2 Aims and Objectives Aim: Understand uses of national income data. Assess problems with using GDP as a measure of living standardsDefine HDI, HPI, MDP & MIExplain how these measures measure standards of living and welfareAnalyse HDI internationallyEvaluate the economics of happiness
3 GDP, GNP & NI – Poor Measures of Living Standards Value of output produced by resources in the UKGNPOutput produced by resources within the UK, plus net property income (interests, profits, dividends flowing in minus property flowing out) from abroad.NIOutput produced by resources in the UK, plus net property income from abroad, minus depreciation from the UK’s capital equipment.
4 Reasons Poor Measure Ignores value of leisure GDP incompletely measures outputDistribution of incomeIgnores value of leisureNegative externalitiesExcludes non-monetised sector, such as unpaid labour which contributes to GDPEconomic growth may lead to negative externalities which affect living standards. GDP over estimates living standards.GDP per capita can rise, yet the distribution of income can become more unequal.Ignores the effect growth has on leisure and welfare, therefore difficult to assess if there has been significant changes in living standards.
5 Alternative Measures of Standards of Living Human Development IndexHuman Poverty IndexMeasure of Domestic ProgressMisery Index
6 Human Development Index (HDI) A measure of economic welfare based on three indicators – standard of living, life expectancy and educational attainment.The maximum value of HDI is 1.The closer a country’s HDI is to 1 the greater its’ human development in terms of these three indicators.Data
7 GDP Per Capita PPP$ Terms 2009 HDI RankCountryLife Expectancy 2011Education Index 2011GDP Per Capita PPP$ Terms 2009HDI Value 2011Top 101Norway81.10.98547,6760.9432Australia81.90.98134,2590.9293Netherlands80.70.93136,3580.914United States78.50.93941,7615New Zealand24,7060.9086Canada810.92734,5677Ireland80.60.96336,2788Liechtenstein79.60.818..0.9059Germany80.40.92832,25510Sweden81.40.90432,31428UK80.20.81532,1470.863Bottom 5183Chad49.60.2191,1810.328184Mozambique50.20.2228040.322185Burundi50.40.3533560.316186Niger54.70.1776260.295187Congo48.40.3562900.286
8 Human Poverty Index (HPI) A measure of economic welfare based on four basic dimensions of human life: longevity, knowledge, economic provisioning and social inclusion.% of people likely to die before the age of 60% of people whose ability to read and write is far from adequateproportion of the population with disposable incomes of less than 50% of the mediumproportion of long term unemployed (12 months of more)
9 Human Poverty Index & UK More than 100 million people are relatively poor within all of the twenty-four OECD countriesIn the UK, 13.5% of the population have an income below the income-poverty threshold of 50% of average income21.8% of the population in this country are said to be "functionally illiterate" - unable to read many basic instructions on medicine bottles or read stories to their childrenThe UK ranked 14th (out of 17) for long-term unemploymentSweden has the lowest overall incidence of human poverty followed by the Netherlands and Germany. The worst country is the USA followed by Ireland and the UK
10 The Misery Index (MI)A measure of economic welfare constructed by adding the unemployment rate to the inflation rate on the assumption that a high inflation and unemployment rate means a higher level of economic and social costs for a country.Guardian Article
13 Measure of Domestic Progress (MDP) A measure of economic welfare designed to reflect progress in quality of life and progress towards a sustainable economy by factoring in the social and environmental costs of growth, and benefits of unpaid work such as volunteer work and house work.Essentially is the ‘Economics of Happiness’Article
14 Measures of Standard of Living and Economic Welfare Having discussed and analysed the different measures of economic welfare and standards of living, which do you feel is the most accurate?What do you feel are the limitations of these measures?HDIHPIMIMDP