Hardiman, R., and B. Jackson Racial identity development: Understanding racial dynamics in college classrooms and on campus. In Promoting diversity in college classrooms: Innovative responses for the curriculum, faculty, and institutions, ed. M. Adams, 21–37. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Helms, J An update on Helms’ white and people of color racial identity models. In Handbook of multicultural counseling, ed. J. G. Ponterotto, J. M. Casa, L. A. Suzuki, and C. M. Alexander, 181–98. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Kegan, R The evolving self: Problems and process in human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Tatum, B. D “Why are all the Black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?” and other conversations about race. New York: Basic Books

81 References Banks, J. (1995). Multicultural education: historical development, dimensions, and practice. In J. B. Banks (Ed.), Handbook of research on multicultural education (pp. 3-24). New York, New York: Macmillan Publishing. Carr, J. F. (2007). Diversity and disciplinary practices. In J. Branche, J. Mullennix, & E. Cohn (Eds.), Diversity across the curriculum: A guide for faculty in higher education (pp. 30- 37). Bolton, Massachusetts: Anker Publishing. Chang, M. (2002). The impact of an undergraduate diversity course requirement on students' racial views and attitudes. Journal of General Education, 25, Chester, M., Wilson, M., & Milani, A. (1993). Perceptions of faculty behavior by students of color. The Michigan Journal of Political Science, 16, Cohn, E., & Mullenix, J. (2007). Diversity as an integral component of college curriculum. In J. Branche, J. Mullennix, & E. Cohn (Eds.), Diversity across the curriculum: A guide for faculty in higher education (pp ). Bolton, Massachusetts: Anker. Fischer, K. (2007, November 2). "Flat world" lessons for real-world students. Chronicle of Higher Education. Frey, B. (2007). Practices that facilitate diversity across the curriculum: Inclusive classroom assessment. In J. Branche, J. Mullennix, & E. Cohn (Eds.), Diversity across the curriculum: A guide for faculty in higher education (pp ). Bolton, Massachusetts: Anker. Gottredson, N., Panter, A., Daye, C., Wightman, L. A., & Deo, M. (2008). Does diversity at undergraduate institutions influence student outcomes. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 1(2), Gurin, P., Dey, E., Hurtado, S., & Gurin, G. (2002). Diversity and higher education: Theory and impact on education outcomes. Harvard Educational Review, 72 (3), Hurtado, S. (2005). The next generation of diversity and intergroup relations research. Journal of Social Issues, 61(3), Jackson, B. (1988, October). A model for teaching to diversity. Unpublished paper from a workshop at University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Kuh, G. D., & Whitt, E. J. (1988). The invisible tapestry: Culture in american colleges and universities. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Reports. Washington: Association for the Study of Higher Education. Marchesani, L. S., & Adams, M. (1992). Dynamics of diversity in the teaching-learning process: A faculty development model for analysis and action. In M. Adams (Ed.), Promoting diversity in college classrooms (Vol. 52). McTighe Musil, C., Garcia, M., Hudgins, C., Nettles, M., Sedlacek, & Smith, D. (1999). To form a more perfect union. Washington: Association of American Colleges and Universities. Opinion of the Court. (2003). Grutter v. Bolinger, 539 U. S The U. S. Supreme Court. Orfield, G., Bachmeier, M., James, D., & Eitle, T. (1997). Deepening segregation in american public schools: A special report from the harvard project on school desegregation. Equity and Excellence in Education, 30 (2), 5-24. Shaw, E. (2005). Researching the educational benefits of diversity. New York: College Entrance Examination Board. Smith, D., & Wolf-Wendel, L. (2005). The challenge of diversity: Involvement or alienation in the academy? San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. Wlodkowski, R., & Ginsberg, M. (2003). Diversity and motivation: Culturally responsive teaching. San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. 21

82 Your Task Together Today
Visioning: 60 min. What could infusing diversity in the curriculum look like in five years?

83 Our Output: Infusion Looks Like (5 yrs.) 60 minutes
Recommended Strategies Obstacles/challenges Benchmarks/milestones

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