Presentation on theme: "Environmental Impact of the Industrial Revolution"— Presentation transcript:
1 Environmental Impact of the Industrial Revolution ProgressProduction, Profit, Pollution
2 Industrial Revolution Production and Profit Massive increase in energy use from burning fossil fuels.Agrarian to industry-based economyRapid and large increase in production of goodsSustained population growth with movement from farm to urban centersImprovements in transportation, agricultureIncrease the standard of living
4 Industrial Revolution Pollution Air pollutionWater pollutionGlobal warmingAcid rainDeforestationEcosystem destruction
5 OverviewTHE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION by Craig Benjamin
6 Air PollutionParticulates from burning fuel and from volcanoes [today also: power plants, auto emissions]Gas emissions from burning fuel and from volcanoes [today also: power plants, auto emissions, industry]CO2: from combustion of fossil fuels by motor vehicles, power plantsSO2: from burning fossil fuels, esp coal (90%), volcanoes, wildfiresNO, NO2: from burning fossil fuels, esp coal[CFC (chlorofluorocarbons): now mostly banned]
7 Detrimental Impact of Air Pollution Production of acid rainRespiratory problems and disease in humans (1952 great London smog killed 4000)Chemical corrosion of buildings and statuesStresses plants (smog reduces sunlight and therefore photosynthesis) and animals
8 Acid and pHAcids donate H+(aq) ions in water. The more H+(aq) ions present, the more acidic.pH is a measure on the strength of the acid. The pH range is 1-14 with pH 7 being neutral.Unpolluted rain has pH (slightly acidic; the pH of coffee due to the presence of CO2.The pH of acid rain has been measured as low as 2.4.
9 Acid RainPrecipitation (rain, snow) that contains acids formed from the reaction of human generated air pollutants, oxygen and water.SO2 (g) + ½ O2 (g) + H2O(g) H2SO42NO2 (g) + ½ O2 (g) + H2O(g) 2HNO32NO (g) + 3/2 O2 (g) + H2O(g) 2HNO3Note that CO2 is naturally present in the atm.2CO2 (g) + 2H2O(g) 2H2CO3
10 Detrimental Impact of Acid Rain Vegetation suffers due to an increase in mineral leaching at higher acid levelsMicrobes in the soil are killedInsects suffer evolutionary changes; higher food chain members are affectedAquatic species populations are stressed as oceans become more acidicBuildings and statues are chemically corroded
11 Acidification of the Lakes, Streams and Oceans Healthy lakes have pH 6.5; at pH 4, the lake is dead.Healthy oceans have pH 8.2; current pH 8The presence of excess H+(aq) causesDissolving/deterioration of seashellsFish eggs that do not hatch (< pH 5)Increase in [Al+(aq)] decrease in fishDecrease in biodiversity
12 Global WarmingThe increase in the average temperature of the earth’s oceans, land and surrounding air.Also called climate change.Depends on incoming and outgoing solar radiation, wind and water currents, atmospheric gases, clouds, volcanic gases and human activities.Car example
13 Greenhouse Effect Solar radiation 30% reflected by atmosphere, clouds, dust25% absorbed by atmosphere45% absorbed by land and oceansSome heats the land and oceansSome is radiated back into the atm as IR radiation19% escapes out of earth’s atm81% is absorbed by greenhouse gases and re-emited, thus warming the earth’s surface even more. Enhanced greenhouse effect is the problem
15 Greenhouse GasesGWP: Global Warming Potential: effectiveness in absorbing IR radiation; measure of contribution to Global WarmingChemistry in Context, 2006, Am. Chem. SocIncreasePersistenceGWPCO233%5-200 yr1CH4160%1223N2O10%114296
17 Detrimental Impact of Global Warming More precipitation in some areas floodingLess precipitation in others spread of deserts, change in cropsMelting of ice caps rise of sea levelSpread of diseasesChanges in ecosystems (e.g. Ocean warming)Weather pattern alterationsReduced biodiversity
18 Water Pollution Water covers 70% of the earth. Much water is held in aquifers – ground waterSources: industrial waste (heavy metals, phosphates, asbestos, nitrates, solvents, petrochemicals), fertilizers and pesticides, untreated sewage, oil spills, dumping in oceans, acid rain, underground storage leakage.
19 Detrimental Impact of Water Pollution Developmental problems (heavy metals, toxic compounds)Disease (cholera and typhoid from microorganisms, also organic solvents, asbestos)Death (see above, also algae blooms and microorganism growth which deplete oxygen in lakes
20 Industrial Revolution Major turning point in earth’s ecology and the relationship between humans and environment.The next revolution: Sustainability, a Green Industrial Revolution ?