Presentation on theme: "An LSCC Learning Center Self Paced Tutorial"— Presentation transcript:
1 An LSCC Learning Center Self Paced Tutorial PARTS OF SPEECH:PrepositionsInterjections AndconjunctionsAn LSCC Learning CenterSelf Paced Tutorial
2 What are the Parts of Speech? This is the common term for the various categories of words that make up the English language.They are:Nouns VerbsPronouns AdverbsAdjectives ArticlesPrepositions ConjunctionsInterjectionsThe good news is – this is the entire list!The bad news is - many of these categorieshave multiple subgroups.Today we will discuss prepositions, interjections and conjunctions.Let’s do the easiest one first – interjections.
3 INTERJECTIONSAn interjection is word or phrase that does not add to the general grammar of a sentence, but indicates strong feelings. It is usually punctuated by an exclamation mark.Examples: Ouch! Wow! Yikes! Bleep!Think of stubbing your toe, fallingdown, seeing something scary –What would you say?Superman was walking along when, pow!He was attacked from behind.
4 PREPOSITIONSDefinition: word used before noun: a member of a set of words used in close connection with, and usually before, nouns and pronouns to show their relation to another part of a clause. (Encarta)What? Just remember this:pre (comes before a noun or pronoun)position (describes the location of the noun/pronoun in time, space, or logical construction
5 PREPOSITIONS The Positions of the Prepositions: Like a course in physics, some of them take us through space and time.Location fixed in physical space: over, under, in, on, by, The cat is in the tree.Location moving through space. to, through, acrossA river runs through the property.Location fixed in time: in, on, at, beforeThe train arrives every hour on the hour.
6 PREPOSITIONS The Positions of the Prepositions: Agency: by, with Some of them point logically to show us how things are done.Agency: by, withThe book was written by Twain.Combination: withI like my fava beans with a nice Chianti.Reason: forHe was prepared to fight for his freedom.
7 PREPOSITIONS More Positions of the Prepositions: More that show us how things are done.Quantity: by, ofGasoline is sold by the gallon.Comparison: likeA bedlington terrier looks like a baby lamb.Role: asAs a sportscaster, she gets to attend the Super Bowl every year.
8 PREPOSITIONSBecause prepositions must refer to a noun, it is technically improper to end a sentence with one.NO: He is the person I am speaking to.YES: He is the person to whom I am speaking.Even leaders often violate this rule:As Winston Churchill said, “This is the sort of English up with which I cannot put.”
9 PREPOSITIONS – in common use AlongAroundAsAtBeforeBehindBelowBesideBetweenByDownForFromExceptInNearOfOffOnOverSinceThroughTillToTowardUnderUpWith
10 PREPOSITIONS - COMPOUND A compound preposition is two or more words that form one meaning and act as one preposition.According toAs ofAs well asAside fromBecause ofBy means ofIn addition toIn front ofIn place ofIn regard toIn respect toIn spite ofInstead ofOn account ofOut ofPrior to
11 CONJUNCTIONSA conjunction connects words or groups of words together logically.There are four basic kinds of conjunctions:Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS)Correlative conjunctionsSubordinating conjunctionsConjunctive adverbs
12 CONJUNCTIONSA coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) connectssingle words or groups of words with the same logical structure, such as all nouns:Peanut butter, pickles, ham, and jellytwo independent clauses (sentences)Seattle is a wonderful city, butit can be very rainy.Use a comma before the conjunction whenjoining two sentences or lists of three or moreitems.FANBOYS
13 CONJUNCTIONS FANBOYS rule! F A N B O Y S o n o u r e o r d r t t There are only seven coordinating conjunctions. You can remember them using the mnemonic:F A N B O Y So n o u r e or d r t t
14 CONJUNCTIONS Shares: Divides: A correlative conjunction relates or joins two or more parallel words, and tells us if they share or divide the action of the verb.Shares:Not only…but alsoboth…andDivides:Either...orNeither…norBoth Jen and Andrew attend LSCC. pluralEither Jen or Andrew attends LSCC. singular
15 CONJUNCTIONS A subordinating conjunction: Places one clause below the otherin terms of logic and meaning, making itdependent on the other clause for complete meaning.Sub = below Ordinal = priority or levelIntroduces a subordinate clause:Because it was raining, we went home.We went home because it was raining.Note – use a comma if the subordinate clause begins the sentence, but not if it is in the middle.
16 CONJUNCTIONS A subordinating conjunction Sets up a conditional idea:Because it was raining What happened then??Although we were tired What did you do??“Kills” an independent clause (sentence):It was raining. (complete idea = sentence)Because it was raining (incomplete = what happened?)
17 CONJUNCTIONS Some common subordinating conjunctions: After Although AsAs soon asBe careful because some of these words can also be prepositions. You need a subject +verb combination to create a clause.After the game = prepositional phrase (no sub + verb)After I left the party = subordinate clauseBefore WhileBecause WhenSince WheneverUntil
18 CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBSConjunctive adverbs join two sentences and show a relationship between their meanings. They need a semicolon before and a comma after.A poorly maintained car can be dangerous; therefore, we should pay attention to the manufacturer’s maintenance guidelines.I was setting up for the surprise party; meanwhile, Maria kept the guest of honor away from the room.