Presentation on theme: "An LSCC Learning Center Self Paced Tutorial PARTS OF SPEECH: Prepositions Interjections And conjunctions."— Presentation transcript:
An LSCC Learning Center Self Paced Tutorial PARTS OF SPEECH: Prepositions Interjections And conjunctions
What are the Parts of Speech? This is the common term for the various categories of words that make up the English language. They are: – NounsVerbs – PronounsAdverbs – Adjectives Articles – PrepositionsConjunctions – Interjections The good news is – this is the entire list! The bad news is - many of these categories have multiple subgroups. Today we will discuss prepositions, interjections and conjunctions. Lets do the easiest one first – interjections.
INTERJECTIONS An interjection is word or phrase that does not add to the general grammar of a sentence, but indicates strong feelings. It is usually punctuated by an exclamation mark. Examples: Ouch! Wow! Yikes! Bleep! Think of stubbing your toe, falling down, seeing something scary – What would you say? Superman was walking along when, pow! He was attacked from behind.
PREPOSITIONS Definition: word used before noun: a member of a set of words used in close connection with, and usually before, nouns and pronouns to show their relation to another part of a clause. (Encarta) What? Just remember this: pre (comes before a noun or pronoun) position (describes the location of the noun/pronoun in time, space, or logical construction
PREPOSITIONS The Positions of the Prepositions: Like a course in physics, some of them take us through space and time. Location fixed in physical space: over, under, in, on, by, The cat is in the tree. Location moving through space. to, through, across A river runs through the property. Location fixed in time: in, on, at, before The train arrives every hour on the hour.
PREPOSITIONS The Positions of the Prepositions: Some of them point logically to show us how things are done. Agency: by, with The book was written by Twain. Combination: with I like my fava beans with a nice Chianti. Reason: for He was prepared to fight for his freedom.
PREPOSITIONS More Positions of the Prepositions: More that show us how things are done. Quantity: by, of Gasoline is sold by the gallon. Comparison: like A bedlington terrier looks like a baby lamb. Role: as As a sportscaster, she gets to attend the Super Bowl every year.
PREPOSITIONS Because prepositions must refer to a noun, it is technically improper to end a sentence with one. NO: He is the person I am speaking to. YES: He is the person to whom I am speaking. Even leaders often violate this rule: As Winston Churchill said, This is the sort of English up with which I cannot put.
PREPOSITIONS – in common use Along Around As At Before Behind Below Beside Between By Down For From Except In Near Of Off On Over Since Through Till To Toward Under Up With
PREPOSITIONS - COMPOUND According to As of As well as Aside from Because of By means of In addition to In front of In place of In regard to In respect to In spite of Instead of On account of Out of Prior to A compound preposition is two or more words that form one meaning and act as one preposition.
CONJUNCTIONS A conjunction connects words or groups of words together logically. There are four basic kinds of conjunctions: – Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) – Correlative conjunctions – Subordinating conjunctions – Conjunctive adverbs
CONJUNCTIONS A coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) connects – single words or groups of words with the same logical structure, such as all nouns: Peanut butter, pickles, ham, and jelly – two independent clauses (sentences) Seattle is a wonderful city, but it can be very rainy. Use a comma before the conjunction when joining two sentences or lists of three or more items. FANBOYSFANBOYS
CONJUNCTIONS FANBOYS rule! There are only seven coordinating conjunctions. You can remember them using the mnemonic: F A N B O Y S o n o u r e o r d r t t
CONJUNCTIONS A correlative conjunction relates or joins two or more parallel words, and tells us if they share or divide the action of the verb. Shares: Not only…but also both…and Divides: Either...or Neither…nor Both Jen and Andrew attend LSCC. plural Either Jen or Andrew attends LSCC. singular
CONJUNCTIONS A subordinating conjunction: Places one clause below the other in terms of logic and meaning, making it dependent on the other clause for complete meaning. Sub = below Ordinal = priority or level Introduces a subordinate clause: Because it was raining, we went home. We went home because it was raining. Note – use a comma if the subordinate clause begins the sentence, but not if it is in the middle.
CONJUNCTIONS A subordinating conjunction Sets up a conditional idea: Because it was raining What happened then?? Although we were tired What did you do?? Kills an independent clause (sentence): It was raining. (complete idea = sentence) Because it was raining (incomplete = what happened?)
CONJUNCTIONS Some common subordinating conjunctions: After Although As As soon as Be careful because some of these words can also be prepositions. You need a subject +verb combination to create a clause. After the game = prepositional phrase (no sub + verb) After I left the party = subordinate clause Before While Because When Since Whenever Until
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Conjunctive adverbs join two sentences and show a relationship between their meanings. They need a semicolon before and a comma after. – A poorly maintained car can be dangerous; therefore, we should pay attention to the manufacturers maintenance guidelines. – I was setting up for the surprise party; meanwhile, Maria kept the guest of honor away from the room.
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Accordingly Also Besides Consequently Finally Furthermore However Indeed Instead Thus Later Whereas Moreover Nevertheless Otherwise Still Therefore Commonly used conjunctive adverbs include:
PREPOSITIONS, CONJUNCTIONS, and INTERJECTIONS If you want more information about this topic: – Meet with your instructor – Visit the Learning Center or its web pages – Go online to the Purdue OWL