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Continuous Quality Improvement 101 Amelia Broussard, PhD, RN, MPH

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Presentation on theme: "Continuous Quality Improvement 101 Amelia Broussard, PhD, RN, MPH"— Presentation transcript:

1 Continuous Quality Improvement 101 Amelia Broussard, PhD, RN, MPH

2 WHY DO WE NEED TO KNOW ABOUT CQI? Provision of Quality Care CQI tools and techniques work in healthcare. Bureau of Primary Health Care requires quality improvement New process relates health care plan, QI, UDS info, needs assessment Focus on Core Clinical Measures

3 A Few Questions to Ask…  Services provided in timely manner?  Was necessary care provided?  Efficient provision of care?  Was the expected outcome achieved?  Are patients, clients and customers satisfied with provided services?

4 Success is achieved through meeting the needs of those we serve.

5 Quality Assurance vs. Quality Control Quality assurance and quality control are often used interchangeably to refer to ways of ensuring the quality of a service or product. The terms, however, have different meanings.

6 Quality Assurance “The planned and systematic activities implemented in a quality system so that quality requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled.” American Society for Quality

7 Examples of Quality Assurance Activities Activities that are based on public health standards, licensing standards, institutional policies, etc. Annual infection control and safety training Review medication closet for outdated meds Review emergency chart once a week for supplies and outdated meds Can help identify a problem, but are more often used to comply with the standards.

8 Quality Control “The observation techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements for quality.” American Society for Quality

9 Examples of Quality Control Infection control training sign-in sheets cross- referenced with staff roster Review sheet of emergency cart Direct observation of counseling session

10 Quality Improvement “Continuous improvement is an ongoing effort to improve products, services or processes. These efforts can seek “incremental” improvement over time or “breakthrough” improvement all at once.” American Society for Quality

11 Philosophy of CQI Based on concept of balance between quality improvement & performance measurement QI programs are built upon foundation of program support & infrastructure Emphasizes development of systems & processes to support QI

12 Guiding Principles Ongoing QI activities improve patient care Performance measurement lays foundation for QI Infrastructure supports systematic implementation of QI Indicators are based on clinical guidelines & formal group-decision making

13 Core Clinical Measures for Health Care Plan Diabetes Cardiovascular Disease Prenatal Care Perinatal Care Child health Behavioral Health Oral Health Other x2

14 Goals of Quality Improvement The goals of QI – to understand process, reduce unintended variation in care, eliminate errors, remove unnecessary steps, and improve communication and accountability. –process is designed toward outcomes. –Quality improvement depends on measurement.

15 Core Concepts of CQI Core Concepts of CQI Quality defined as meeting and/or exceeding expectations of customers. Success is achieved through meeting the needs of those we serve. Most problems are found in processes, not in people. CQI does not seek to blame, but rather to improve processes.

16 CORE CONCEPTS OF CQI Unintended variation in processes can lead to unwanted variation in outcomes Possible to achieve continual improvement through small, incremental changes using the scientific method. CQI most effective when it becomes natural part of way everyday work is done.

17 Comparison of QA & QI QAQI Motivation Measuring compliance with standards Continuously improving processes to meet standards Means InspectionPrevention, monitor over time Attitude Required, defensiveChosen, proactive Focus Outliers or “bad apples”, individuals Processes, systems, majority Players Selected departments Organization wide, benchmarking Disciplines Within professionMultidisciplinary approach Scope Medical profession focused Patient care focused Responsibility FewAll

18 QA versus QI

19 Exercise on Quality What is the benefit for: –Patients –Staff –Organization

20 Putting It All Together QA + CQI + Peer Review + Consumer Satisfaction = QM

21 Process Indicator: Are we doing what we said we’d do? Outcome: Is it working for the clients?

22 GUIDING VALUES of CQI Most problems are found in processes, not in people. If you “focus” on everything, you can’t focus on anything. The best solutions are staff designed.

23 Roles and Responsibilities Leadership/Board/Consumers: Oversight and resources. Help set priorities. QI Committee: Review data, pick projects and goals, review results of tests. Project Team: Brainstorm ideas and design tests. All Staff: Help perform tests and collect data.

24 PITFALLS OF CQI The paperwork can bury you


26 PITFALLS OF CQI Staff view it as a ball and chain, hindering their daily work

27 PITFALLS OF CQI The Process can tie you up in knots

28 Lessons Learned “The shorter the timeframes between test cycles, the more tests can be conducted and therefore, more opportunities for learning will emerge.” - HIVQUAL Workbook “Let’s be as opportunistic as a virus!” - Anonymous

29 Improvement is about learning –trial and error (scientific method) –improvements requires change, however not all changes are an improvement Measure your progress –only data can tell you whether improvements are made –integrate measurement into the daily routine Improvements thru continuous cycles of changes –Plan-Do-Study-Act approach –changes are initiated on a small scale to test them before implementation Leadership is needed –establish organizational commitment and support staff and activities Common Themes among QI Models

30 One MODEL FOR IMPROVEMENT Model consists of: –three questions (aim, measure, change) to form context for improvement –Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) Cycle to structure tests

31 What are we trying to accomplish? How will we know that a change is an improvement? What change can we make that will result in improvement? ActPlan StudyDo Model for Improvement Model for Improvement

32 What are we trying to accomplish? How will we know that a change is an improvement? What change can we make that will result in improvement? Model for Improvement

33 What are we trying to accomplish? How will we know that a change is an improvement? What change can we make that will result in improvement? Model for Improvement

34 What are we trying to accomplish? How will we know that a change is an improvement? What change can we make that will result in improvement? Model for Improvement

35 PDSA CYCLE Plan - Plan a change Do - Try it out on a small-scale Study - Observe the results Adopt, adapt, or abandon -Refine the change as necessary

36 PRINCIPLES OF PDSA CYCLES  Short cycles of changes to accelerate rate of improvement  small scale tests (“What can you test till next Tuesday”)  collect just enough information  Create flow of ideas, then emphasize implementation  increase frequency of tests  build knowledge sequentially - use multiple cycles to adapt a change to your system  Adopt existing knowledge (‘not more research but more application of existing knowledge’)  ‘Steal shamelessly, Share senselessly’  Promote peer learning

37 Tips for PDSA Cycles - formulate question and predict results - test first in ‘safe zones’ (with team members, volunteers) - ‘Just-do-it’ mentality -collect useful just enough data, not perfect data -think a couple of cycles ahead -scale down size of test (# of patients, clinics) -be innovative to make test feasible

38 PDSA Cycles: Testing a pap Cuing Plan Use of flowsheet will improve care to known standards Improved Decision Support AP SD A P S D D S P A DATA D S P A Cycle 1A: On Mon., prescreen Fred’s Tues. pts, mark appointment sheet for those who are due for paps. Cycle 1B: Debrief staff; did it help, how long did it take? Test with Dr. Strange’s patients for a full week. Cycle 1C: Test with all patients for a full week, document feedback and time required. Cycle 1D: Implement thruout clinic and monitor the impact.

39 Smaller Scale Tests: Scale Down Timeframe Years Quarters Months Weeks Days Hours Minutes Reduce your timeframe to plan Test Cycle!

40 Analysis Tools: Flowcharts Flowchart is picture of any process, Flowcharts help visualize process Easier to understand and easier to improve. Identifies potential sources of problems and solutions

41 FLOWCHART Flowchart symbols Oval: shows beginning or ending step in a process Rectangle depicts particular step or task Arrow: shows direction of process flow Diamond: indicates a decision point

42 FLOWCHART EXAMPLE Patient arrives at front desk Receptionist asks for patient’s name & searches database for his/her file Patient in system? Receptionist asks patient to complete paperwork for new clients and return it to front desk NO Ask patient to be seated in the Waiting room YES Medical assistant takes patient into exam room ETC.

43 CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM Used to map variables that may influence a problem, outcome, or effect Also called: –Ishikawa diagram –Fishbone diagram

44 CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM CAUSES The four M’s –Methods, Materials, Machines, Manpower The four P’s –Place, Procedures, Policies, People The four S’s –Surroundings, Suppliers, Systems, Skills

45 CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM SAMPLE Low show rate for appointments ProceduresPeople Patients Patient unaware of appointment Computer System down for routine maintenance Skeleton Equipment Environment

46 Exercise Construct Cause and Effect Diagram with staff

47 Performance Measurement and Data

48 Why Measure? Separates what you think is happening from what is really happening Establishes a baseline Helps to avoid putting ineffective solutions in place To monitor improvements and prevent slippage

49 What is a good indicator? Relevance. Does the indicator relate to a condition that occurs frequently or have a great impact on the patients at your facility? Measurability. Can the indicator realistically and efficiently be measured given the facility’s finite resources? Accuracy. Is the indicator based on accepted guidelines or developed through formal group-decision making methods? Improvability. Can the performance rate associated with the indicator realistically be improved given the limitations of your clinical services and patient population?

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