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Input-Output Analysis. Input-Output analysis creates a picture of a regional economy describing flows to and from industries and institutions.

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Presentation on theme: "Input-Output Analysis. Input-Output analysis creates a picture of a regional economy describing flows to and from industries and institutions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Input-Output Analysis

2 Input-Output analysis creates a picture of a regional economy describing flows to and from industries and institutions

3 Examples of Interrelationships Between Sectors: Sectors purchase from other sectors Sectors sell to other sectors Sectors sell outside the local economy Sectors buy outside the local economy Sectors pay their employees Sectors pay taxes

4 Households Industry Basic Services Goods & $ Inputs Products Inputs $$ $ $ Services $$ Labor Overview of Community Economic System

5 Input-Output Models An input/output table quantifies the transactions between sectors in an economy. It’s a “snap-shot” of the economy for a one- year period. By understanding these linkages, we are able to predict how a change in one sector will affect the other sectors. Multipliers can be estimated.

6 Example: Transactions Table Selling Sectors ($ million) Purchasing Sectors ($ million) AgricultureHealthServicesFinal Total DemandsOutput Agriculture Health Services Final Payments Total Input

7 Predictive Use of Input-Output Analysis Impacts are tracked throughout the economy Multipliers are derived from regional economic accounts Only local transactions are used to create the multiplier effect

8 Multipliers

9 What are Multipliers? Multipliers measure total change throughout the economy from a one unit change for a given sector.

10 Multipliers Direct effects represent direct or initial spending Type I - Direct and indirect effects include the direct spending plus the indirect spending or businesses buying and selling to each other Type II - Direct, indirect and induced effects include direct and indirect plus household spending earned from direct and indirect effects

11 Multipliers Continued Three multipliers are used to describe the economic impact: –Employment –Income (Value-Added) –Output (Receipts)

12 Interpretation of Multipliers You will often see values for multipliers in the media, the interpretation of these numbers typically causes confusion Example 1 –Type II employment multiplier (Ag) = 2.25 When the Agricultural Sector realizes a 1 employee change, total employment in the study area changes by 2.25 jobs from direct, indirect and induced effects

13 Multipliers Continued Example 2 Type II Income Multiplier (Ag) = 1.78 When the Agricultural Sector realizes a $1.00 change in income, total income in the study area changes by $1.78 from direct and indirect linkages

14 Multiplier Cautions (Very Important) Multipliers are NOT interchangeable (i.e. employment and value added multipliers are very different, thus you can’t use one for the other) Not transferable to other study areas or across different time periods No differentiation between full-time and part-time jobs Results less certain for new types of economic activity They do tend to overstate the impact of change Take caution for multipliers larger than 3

15 IMPLAN Software A talented person could probably figure out relationships for a 6 sector economy An economy with more than 500 sectors is another story IMPLAN software does the work for us and calculates multipliers IMPLAN is relatively expensive, hence the need for a partnership with the University

16 Pushing the local initiative “Kentucky Proud” “Buy Local” When we keep our money local, the multipliers are larger allowing more money to flow in the local economy, resulting in higher incomes for local residents

17 Local Examples The Economic Impact of Various Health Related Services on the Local Economy –Impact of Health Sector –Impact of a Rural Physician

18 Economic Impact of Health Care Sector

19 Interpretation Employment Multiplier: 1.21 For every employee hired in the health sector there are an additional 0.21individuals employed because of indirect and induced effects. Output Multiplier: 1.22 For every $1 of sales in the health sector there is an additional $0.22 of revenue generated due to indirect and induced effects

20 The Economic Impact of a Rural Physician in Kentucky

21 Other Interesting Potential Economic Impact Studies The Economic Impact of the new sports complex in Knott County The Economic Impact of Eco-tourism in Eastern Kentucky The Economic Impact of Agriculture in Kentucky The Economic Impact of a manufacturing firm leaving a rural town

22 Model Limitations Based on a set of assumptions that might restrict the model. Other modeling techniques can be used to provide a range of impacts, not one single number Economic impacts should only be part of the discussion. We should not ignore the following: –Quality of Life –Environmental Impacts –Social and Cultural History –Equity Impacts THIS IS WHY COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IS VITAL


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