Presentation on theme: "Educational Psychology Considering Individual Differences William G. Huitt Last Revised: July 1999."— Presentation transcript:
Educational Psychology Considering Individual Differences William G. Huitt Last Revised: July 1999
Considering Individual Differences In general, there are three different approaches for dealing with individual differences among students: Develop events of instruction that take into account individual differences Provide some sort of grouping in order to reduce or accommodate the variability with respect to student background, achievement, ability or some other characteristic.
Considering Individual Differences In general, there are three different approaches for dealing with individual differences among students: Modify the conditions within which instruction is taking place.
The 4MAT System The 4MAT system is a strategy for dealing with individual differences is to develop or modify the events of instruction so that they specifically address individual differences. It is a direct instruction approach to teaching that utilizes research on brain lateralization dominance and learning style to identify specific instructional events that will be attractive to a specific type of student.
The 4MAT System According to Bernice McCarthy, developer of the 4MAT system, there are 4 major learning styles, each of which asks different questions and displays different strengths during the learning process. These styles are based on the work of Gregorc & Butler (1984) and are similar to the temperaments as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Kiersy Temperament Sorter. Gregorc, A., & Butler, K. (1984, April). Learning is a matter of style. VocEd, 27-29.
The 4MAT System Concrete-Random SP (Sensing/Perceiving) Sanquine WHY?
The 4MAT System Abstract-Sequential NJ (Intuitive/Judging) Choleric WHAT?
The 4MAT System Concrete-Sequential SJ (Sensing/Judging) Melancholy HOW?
The 4MAT System Abstract-Random NP (Intuitive/Perceiving) Phlegmatic IF?
Each learning style is associated with both left- and right-brain learners. Left Logical, rational, sequential, serial, verbal Right Intuitive, emotional, holistic, parallel, and tactile-kinesthetic
The 4MAT System The 4MAT system is designed to provide every student with a preferred task during every lesson. There are the 8 instructional events proposed by this system.
The 4MAT System STEPLEFT MODERIGHT MODE WHY? 1 Create an experience 2 Reflect/Analyze about experience
The 4MAT System STEPLEFT MODERIGHT MODE WHAT? 3 Integrate into concepts 4 Develop concepts and skills
The 4MAT System STEPLEFT MODERIGHT MODE HOW? 5 Add something of oneself 6 Practice defined givens
The 4MAT System STEPLEFT MODERIGHT MODE IF? 7 Add something of oneself 8 Analyze application for relevance
The 4MAT System The 4MAT system seems to have considerable face validity, although there is not a widespread research base to support it. However, following the 4MAT system forces the teacher to provide her students with opportunities to engage in higher-order thinking.