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1Rob Horner University of Oregon pbis.org uoecs.org School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS): Coaching for Effective ImplementationRob HornerUniversity of Oregonpbis.org uoecs.org
2Goals Current status of SWPBIS nationally SWPBIS in Kentucky Coaching WhoWhenHowWhyLessons Learned
3PurposeThe purpose of SWPBIS is to make schools more effective learning environments for all students.
4A ConcernWe are narrowing the vision of education in the United States.
5School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) The social culture of a school matters.A continuum of supports that begins with the whole school and extends to intensive, wraparound support for individual students and their families.Effective practices with the systems needed for high fidelity and sustainabilityMultiple tiers of intensity
6What is School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support? School-wide PBIS is:A systems framework for establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for a school to be an effective learning environment (e.g. academic and behavior) for all students.Evidence-based features of SWPBISPreventionDefine and teach positive social expectationsAcknowledge positive behaviorArrange consistent consequences for problem behaviorClassroom linkage of behavioral and academic supportsOn-going collection and use of data for decision-makingContinuum of intensive, individual intervention supports.Implementation of the systems that support effective practicesSWPBIS is a multi-tiered FrameworkNOT a specific Curriculum
7Establishing a Social Culture Common LanguageMEMBERSHIPCommon ExperienceCommon Vision/Values
9Systems ChangeEffective practices produce effective outcomes only within effective systemsWe have invested in defining effective practices but not in defining the systems needed for these practices to produce effective outcomes.
10The challenge of too many initiatives WraparoundEarly InterventionLiteracyEquityPositive Behavior SupportFamily SupportMathResponse to Intervention
12School-wide PBIS Supporting Social Competence, Academic Achievement and SafetySchool-wide PBISOUTCOMESSupportingStudentBehaviorSupportingDecisionMakingPRACTICESDATASWPBS: Four ElementsSWPBS builds from a focus on student Outcomes: academic achievement, social competence, and safety.SWPBS “Practices” are the behaviors of adults that affect how students perform. These are the daily, classroom, and on-going discipline practices of the schoolSWPBS “Systems” are the organizational decisions and structures that support effective STAFF Behavior. A major strength of SWPBS is the emphasis on practices delivered WITH the systems needed to support the practices.The use of data for decision-making is the single most important system within SWPBS. This element is used both to ensure the SWPBS practices are tailored to the local context/culture, and to benefit the continuous regeneration needed for sustained implementation.SYSTEMSSupportingStaff Behavior
13Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior SCHOOL-WIDE Tertiary Prevention:SpecializedIndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk BehaviorSCHOOL-WIDEPOSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORT~5%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk Behavior~15%Primary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & SettingsK~80% of Students27
14Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior SCHOOL-WIDE Tertiary Prevention:SpecializedIndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk BehaviorSCHOOL-WIDEPOSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORTSecondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk BehaviorPrimary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & Settings~80% of Students27
15School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Tertiary Prevention: Specialized IndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk Behavior~5%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk BehaviorPrimary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & Settings~15%This is the same model used by RTI for academics—the two systems are the same; within IPBS we are building on this logic to support all students.~80% of Students
16ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS TERTIARY PREVENTIONTERTIARY PREVENTIONFunction-based supportWraparoundPerson-centered planning~5%~15%SECONDARY PREVENTIONSECONDARY PREVENTIONCheck in/outTargeted social skills instructionPeer-based supportsSocial skills clubPRIMARY PREVENTIONTeach SW expectationsProactive SW disciplinePositive reinforcementEffective instructionParent engagementSchool-wide Bully PreventionPRIMARY PREVENTION~80% of Students
17MathRemember that the multiple tiers of support refer to our SUPPORT not Students.Avoid creating a new disability labeling system.BehaviorHealthReading
18Six Basic Recommendations for Implementing PBIS Never stop doing what already worksAlways look for the smallest change that will produce the largest effectAvoid defining a large number of goalsDo a small number of things wellDefine what you will do with operational precisionDo not add something new without also defining what you will stop doing to make the addition possible.
19Six Basic Recommendations for Implementing PBIS Collect and use data for decision-makingFidelity data: Are we doing what we said we would do?Impact Data: Are we benefiting students?Adapt any initiative to make it “fit” your school community, culture, context.FamiliesStudentsFacultyFiscal-political structureEstablish policy clarity before investing in implementation
20Michigan State Board of Education Positive Behavior Support Policy The vision of the State Board of Education is to create learning environments that prepare students to be successful citizens in the 21st century. The educational community must provide a system that will support students’ efforts to manage their own behavior and assure academic achievement. An effective behavior support system is a proactive, positive, skill-building approach for the teaching and learning of successful student behavior. Positive behavior support systems ensure effective strategies that promote pro-social behavior and respectful learning environments. Research-based positive behavior support systems are appropriate for all students, regardless of age. The principles of Universal Education reflect the beliefs that each person deserves and needs a positive, concerned, accepting educational community that values diversity and provides a comprehensive system of individual supports from birth to adulthood. A positive behavior support policy incorporates the demonstration and teaching of positive, proactive social behaviors throughout the school environment. A positive behavior support system is a data-based effort that concentrates on adjusting the system that supports the student. Such a system is implemented by collaborative, school-based teams using person-centered planning. School-wide expectations for behavior are clearly stated, widely promoted, and frequently referenced. Both individual and school-wide learning and behavior problems are assessed comprehensively. Functional assessment of learning and behavior challenges is linked to an intervention that focuses on skill building. The effectiveness of the selected intervention is evaluated and reviewed, leading to data-based revisions. Positive interventions that support adaptive and pro-social behavior and build on the strengths of the student lead to an improved learning environment. Students are offered a continuum of methods that help them learn and maintain appropriate behavior and discourage violation of codes of student conduct. In keeping with this vision, it is the policy of the State Board of Education that each school district in Michigan implement a system of school-wide positive behavior support strategies.Adopted September 12, 2006…it is the policy of the State Board of Education that each school district in Michigan implement a system of school-wide positive behavior support strategies.
21Number of Schools Implementing SWPBIS since 2000
22Count of School Implementing SWPBIS by State August, 2011Illinois12 States > 500 SchoolsKentucky
23Proportion of School Implementing SWPBIS by State August, 2011Kentucky
24Experimental Research on SWPBIS Reduced problem behaviorImprovements in academic achievementEnhanced perception of organizational health & safetyImproved school climateReductions in teacher’s reports of bullying behaviorImproved social emotional functioningImproved teacher effectivenessBradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Thornton, L.A., & Leaf, P.J. (2009). Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial. Prevention Science, 10(2), Bradshaw, C.P., Koth, C.W., Bevans, K.B., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). The impact of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, Bradshaw, C.P., Reinke, W. M., Brown, L. D., Bevans, K.B., & Leaf, P.J. (2008). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial. Education & Treatment of Children, 31, Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Eber, L., Nakasato, J., Todd, A., & Esperanza, J., (2009). A randomized, wait-list controlled effectiveness trial assessing school-wide positive behavior support in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. M. (2010). Examining the evidence base for school-wide positive behavior support. Focus on Exceptionality, 42(8), Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., Leaf. P., (in press). Effects of School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on child behavior problems and adjustment. Pediatrics. Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial. Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 2012;166(2):
25Academic-Behavior Connection Algozzine, B., Wang, C., & Violette, A. S. (2011). Reexamining the relationship between academic achievement and social behavior. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 13, Algozzine, R., Putnam, R., & Horner, R. (2012). Support for teaching students with learning disabilities academic skills and social behaviors within a response-to-intervention model: Why it doesn’t matter what comes first. Insights on Learning Disabilities, 9(1), Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., Chard, D. J., Dickey, C. R., and Braun, D. H. (2008). Reading skills and function of problem behavior in typical school settings. Journal of Special Education, 42, Nelson, J. R., Johnson, A., & Marchand-Martella, N. (1996). Effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning practices on the classroom behavior of students with behavioral disorders: A comparative analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 4, Wang, C., & Algozzine, B. (2011). Rethinking the relationship between reading and behavior in early elementary school. Journal of Educational Research, 104,Achieving Academic Success involves creating a positive school climate.The importance of a positive school climate is greater for those students at risk for academic failure than for those not at risk.Building a positive school climate without delivering high quality instruction will be insufficient to achieve student academic outcomes.
26Using PBIS to Achieve Quality, Equity and Efficiency QUALITY: Using what works; Linking Academic and Behavior SupportsNorth Carolina (valued outcomes)Michigan (behavior and literacy supports)Commitment to Fidelity MeasuresBuilding functional logic/ theory/ practice (Sanford)EQUITY: Making schools work for allScott RossRuss SkibaVincent, Cartledge, May & TobinBully preventionEFFICIENCY: Working Smarter: Building implementation science into large scale adoption.Using teacher and student time better.Dean Fixsen/ Oregon Dept of Education
27Coaching within SWPBIS A Context for CoachingCoaching Defined (What is it?)The Outcomes of Coaching (Why?)Who/When/ How
29Coaching Defined Coaching is the active and iterative delivery of: (a) prompts that increase successful behavior, and(b) corrections that decrease unsuccessful behavior.(c) problem solving to adapt core concepts and practices to the local context.Coaching is done by someone with credibility and experience with the target skill(s)Knowledge of SWPBIS, Knowledge of Behavioral TheoryCoaching is done on-site, in real timeCoaching is done after initial trainingCoaching is NOT trainingCoaching is done repeatedly (e.g. monthly)Coaching intensity is adjusted to need
30Outcomes of CoachingSchool team improves Precision and Fluency with SWPBIS skills developed during trainingPBIS procedures are Adapted to fit local contexts and challengesIncreased fidelity of overall SWPBIS implementationRapid redirection from miss-applicationsTeam improves Problem SolvingEspecially use of data for problem solvingImproved SustainabilityMost often due to ability to increase coaching intensity at critical points in time.
31Training Outcomes Related to Training Components Knowledge of ContentSkill ImplementationClassroomApplicationPresentation/ LecturePlusDemonstrationPracticePlus Coaching/ Admin SupportData Feedback10% % %30% % %60% % %95% % %Joyce & Showers, 2002
32Example of the Impact of Coaching on Student Outcomes: Average Major Discipline Referrals per Day per MonthCoach goes on leave
33Coach returns from leave Example of the Impact of Coaching on Student Outcomes: Average Major Discipline Referrals per Day per MonthCoach returns from leaveCoach goes on leave
34Coaching vs. TrainingCoaching involves active collaboration and participation, but not group instruction.Small groupBuild from local competenceSustainable
35Coaching Competencies Who should be a coachCoaching CompetenciesNecessaryPreferredKnowledge about SWPBIS core featuresAble to attend team meetings at least monthly (Time)Ability to attend coaches meetings/ work with leadership teamKnowledgeable about school operating systemsParticipate in team trainingKnowledgeable about SWPBIS Fidelity and Outcome MeasuresKnowledge about behavioral theory and behavior support practices (universal, targeted, individual)Skilled in collection and use of data for problem solving and decision-making.Defined organizational role* The job description, and authority to match the responsibility
36Activity: Rate your current skills/knowledge Trainer Core RequirementsCurrent Self-AssessmentLow HighKnowledge about SWPBISTier I (School-wide expectations)Tier II (CICO, First Step, Study Skills, etc.)Tier III (FBA, BSP, Wraparound, Mental Health)Experience with Team Imp (stages)Coordination with Leadership TeamUse of Assessment and Evaluation Data (Using data for decision making)Knowledge of School SystemsTime/Availability/ Professional Connections
37What Coaches Do Work with team during initial SWPBIS training Meet with new teams monthly on-site until they meet Tier I criterionTelephone/ contact as needed (with on-going teams)Pre-correctSelf-assessment (EBS Survey, Team Checklist, BoQ, MATT)Action planningActivity implementationOn-going evaluationSchool self-evaluation effortsState-wide Initiative evaluation efforts (SET)Guide State-wide initiativeFeedback to Taskforce/ Leadership Team
38Commitment of Coaches Team Support FTE commitment Roles/Background First Year (1-5 teams) (participate in training and planning)Second Year (Maintain initial teams, start 3-5 new teams)Future Years (10-15 teams total)FTE commitment20-50%Roles/BackgroundBehavior Specialists, Special Education TeachersConsultants, AdministratorsSchool Psychologists, Counselors, Social Workers
39Guiding Principles for Effective Coaching Build local capacityBecome unnecessary…but remain availableMaximize current competence (action planning)Never change things that are workingAlways make the smallest change that will have the biggest impactFocus on valued outcomesTie all efforts to the benefits for childrenEmphasize AccountabilityMeasure and report; measure and report; measure and report.Build credibility through:(a) consistency, (b) competence with behavioral principles/practices, (c) relationships, (d) time investment.Pre-correct for success
40Evaluation Criteria Achieve desired outcome? EffectiveDoable by real implementer?EfficientContextual & cultural?RelevantLasting?DurableTransportable?ScalableConceptually Sound?Logical
41Before / During / After Before During After Examine data to define needsPrompt team preparation for successDuringResource for clarificationAssist in problem solvingResource identificationAfterDecision sharingFacilitate self-assessmentProblem solving
42Sustainability/ Scaling Acknowledge that there are Stages of Implementation
43Sages of Implementation School Level Implementation Takes Time: 2 – 4 YearsEXPLORATIONINSTALLATIONIMPLEMENTATIONINITIALFULLIMPLEMENTATIONSages of ImplementationHow long at a district level?How long at a state level?How long at a national level?Fixsen & Blase 2012
44Summary SWPBIS is effective, possible and scalable Coaching is a core function within SWPBIS implementationCoaching makes a differenceCoaching involves a complex set of skillsEach of us should be able to identify the next set of coaching skills we are developing.Coaching affects:Initial implementationSustained implementationScaling of SWPBIS implementation