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Internet Infrastructure © N. Ganesan, Ph.D.. Chapter Objectives Bring together in perspective various components of the Internet –Network Infrastructure.

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Presentation on theme: "Internet Infrastructure © N. Ganesan, Ph.D.. Chapter Objectives Bring together in perspective various components of the Internet –Network Infrastructure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Internet Infrastructure © N. Ganesan, Ph.D.

2 Chapter Objectives Bring together in perspective various components of the Internet –Network Infrastructure –Communication Infrastructure –Organizations and groups that set standards

3 Module Network Infrastructure: Hardware and Access Infrastructure

4 Evolution Started as ARPANET Grew with the introduction of PCs, LANs and WANs CCITT (now ITU) was the initial standard setting organization Lower level protocols was X.25 Higher level protocol was TCP/IP that followed the initial introduction of the Network Control Protocol (NCP)

5 Current Trend Global network based on high speed fiber lines IPV4 is being replaced by IPv6 X.25, Frame Relay etc. are being replaced with ATM

6 Hardware Infrastructure The hardware infrastructure now is essentially a hierarchy of interconnected networks –Local –Departmental –Campus or Enterprise –Wide Area

7 Networking and Internetworking Devices Hubs –Layer 1 devices Switches –Mostly Layer 2 devices Routers –Layer 3 devices

8 Connection to the Internet Example

9 LA Fiber Connection Hierarchy Source:

10 Internet National Connection Example (Cogent Communications)

11 Internet Global Connection Example (MCI)

12 Major Digital Line Types Lower speed access point –DSL –ISDN High network connections –T1, T3 etc. –OC3, OC12 etc.

13 Digital Lines and Speeds LineSpeed DS064Kpbs ISDN128 Kbps (BRI)2 DSO (B channels) T Mbps24 DSO T Mbps28 T1 OC3155 Mbps100 T1 OC12622 Mbps4 OC3 OC482.5 Gbps4 OC12 OC Gbps4 OC48 Source:

14 Speed Faster backbones are providing faster access to the Internet Internet2 is a joint venture project between many universities to develop a high-speed InternetInternet2 –This development, however, is very likely to be spearheaded by the industry given the commercial attractiveness of providing fast Internet access

15 High-Speed Internet (Abeline)

16 Abeline Update Source:

17 Internet Traffic Source:

18 Internet Traffic Status in Asia Source:

19 Asia Traffic Index

20 Response Time to Asia

21 Packet Loss in Asia

22 Connection Hierarchy

23 Definition of Terms POP (Point of Presence) NAP (National Access Points) High-speed backbone network service

24 End of Module

25 Module Communication Infrastructure: The Protocols

26 Protocol of the Internet TCP/IP

27 IP Addressing 32-bit numbering system –Divided into network ID and host ID Grouped into Classes A, B, C, D and E –Classes A, B and C are the ones relevant to commercial use Several IP addresses have been reserved for private and other uses –Addresses used in Network Address Translation (NAT) –Addresses used of IP multicasting

28 TCP/IP Model

29 ISO/OSI Model

30 Mapping of the Models

31 Meeting the Demand for IP Addresses DHCP Network Address Translation (NAT) IPv6 Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR)

32 Some Application Layer Protocol HTTP, HTTPS FTP Telnet POP3 IMAP SMTP DNS DHCP SNMP X.500 LDAP For more info:

33 Transport Layer Protocols TCP UDP ICMP OSPF SPX NetBEUI SMB For more information access: –http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_layerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_layer

34 Internet Layer Protocols IPv4, IPv6 ARP NWLink NetBEIU

35 Network Interface Layer Protocols Ethernet Token Ring IEEE x PPP X.25 FDDI Frame Relay ISDN ATM T and E carriers OC carriers xDSL Cable Modem

36 Some Popular Ports and Protocols 80 – HTTP –Web services 20/21 – FTP

37 Additional Port Information Extensive list of port numbers at IANA rt-numbershttp://www.iana.org/assignments/po rt-numbers

38 Some Useful TCP/IP Commands ping ipconfig finger hostname nslookup tracert nbtstat netstat telnet ftp

39 Further Information on TCP/IP Commands In Windows XP help, search for “TCP/IP Utilities and Services” Access Garry Kessler’s manual at: –http://www.garykessler.net/library/rfc21 51.pdfhttp://www.garykessler.net/library/rfc21 51.pdf

40 End of Module

41 Module Domains and DNS Infrastructure

42 Top Level Domain (TLD) Extensions “There are two types of top-level domains, generic and country code, plus a special top-level domain (.arpa) for Internet infrastructure. Generic domains were created for use by the Internet public, while country code domains were created to be used by individual countries as they deemed necessary.” Source:

43 The Three Top-Level Domains Country Code Domains (.uk,.de,.jp,.us, etc.)Country Code Domains Generic Domains (.aero,.biz,.com,.coop,.edu,.gov,.info,.int,.mil,.museum,.name,.net,.org, and.pro)Generic Domains Infrastructure Domain (.arpa)Infrastructure Domain

44 Country Extensions whois.htmhttp://www.iana.org/cctld/cctld- whois.htm

45 Domain Extensions Some prominent domain names –.com,.edu,.org, Some interesting newer domain names –.net,.pro

46 More Information on Domain Extensions Some useful information on qualifications, contact etc. can be obtained by navigating through the following IANA web link –http://www.iana.org/gtld/gtld.htmhttp://www.iana.org/gtld/gtld.htm

47 Where to Find Domain Registrant Information? –http://www.networksolutions.com/en_U S/whois/index.jhtmlhttp://www.networksolutions.com/en_U S/whois/index.jhtml

48 Internet Domain Growth Source:

49 Root Name Server Details ftp://ftp.internic.net/domain/named.r ootftp://ftp.internic.net/domain/named.r oot

50 Accredited Domain Name Registrar Directory Companies that are accredited by ICANN –http://www.internic.net/alpha.htmlhttp://www.internic.net/alpha.html

51 End of Module

52 Module Internet Agencies

53 Important Internet Groups Internet Architecture Board (IAB) The Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) The Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) Internet Society (ISOC) Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)

54 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) “The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is a large open international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. It is open to any interested individual.” - IETF(IETF)

55 IETF Working Groups The actual technical work of the IETF is done in its working groups, which are organized by topic into several areas (e.g., routing, transport, security, etc.). The IETF holds meetings three times per year.” – IETF The IETF working groups are grouped into areas, and managed by Area Directors, or ADs. The ADs are members of the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Providing architectural oversight is the Internet Architecture Board, (IAB). The IAB also adjudicates appeals when someone complains that the IESG has failed. The IAB and IESG are chartered by the Internet Society (ISOC) for these purposes. “IESGIAB(ISOC)

56 Functional Overview of IETF

57 Internet Society “The I nternet SOC iety (ISOC) is a professional membership society with more than 150 organization and 16,000 individual members in over 180 countries. It provides leadership in addressing issues that confront the future of the Internet, and is the organization home for the groups responsible for Internet infrastructure standards, including the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Architecture Board (IAB). “ - ISOC

58 Internet Architecture Board (IAB) “The IAB is chartered both as a committee of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and as an advisory body of the Internet Society (ISOC). Its responsibilities include architectural oversight of IETF activities, Internet Standards Process oversight and appeal, and the appointment of the RFC Editor. The IAB is also responsible for the management of the IETF protocol parameter registries.” – IAB

59 IAB Access

60 Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) (IANA) “The central coordinator for the assignment of unique parameter values for Internet protocols.” - IETF “It is chartered by the Internet Society (ISOC) to act as the clearinghouse to assign and coordinate the use of numerous Internet protocol parameters.” - IETF

61 Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) “The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is an internationally organized, non-profit corporation that has responsibility for Internet Protocol (IP) address space allocation, protocol identifier assignment, generic (gTLD) and country code (ccTLD) Top-Level Domain name system management, and root server system management functions. These services were originally performed under U.S. Government contract by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and other entities. ICANN now performs the IANA function.” - ICANN

62 ICANN Home page –http://www.icann.org/http://www.icann.org/ Further Information on ICANN’s role –http://www.icann.org/tr/english.htmlhttp://www.icann.org/tr/english.html

63 American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) “We at the American Registry for Internet Numbers manage the Internet numbering resources for North America, a portion of the Caribbean, and sub-equatorial Africa. A full list of countries in the ARIN region can be found by clicking here. As a nonprofit corporation with a bottom-up, community- based structure, our focus is completely on serving our members and the Internet community at large.” – ARINclicking here

64 More About ARIN htmlhttp://www.arin.net/about_us/about. html

65 ARIN Equivalent in Asia Asia Pacific –http://www.apnic.net/http://www.apnic.net/

66 National Registries For further information of national domain registries for different countries access the following site: –http://www.norid.no/domenenavnbaser/ domreg.htmlhttp://www.norid.no/domenenavnbaser/ domreg.html

67 Council of Registrars (CORE) “CORE is an international not-for-profit association of Registrars constituted under Swiss Law. CORE is active in the Domain Name Registration area since 1997.” -CORE Access at: –http://www.corenic.org/http://www.corenic.org/

68 More on CORE “CORE's members are professional registrars from various areas (Europe, North America, Asia-Pacific) who handle domain name registration on behalf of customers. Currently CORE has members in present in 14 countries and manage in total over 400,000 domain names in various TLDs. CORE also acts as Registry Operator for two Sponsored TLDs,.aero and.museum. “ - CORE

69 Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC) Provides the public with information regarding internet domain name registration services

70 All About Registering a Domain FAQ on domain registration from InterNIC –http://www.internic.net/http://www.internic.net/

71 Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) –“ To promote research of importance to the evolution of the future Internet by creating focused, long-term and small Research Groups working on topics related to Internet protocols, applications, architecture and technology.” - IRTF –http://www.irtf.org/http://www.irtf.org/

72 World Wide Web (W3) Consortium “The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) develops interoperable technologies (specifications, guidelines, software, and tools) to lead the Web to its full potential. W3C is a forum for information, commerce, communication, and collective understanding. “ –W3

73 A Sample Work of W3C For more information on W3C’s work on the http protocol

74 National Telecommunication and Information Administration (NTIA) “The National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) is the Executive Branch agency principally responsible for domestic and international telecommunications and information policy issues. “ - NTIA

75 NTIA Responsibilities NTIA also manages the Federal use of the spectrum; administers infrastructure grants to support the development of a national information infrastructure accessible to all Americans; manages public telecommunications facilities grants designed to maintain and extend the public broadcasting infrastructure; and performs cutting-edge telecommunications research and engineering, including resolving technical telecommunications issues for the Federal government and private sector. “ - NTIA

76 Access NTIA

77 VeriSign© Manages the.com and.net domains Access at: –http://www.verisign.com/products- services/naming-and-directory- services/index.htmlhttp://www.verisign.com/products- services/naming-and-directory- services/index.html

78 Network Solutions One of the largest and earliest domain name registrars _US/home.jhtml;jsessionid=N4E3VGW I3GXDSCWLEAMCFEY?_requestid= &layoutIdIndex=0&_requestid= http://www.networksolutions.com/en _US/home.jhtml;jsessionid=N4E3VGW I3GXDSCWLEAMCFEY?_requestid= &layoutIdIndex=0&_requestid=

79 References ARIN High speed internet backbone North American Network Operators Group

80 End of Module End of Chapter


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