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Tutorial on Independent and Dependent Clauses By: Jeannine Baum.

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Presentation on theme: "Tutorial on Independent and Dependent Clauses By: Jeannine Baum."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Tutorial on Independent and Dependent Clauses By: Jeannine Baum

3 English Language Arts  The objective of this tutorial is for learners to be able to identify independent and dependent clauses. They will also be able to demonstrate how to connect these clauses using subordinate conjunctions.  This is part of the Michigan Curriculum Framework under standard 2: All students will demonstrate the ability to write clear and grammatically correct sentences, paragraphs, and compositions.

4 Clauses  A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. There are two types of clauses: independent and dependent.

5 Independent Clause  An independent clause has a subject, a verb and completes a thought. It serves as a sentence by itself.  Example: He goes to the library. “He” is the subject, “goes” is the verb, and the clause completes a thought.

6 Independent Clause  Think about the letter “I”  When something or someone are independent, that means they can stand on their own.  Think of when a little kids yells, “ I want to do it myself!” They want to be independent.

7 Dependent Clause  A dependent clause or subordinate clause is an incomplete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence. Although a clause may have a subject and verb, it does not complete a thought; therefore it is dependent.  A newborn needs help from their parents or other —they are dependent on their parents.

8 Dependent Clause  If you have to ask “ so what?” when you read the clause because you need more information, it is most likely dependent.  Example: After he goes to the store.  “he” is the subject and “goes” is the verb, but the clause does not complete a thought. What does he do after he goes to the store?

9 Review: Remember to ask three questions when reading a clause: 1. Does it have a subject? 2. Does it have a verb? 3. Does it complete a thought ? If you answer yes to only one and two, it is dependent. If you answer yes to all three, it is independent.

10 Determine if the following clause is dependent of independent: Let’s Practice: Determine if the following clause is dependent of independent:  Help!  Dependent Dependent  Independent Independent

11 That is not correct!  This is kind of a trick question. Help! Is actually an independent clause because it has a:  Subject: You: you are an implied subject  Verb: help  Complete thought: Hey you, help me!  Let’s try that again.

12 That is correct!  This is kind of a trick question. Help! Is actually an independent clause because it has the following:  Subject: You: you are an implied subject  Verb: help  Complete thought: You, help me!  Let’s try another one

13 Let’s Practice: Determine if the following clause is dependent of independent: She is at the store  Dependent Dependent  Independent Independent

14 That is incorrect!  Remember to ask the three questions?  1. Does it have a subject? She  2. Does it have a verb? Is ( to be verb)  3. Does it complete a thought? at the store This clause passes all three questions, so it is an independent clause. Click here to go back to the quiz.here

15 You are correct! You =

16 Let’s Practice: Determine if the following clause is dependent of independent:  Before he naps  Dependent Dependent  Independent Independent

17 That is incorrect  Remember to ask the three questions:  1. Does it have a subject? he  2. Does it have a verb? naps  3. Does it complete a thought? No, what does he do before he naps? This is not a complete thought. This clause does not pass all questions, so it is a dependent clause. Click here to go back to the quiz.here

18 You are correct! You = I’ve got it. Let’s move on. Go back to the start of the quiz; I need a more practice. Go back to the start of the lesson; I need a review

19 Sentence Fragments  Using an dependent clauses on its own is what we call the dreaded sentence fragment. sentence fragment Because we wanted to Once we had realized Although we did not have any After we left the park Since it’s Friday Before we knew it  But do not worry because we can easily avoid this!

20 Subordinate Conjunction  We can join a dependent clause with an independent clause to make a complete sentence by using a subordinate conjunction.

21 Subordinating Conjunctions after although as because before even if even though if in order that once provided that rather than since so that than that though unless until when whenever where whereas wherever whether while why The following is a list of the most common subordinating conjunctions:

22 Combining Clauses  We can combine clauses two ways:  The first way:  For example:  I was ready for the test after I had studied all night. Independent clause Subordinate conjunction Dependent clause

23 More examples:  independent dependent  I worked on my homework while I was making dinner.  West is the best because they showed better sportsmanship.  Watching TV seemed like a bad idea unless I could work while I watched.

24 Combining Clauses  Here is the second way to combine independent and dependent clauses:  Example: Because I was studying, I chose not to go to the party. Subordinate Conjunction Dependent Clause Comma, Independent clause

25 More Examples  Since she was always tardy, she was going to have to serve a detention.  Although I enjoy sledding, I have not gone since I was a child.  If I want a good grade, I should try to stay awake in class.

26 Let’s Review:  In order to avoid sentence fragments, you can combine dependent clauses and independent clauses in two ways: 1. I wanted to see the scary movie because I heard it was good. 2. Because I heard it was good, I wanted to see the scary movie. Independent clause Subordinate conjunction Dependent clause Subordinate Conjunction Dependent Clause Comma, Independent clause

27  I’ve got this! Take me to the test.  I’d like to review. Take me back to review subordinate clauses.  I’d like to start over from the beginning.

28 #1 : Determine if the following clause is independent or dependent.  When we left the mall  Dependent Dependent  Independent Independent

29 You Rock!

30 Oops, try again!  Remember to ask the three questions:  1. Does it have a subject? She  2. Does it have a verb? Is ( to be verb)  3. Does it complete a thought? at the store This clause does not pass all of the questions, so it is a dependent clause. Click here to go back to the quiz.here

31 #2: Determine if the following clause is independent or dependent  Because his feelings were hurt  Dependent Dependent  Independent Independent

32 You’re on fire!

33 Oops, try again!  Remember to ask the three questions:  1. Does it have a subject? She  2. Does it have a verb? Is ( to be verb)  3. Does it complete a thought? at the store This clause does not pass all of the questions, so it is a dependent clause. Click here to go back to the quiz. here

34 #3: Determine if the following clause is independent or dependent  She was still angry about not going to the Eminem concert  Dependent Dependent  Independent Independent

35 You are da’bomb!

36 Oops, try again!  Remember to ask the three questions  1. Does it have a subject? She  2. Does it have a verb? Is ( to be verb)  3. Does it complete a thought? at the store This clause passes all questions, so it is an independent clause. Click here to go back to quizhere

37 #4. : Determine if the following clause is independent or dependent  After she and Godzilla finished swimming in the ocean  Dependent Dependent  Independent Independent

38 Oops, try again!  Remember to ask the three questions:  1. Does it have a subject? She  2. Does it have a verb? Is ( to be verb)  3. Does it complete a thought? at the store This clause does not complete a thought, so it is dependent. Click here to go back to the quiz.here

39 You’re a rock star!

40 #5:Determine if the following clause is independent or dependent  He decided it was wise not to challenge the Hulk in a wrestling match  Dependent Dependent  Independent Independent

41 Oops, try again!  Remember to ask the three questions  1. Does it have a subject? She  2. Does it have a verb? Is ( to be verb)  3. Does it complete a thought? at the store This clause passes all questions, so it is an independent clause. Click here to return to the quizhere

42 Excellent Work!

43 #6: Determine which of the following sentences is grammatically correct  Because he was going to be late, he called to change the reservation. Because he was going to be late, he called to change the reservation.  Because he was going to be late he changed the reservation. Because he was going to be late he changed the reservation.  Because, he was going to be late, he called to change the reservation. Because, he was going to be late, he called to change the reservation

44 Oops, try again.  Remember: Subordinate Conjunction Dependent Clause Comma, Independent clause

45 You got it!

46 #7:Determine which of the following sentences is grammatically correct  If you want to be successful you should never give up trying. If you want to be successful you should never give up trying.  If you want to be, successful you should never give up trying. If you want to be, successful you should never give up trying.  If you want to be successful, you should never give up trying. If you want to be successful, you should never give up trying.

47 Oops, try again! Subordinate Conjunction Dependent Clause Comma, Independent clause Remember :

48 You just slayed that question.

49 8:Determine which of the following sentences is grammatically correct  When she found out The Rock was returning, to the WWE she was ecstatic. When she found out The Rock was returning, to the WWE she was ecstatic.  When she found out The Rock was returning to the WWE, she was ecstatic. When she found out The Rock was returning to the WWE, she was ecstatic  When she found out The Rock was returning to the WWE she was ecstatic. When she found out The Rock was returning to the WWE she was ecstatic.

50 Bravo! I wish I was that smart

51 Oops, try again ! Remember: Subordinate Conjunction Dependent Clause Comma, Independent clause

52 9:Determine which of the following sentences is grammatically correct  She enjoyed sledding Friday night before she crashed. She enjoyed sledding Friday night before she crashed.  She enjoyed sledding on Friday night, before she crashed. She enjoyed sledding on Friday night, before she crashed.  She enjoyed sledding on Friday night before, she crashed. She enjoyed sledding on Friday night before, she crashed.

53 Oops, try again!  Remember: ( no commas) Independent clause Subordinate conjunction Dependent clause

54 Way to go, champ!

55 10:Determine which of the following sentences is grammatically correct.  We were all there, when she arrived. We were all there, when she arrived.  We were all there when she arrived. We were all there when she arrived.  We were all there when, she arrived. We were all there when, she arrived.

56 Oops, try again!  Remember: Independent clause Subordinate conjunction Dependent clause

57 Nice Job!

58 11: Determine which of the following sentences is NOT grammatically correct  If she wanted to buy the tickets, she would have to get a job. If she wanted to buy the tickets, she would have to get a job.  She would have to get a job if she wanted to buy the tickets. She would have to get a job if she wanted to buy the tickets.  She would have to get a job, if she wanted to buy the tickets. She would have to get a job, if she wanted to buy the tickets.

59 Oops, try again! Subordinate Conjunction Dependent Clause Comma, Independent clause Subordinate conjunction Dependent clause

60 That’s the ticket!

61 12: Determine which of the following sentences is NOT grammatically correct  He was very smart although he was young. He was very smart although he was young.  Although he was young and smart. Although he was young and smart.  Although he was young, he was very smart. Although he was young, he was very smart.

62 That is incorrect.  Remember : Subordinate Conjunction Dependent Clause Comma, Independent clause Subordinate conjunction Dependent clause

63 Congratulations!  You have just completed this tutorial on independent and dependent clauses.  If you have any questions or comments, you can contact the author of this tutorial at dabaum31@yahoo.com.dabaum31@yahoo.com  Click here to print or view a copy of the notes from this tutorial.here


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