Presentation on theme: "Chapter Fourteen, Lecture One Heracles. Strong man and primitive tough guy But still admired and venerated for heroism – dangerous tasks done with physical."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Fourteen, Lecture One Heracles
Strong man and primitive tough guy But still admired and venerated for heroism – dangerous tasks done with physical strength for a good purpose
Heracles Panhellenic hero –Adventures take him throughout the Greek world and beyond –Principal hero for colonists –Washington slept here Enormous body of myth and tales –Complete picture must be pieced together from many sources
The Birth of Heracles
Perseus –King of Tiryns and founded Mycenae Electryon Alcaeus Sthenelus
The Birth of Heracles Electryon (Mycenae) –Nine sons –Alcmena Alcaeus –Amphitryon Sthenelus –Eurystheus
The Birth of Heracles Pirates kill all but one of Electryons sons. Prepares a campaign against them Gives Amphitryon Alcmena to watch over But he and Amphitryon get into a fight and Amphitryon kills him. Amphitryon escapes to Thebes with Alcmena and marries her.
The Birth of Heracles Alcmena wont have sex with him until Amphitryon avenges the death of her brothers. Meanwhile, Zeus sneaks in. Amphitryon comes later. Thus, there are divine and human seed in her and she gives birth to twins. –Heracles (Alcides) –Iphicles
The Birth of Heracles Zeuss boast about Eileithyia delivering a ruler on that day Hera holds up his birth and advances Eurystheuss birth Ovid –Galanthis untangles Eileithyia through a trick.
Twin and Divine Births
Twins viewed with superstition Simultaneous intercourse with divine and mortal male from Egypt and widespread –Ammun and Ahmes, wife of Tutmosis, I => Hatshepsut
Heracless Youthful Deeds Serpents The Milky Way Autolycus Eurytus Linus Daughters of Thespius Erginus of the Minyans
Madness and Murder
Married to Megara, daughter of Creon, the new king of Thebes Driven mad by Hera and kills Megara and their three children As punishment, Heracles must serve Eurystheus, his cousin. –In Euripidess play, the murders take place after the labors (athloi).
The Twelve Labors
1. Nemaean Lion7. The Cretan Bull 2. Lernaean Hydra8. Horses of Diomedes 3. Ceryneian Deer9. Girdle of Hippolyta 4. Erymanthian Boar10. Cattle of Geryon 5. Augean Stables11. Apples of the Hesperides 6. Stymphalian Birds12. Cerberus
Other tasks interspersed with them: the Side-Deeds
Side-Deeds LaborSide Deeds 4. Erymanthian BoarPholus, Chiron 8. Horses of DiomedesAlcestis and Admetus 10. Cattle of GeryonErythia Cacus Helius Cup 11. HesperidesNereus Antaeus Busiris Prometheus || Altas
Observations: The Twelve Labors
Observations Like Gilgamesh, struggles against beasts and journeys to the land of the dead When did labors become organized into twelve? –Not in Hesiod Perhaps in 470 BC on the Temple of Zeus at Olympia –12 metopes available
Observations Labors grouped into thematic units –Early adventures around Mycenae –Six of the first seven largely against animals The Augean stables the exception –Later adventure farther out, and final adventures in the underworld Popular with Greeks living abroad, Sicily and Italy in particular