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Rob Horner University of Oregon pbis.org uoecs.org

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1 Rob Horner University of Oregon pbis.org uoecs.org
School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS): Coaching for Effective Implementation Rob Horner University of Oregon pbis.org uoecs.org

2 Goals Current status of SWPBIS nationally SWPBIS in Kentucky Coaching
Who When How Why Lessons Learned

3 Purpose The purpose of SWPBIS is to make schools more effective learning environments for all students.

4 A Concern We are narrowing the vision of education in the United States.

5 School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS)
The social culture of a school matters. A continuum of supports that begins with the whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound support for individual students and their families. Effective practices with the systems needed for high fidelity and sustainability Multiple tiers of intensity

6 What is School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support?
School-wide PBIS is: A systems framework for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to be an effective learning environment (e.g. academic and behavior) for all students. Evidence-based features of SWPBIS Prevention Define and teach positive social expectations Acknowledge positive behavior Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior Classroom linkage of behavioral and academic supports On-going collection and use of data for decision-making Continuum of intensive, individual intervention supports. Implementation of the systems that support effective practices SWPBIS is a multi-tiered Framework NOT a specific Curriculum

7 Establishing a Social Culture
Common Language MEMBERSHIP Common Experience Common Vision/Values

8 Reduction in Incidence of Mental Retardation and Learning Disabilities
The Oregon Department of Education has released graduation rates for all public high schools. Nearly one-third of all high school students don't receive a diploma after four years of study. by Betsy Hammond, The Oregonian Monday June 29, 2009, Sobering Observation "All organizations [and systems] are designed, intentionally or unwittingly, to achieve precisely the results they get." R. Spencer Darling Business Expert Rise in Incidence of Autism © Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase, Robert Horner, George Sugai, 2008 (c) Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase, Robert Horner, George Sugai, 2008 Horner, George Sugai, 2008 8

9 Systems Change Effective practices produce effective outcomes only within effective systems We have invested in defining effective practices but not in defining the systems needed for these practices to produce effective outcomes.

10 The challenge of too many initiatives
Wraparound Early Intervention Literacy Equity Positive Behavior Support Family Support Math Response to Intervention

11 Alignment for Systems change
Primary Prevention Universal Screening Multi-tiered Support Early Intervention Progress Monitoring Systems to support practices Response to Intervention/Prevention Early Intervention Literacy Wraparound ALIGNMENT Math Family Support Behavior Support Student Outcomes © Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase, Robert Horner, George Sugai, 2008 (c) Dean Fixsen, Karen Blase, Robert Horner, George Sugai, 2008 11

12 School-wide PBIS Supporting Social Competence,
Academic Achievement and Safety School-wide PBIS OUTCOMES Supporting Student Behavior Supporting Decision Making PRACTICES DATA SWPBS: Four Elements SWPBS builds from a focus on student Outcomes: academic achievement, social competence, and safety. SWPBS “Practices” are the behaviors of adults that affect how students perform. These are the daily, classroom, and on-going discipline practices of the school SWPBS “Systems” are the organizational decisions and structures that support effective STAFF Behavior. A major strength of SWPBS is the emphasis on practices delivered WITH the systems needed to support the practices. The use of data for decision-making is the single most important system within SWPBS. This element is used both to ensure the SWPBS practices are tailored to the local context/culture, and to benefit the continuous regeneration needed for sustained implementation. SYSTEMS Supporting Staff Behavior

13 Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior SCHOOL-WIDE
Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings K ~80% of Students 27

14 Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior SCHOOL-WIDE
Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~80% of Students 27

15 School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Tertiary Prevention: Specialized
Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings ~15% This is the same model used by RTI for academics—the two systems are the same; within IPBS we are building on this logic to support all students. ~80% of Students

16 ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS
TERTIARY PREVENTION TERTIARY PREVENTION Function-based support Wraparound Person-centered planning ~5% ~15% SECONDARY PREVENTION SECONDARY PREVENTION Check in/out Targeted social skills instruction Peer-based supports Social skills club PRIMARY PREVENTION Teach SW expectations Proactive SW discipline Positive reinforcement Effective instruction Parent engagement School-wide Bully Prevention PRIMARY PREVENTION ~80% of Students

17 Math Remember that the multiple tiers of support refer to our SUPPORT not Students. Avoid creating a new disability labeling system. Behavior Health Reading

18 Six Basic Recommendations for Implementing PBIS
Never stop doing what already works Always look for the smallest change that will produce the largest effect Avoid defining a large number of goals Do a small number of things well Define what you will do with operational precision Do not add something new without also defining what you will stop doing to make the addition possible.

19 Six Basic Recommendations for Implementing PBIS
Collect and use data for decision-making Fidelity data: Are we doing what we said we would do? Impact Data: Are we benefiting students? Adapt any initiative to make it “fit” your school community, culture, context. Families Students Faculty Fiscal-political structure Establish policy clarity before investing in implementation

20 Michigan State Board of Education Positive Behavior Support Policy
The vision of the State Board of Education is to create learning environments that prepare students to be successful citizens in the 21st century. The educational community must provide a system that will support students’ efforts to manage their own behavior and assure academic achievement. An effective behavior support system is a proactive, positive, skill-building approach for the teaching and learning of successful student behavior. Positive behavior support systems ensure effective strategies that promote pro-social behavior and respectful learning environments. Research-based positive behavior support systems are appropriate for all students, regardless of age. The principles of Universal Education reflect the beliefs that each person deserves and needs a positive, concerned, accepting educational community that values diversity and provides a comprehensive system of individual supports from birth to adulthood. A positive behavior support policy incorporates the demonstration and teaching of positive, proactive social behaviors throughout the school environment. A positive behavior support system is a data-based effort that concentrates on adjusting the system that supports the student. Such a system is implemented by collaborative, school-based teams using person-centered planning. School-wide expectations for behavior are clearly stated, widely promoted, and frequently referenced. Both individual and school-wide learning and behavior problems are assessed comprehensively. Functional assessment of learning and behavior challenges is linked to an intervention that focuses on skill building. The effectiveness of the selected intervention is evaluated and reviewed, leading to data-based revisions. Positive interventions that support adaptive and pro-social behavior and build on the strengths of the student lead to an improved learning environment. Students are offered a continuum of methods that help them learn and maintain appropriate behavior and discourage violation of codes of student conduct. In keeping with this vision, it is the policy of the State Board of Education that each school district in Michigan implement a system of school-wide positive behavior support strategies. Adopted September 12, 2006 …it is the policy of the State Board of Education that each school district in Michigan implement a system of school-wide positive behavior support strategies.

21 Number of Schools Implementing SWPBIS since 2000

22 Count of School Implementing SWPBIS by State
August, 2011 Illinois 12 States > 500 Schools Kentucky

23 Proportion of School Implementing SWPBIS by State
August, 2011 Kentucky

24 Experimental Research on SWPBIS
Reduced problem behavior Improvements in academic achievement Enhanced perception of organizational health & safety Improved school climate Reductions in teacher’s reports of bullying behavior Improved social emotional functioning Improved teacher effectiveness Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial. Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2):

25 Academic-Behavior Connection
Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between academic achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, Algozzine, R., Putnam, R., & Horner, R. (2012). Support for teaching students with learning disabilities academic skills and social behaviors within a response-to-intervention model: Why it doesn’t matter what comes first. Insights on Learning Disabilities, 9(1), Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Dickey, C. R., and Braun, D. H. (2008). Reading skills and function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104, Achieving Academic Success involves creating a positive school climate. The importance of a positive school climate is greater for those students at risk for academic failure than for those not at risk. Building a positive school climate without delivering high quality instruction will be insufficient to achieve student academic outcomes.

26 Using PBIS to Achieve Quality, Equity and Efficiency
QUALITY: Using what works; Linking Academic and Behavior Supports North Carolina (valued outcomes) Michigan (behavior and literacy supports) Commitment to Fidelity Measures Building functional logic/ theory/ practice (Sanford) EQUITY: Making schools work for all Scott Ross Russ Skiba Vincent, Cartledge, May & Tobin Bully prevention EFFICIENCY: Working Smarter: Building implementation science into large scale adoption. Using teacher and student time better. Dean Fixsen/ Oregon Dept of Education

27 Coaching within SWPBIS
A Context for Coaching Coaching Defined (What is it?) The Outcomes of Coaching (Why?) Who/When/ How

28 Reliable Student Benefits
Implementation Drivers Performance Assessment (fidelity) Systems Intervention Facilitative Administration Decision Support Data System Organization Drivers Coaching Training Competency Drivers Effective PBIS Implementation Selection Adaptive Technical Leadership Drivers © Fixsen & Blase, 2008 28

29 Coaching Defined Coaching is the active and iterative delivery of:
(a) prompts that increase successful behavior, and (b) corrections that decrease unsuccessful behavior. (c) problem solving to adapt core concepts and practices to the local context. Coaching is done by someone with credibility and experience with the target skill(s) Knowledge of SWPBIS, Knowledge of Behavioral Theory Coaching is done on-site, in real time Coaching is done after initial training Coaching is NOT training Coaching is done repeatedly (e.g. monthly) Coaching intensity is adjusted to need

30 Outcomes of Coaching School team improves Precision and Fluency with SWPBIS skills developed during training PBIS procedures are Adapted to fit local contexts and challenges Increased fidelity of overall SWPBIS implementation Rapid redirection from miss-applications Team improves Problem Solving Especially use of data for problem solving Improved Sustainability Most often due to ability to increase coaching intensity at critical points in time.

31 Training Outcomes Related to Training Components
Knowledge of Content Skill Implementation Classroom Application Presentation/ Lecture Plus Demonstration Practice Plus Coaching/ Admin Support Data Feedback 10% % % 30% % % 60% % % 95% % % Joyce & Showers, 2002

32 Example of the Impact of Coaching on Student Outcomes: Average Major Discipline Referrals per Day per Month Coach goes on leave

33 Coach returns from leave
Example of the Impact of Coaching on Student Outcomes: Average Major Discipline Referrals per Day per Month Coach returns from leave Coach goes on leave

34 Coaching vs. Training Coaching involves active collaboration and participation, but not group instruction. Small group Build from local competence Sustainable

35 Coaching Competencies
Who should be a coach Coaching Competencies Necessary Preferred Knowledge about SWPBIS core features Able to attend team meetings at least monthly (Time) Ability to attend coaches meetings/ work with leadership team Knowledgeable about school operating systems Participate in team training Knowledgeable about SWPBIS Fidelity and Outcome Measures Knowledge about behavioral theory and behavior support practices (universal, targeted, individual) Skilled in collection and use of data for problem solving and decision-making. Defined organizational role * The job description, and authority to match the responsibility

36 Activity: Rate your current skills/knowledge
Trainer Core Requirements Current Self-Assessment Low High Knowledge about SWPBIS Tier I (School-wide expectations) Tier II (CICO, First Step, Study Skills, etc.) Tier III (FBA, BSP, Wraparound, Mental Health) Experience with Team Imp (stages) Coordination with Leadership Team Use of Assessment and Evaluation Data (Using data for decision making) Knowledge of School Systems Time/Availability/ Professional Connections

37 What Coaches Do Work with team during initial SWPBIS training
Meet with new teams monthly on-site until they meet Tier I criterion Telephone/ contact as needed (with on-going teams) Pre-correct Self-assessment (EBS Survey, Team Checklist, BoQ, MATT) Action planning Activity implementation On-going evaluation School self-evaluation efforts State-wide Initiative evaluation efforts (SET) Guide State-wide initiative Feedback to Taskforce/ Leadership Team

38 Commitment of Coaches Team Support FTE commitment Roles/Background
First Year (1-5 teams) (participate in training and planning) Second Year (Maintain initial teams, start 3-5 new teams) Future Years (10-15 teams total) FTE commitment 20-50% Roles/Background Behavior Specialists, Special Education Teachers Consultants, Administrators School Psychologists, Counselors, Social Workers

39 Guiding Principles for Effective Coaching
Build local capacity Become unnecessary…but remain available Maximize current competence (action planning) Never change things that are working Always make the smallest change that will have the biggest impact Focus on valued outcomes Tie all efforts to the benefits for children Emphasize Accountability Measure and report; measure and report; measure and report. Build credibility through: (a) consistency, (b) competence with behavioral principles/practices, (c) relationships, (d) time investment. Pre-correct for success

40 Evaluation Criteria Achieve desired outcome?
Effective Doable by real implementer? Efficient Contextual & cultural? Relevant Lasting? Durable Transportable? Scalable Conceptually Sound? Logical

41 Before / During / After Before During After
Examine data to define needs Prompt team preparation for success During Resource for clarification Assist in problem solving Resource identification After Decision sharing Facilitate self-assessment Problem solving

42 Sustainability/ Scaling
Acknowledge that there are Stages of Implementation

43 Sages of Implementation
School Level Implementation Takes Time: 2 – 4 Years EXPLORATION INSTALLATION IMPLEMENTATION INITIAL FULL IMPLEMENTATION Sages of Implementation How long at a district level? How long at a state level? How long at a national level? Fixsen & Blase 2012

44 Summary SWPBIS is effective, possible and scalable
Coaching is a core function within SWPBIS implementation Coaching makes a difference Coaching involves a complex set of skills Each of us should be able to identify the next set of coaching skills we are developing. Coaching affects: Initial implementation Sustained implementation Scaling of SWPBIS implementation


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