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Environmental Impact of the Industrial Revolution

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Impact of the Industrial Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Impact of the Industrial Revolution
Progress Production, Profit, Pollution

2 Industrial Revolution Production and Profit
Massive increase in energy use from burning fossil fuels. Agrarian to industry-based economy Rapid and large increase in production of goods Sustained population growth with movement from farm to urban centers Improvements in transportation, agriculture Increase the standard of living


4 Industrial Revolution Pollution
Air pollution Water pollution Global warming Acid rain Deforestation Ecosystem destruction


6 Air Pollution Particulates from burning fuel and from volcanoes [today also: power plants, auto emissions] Gas emissions from burning fuel and from volcanoes [today also: power plants, auto emissions, industry] CO2: from combustion of fossil fuels by motor vehicles, power plants SO2: from burning fossil fuels, esp coal (90%), volcanoes, wildfires NO, NO2: from burning fossil fuels, esp coal [CFC (chlorofluorocarbons): now mostly banned]

7 Detrimental Impact of Air Pollution
Production of acid rain Respiratory problems and disease in humans (1952 great London smog killed 4000) Chemical corrosion of buildings and statues Stresses plants (smog reduces sunlight and therefore photosynthesis) and animals

8 Acid and pH Acids donate H+(aq) ions in water. The more H+(aq) ions present, the more acidic. pH is a measure on the strength of the acid. The pH range is 1-14 with pH 7 being neutral. Unpolluted rain has pH (slightly acidic; the pH of coffee due to the presence of CO2. The pH of acid rain has been measured as low as 2.4.

9 Acid Rain Precipitation (rain, snow) that contains acids formed from the reaction of human generated air pollutants, oxygen and water. SO2 (g) + ½ O2 (g) + H2O(g)  H2SO4 2NO2 (g) + ½ O2 (g) + H2O(g)  2HNO3 2NO (g) + 3/2 O2 (g) + H2O(g)  2HNO3 Note that CO2 is naturally present in the atm. 2CO2 (g) + 2H2O(g)  2H2CO3

10 Detrimental Impact of Acid Rain
Vegetation suffers due to an increase in mineral leaching at higher acid levels Microbes in the soil are killed Insects suffer evolutionary changes; higher food chain members are affected Aquatic species populations are stressed as oceans become more acidic Buildings and statues are chemically corroded

11 Acidification of the Lakes, Streams and Oceans
Healthy lakes have pH 6.5; at pH 4, the lake is dead. Healthy oceans have pH 8.2; current pH 8 The presence of excess H+(aq) causes Dissolving/deterioration of seashells Fish eggs that do not hatch (< pH 5) Increase in [Al+(aq)]  decrease in fish Decrease in biodiversity

12 Global Warming The increase in the average temperature of the earth’s oceans, land and surrounding air. Also called climate change. Depends on incoming and outgoing solar radiation, wind and water currents, atmospheric gases, clouds, volcanic gases and human activities. Car example

13 Greenhouse Effect Solar radiation
30% reflected by atmosphere, clouds, dust 25% absorbed by atmosphere 45% absorbed by land and oceans Some heats the land and oceans Some is radiated back into the atm as IR radiation 19% escapes out of earth’s atm 81% is absorbed by greenhouse gases and re-emited, thus warming the earth’s surface even more. Enhanced greenhouse effect is the problem

14 Animation from the BBC

15 Greenhouse Gases GWP: Global Warming Potential: effectiveness in absorbing IR radiation; measure of contribution to Global Warming Chemistry in Context, 2006, Am. Chem. Soc Increase Persistence GWP CO2 33% 5-200 yr 1 CH4 160% 12 23 N2O 10% 114 296


17 Detrimental Impact of Global Warming
More precipitation in some areas  flooding Less precipitation in others  spread of deserts, change in crops Melting of ice caps  rise of sea level Spread of diseases Changes in ecosystems (e.g. Ocean warming) Weather pattern alterations Reduced biodiversity

18 Water Pollution Water covers 70% of the earth.
Much water is held in aquifers – ground water Sources: industrial waste (heavy metals, phosphates, asbestos, nitrates, solvents, petrochemicals), fertilizers and pesticides, untreated sewage, oil spills, dumping in oceans, acid rain, underground storage leakage.

19 Detrimental Impact of Water Pollution
Developmental problems (heavy metals, toxic compounds) Disease (cholera and typhoid from microorganisms, also organic solvents, asbestos) Death (see above, also algae blooms and microorganism growth which deplete oxygen in lakes

20 Industrial Revolution
Major turning point in earth’s ecology and the relationship between humans and environment. The next revolution: Sustainability, a Green Industrial Revolution ?

21 Other Resources

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