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1 TM. Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © WMS–III KIT PHOTO WMS–III KIT MATERIALS PHOTO WMS–III KIT MATERIALS 2.

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Presentation on theme: "1 TM. Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © WMS–III KIT PHOTO WMS–III KIT MATERIALS PHOTO WMS–III KIT MATERIALS 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 TM

2 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © WMS–III KIT PHOTO WMS–III KIT MATERIALS PHOTO WMS–III KIT MATERIALS 2

3 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Brief Description of the WMS–III Individual Administration Assessment of Learning and Memory Functioning of Older Adolescents and Adults Age Range: 16 Years–89 Years Scale Composition –6 Primary Subtests –5 Optional Subtests Individual Administration Assessment of Learning and Memory Functioning of Older Adolescents and Adults Age Range: 16 Years–89 Years Scale Composition –6 Primary Subtests –5 Optional Subtests 3

4 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Key Terms of Memory Functioning Stimuli Free Recall retrieval without the aid of cues Attention Encoding - process of memory storage Retrieval - process of remembering Cued Recall retrieval with the aid of cues Recognition stimulus triggers remembering 4

5 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © WMS–III Primary Indexes General (Delayed) Memory Immediate Memory Visual Immediate Working Memory Visual Delayed Auditory Delayed Auditory Recognition Delayed5 Auditory Immediate

6 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Why Assess Learning and Memory? Difficulty with memory is one of the most common complaints. Clinical disorders may differentially affect memory and IQ. Difficulty with memory is often the first sign or a defining feature of many clinical disorders. Memory tests help explain how an individual learns. Memory tests help reveal relative cognitive strengths and weaknesses that may not be readily apparent to the individual or the clinician. Difficulty with memory is one of the most common complaints. Clinical disorders may differentially affect memory and IQ. Difficulty with memory is often the first sign or a defining feature of many clinical disorders. Memory tests help explain how an individual learns. Memory tests help reveal relative cognitive strengths and weaknesses that may not be readily apparent to the individual or the clinician. 6

7 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Practical Interpretation of Memory Test Scores What is the individual’s ability to learn and retain new material? Are there differences in the individual’s ability to learn and retain auditory versus visual information? How quickly or slowly does the individual learn? How well is newly learned information stored after a delayed interval? Does the individual benefit from hints, cues, or choices in remembering material? What is the individual’s ability to learn and retain new material? Are there differences in the individual’s ability to learn and retain auditory versus visual information? How quickly or slowly does the individual learn? How well is newly learned information stored after a delayed interval? Does the individual benefit from hints, cues, or choices in remembering material? 7

8 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © The relationship is analogous to the ability–achievement relationship IQ is the best estimate of premorbid memory functioning (potential) Deviations between IQ and memory (in the proper direction) may suggest specific memory impairment or weakness WAIS–III and WMS–III are the only co-normed ability–memory instruments The relationship is analogous to the ability–achievement relationship IQ is the best estimate of premorbid memory functioning (potential) Deviations between IQ and memory (in the proper direction) may suggest specific memory impairment or weakness WAIS–III and WMS–III are the only co-normed ability–memory instruments Goal 1: Improve and Expand Normative Sample Link With IQ 8

9 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © WMS–R Standardization Sample - WAIS–R Short Form WMS–III Standardization Sample - WAIS–III WMS–R Standardization Sample - WAIS–R Short Form WMS–III Standardization Sample - WAIS–III Goal 1: Improve and Expand Normative Sample Link With IQ Immediate Memory General Memory Working Memory Immediate Memory General Memory Working Memory Primary Indexes VI Q WM I POI VC I FSIQ PIQ PSI Selected Correlations Between WMS–III and WAIS–III (N=1250) 9

10 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Goal 2: Improve Reliability Reliability Index Internal Consistency Index Test–Retest Subtest Internal Consistency Index Internal Consistency Index Test–Retest Subtest Internal Consistency.70–.90 (not available) Range Median WMS–R.74– (not available).57–.93.70–.88.74– WMS–III

11 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © No Recognition Measures Following Recall Attention / Concentration Emphasized Index Scores Limited No Recognition Measures Following Recall Attention / Concentration Emphasized Index Scores Limited Recognition Measures Following Recall Working Memory Emphasized Expanded Index Scores (Modality Specific) Revised Administration Procedures Ecological Validity Recognition Measures Following Recall Working Memory Emphasized Expanded Index Scores (Modality Specific) Revised Administration Procedures Ecological Validity WMS–R WMS–III Goal 3: Improve Content and Structure of the Scale 11

12 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © No Recognition Measures Following Recall Administration Time About 60 Minutes No IQ – Memory Evaluation No Recognition Measures Following Recall Administration Time About 60 Minutes No IQ – Memory Evaluation Recognition Measures Following Recall (Encoding versus Retrieval) Working Memory Highlighted Administration Time About 30–35 Minutes IQ–Memory Evaluation (Co-norming) Floor Effects Addressed Recognition Measures Following Recall (Encoding versus Retrieval) Working Memory Highlighted Administration Time About 30–35 Minutes IQ–Memory Evaluation (Co-norming) Floor Effects Addressed WMS–R WMS–III Goal 4: Improve Clinical Utility 12

13 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © WMS–III Dimensions Modality of Presentation  Auditory versus Visual Temporal  Immediate versus Delayed Subtest Format  Free Recall versus Cued Recall  Recall versus Recognition Modality of Presentation  Auditory versus Visual Temporal  Immediate versus Delayed Subtest Format  Free Recall versus Cued Recall  Recall versus Recognition 13

14 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Primary Indexes Auditory Immediate Visual Immediate Immediate Memory Auditory Delayed Visual Delayed Auditory Recognition Delayed General Memory Working Memory Auditory Immediate Visual Immediate Immediate Memory Auditory Delayed Visual Delayed Auditory Recognition Delayed General Memory Working Memory Ability to remember information immediately after oral presentation Ability to remember information immediately after visual presentation Ability to remember orally presented information, 25–35 minutes later Ability to remember visually presented information, 25–35 minutes later Ability to remember (via recognition) auditory information, 25–35 minutes later Delayed memory capacity Capacity to remember and manipulate both visually and orally presented information in short-term memory Ability to remember information immediately after a visual and oral presentation 14

15 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © AUDITORY Logical Memory I Verbal Paired Associates I Logical Memory I Verbal Paired Associates I Logical Memory II Verbal Paired Associates II Logical Memory II Verbal Paired Associates II VISUAL IMMEDIATE MEMORY IMMEDIATE MEMORY WORKING MEMORY WORKING MEMORY DELAYED MEMORY DELAYED MEMORY Letter-Number Sequencing Faces I Family Pictures I Faces I Family Pictures I Faces II Family Pictures II Faces II Family Pictures II Spatial Span Primary Subtests 15

16 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Primary Subtests Logical Memory I and II Verbal Paired Associates I and II Letter-Number Sequencing Logical Memory I and II Verbal Paired Associates I and II Letter-Number Sequencing Faces I and II Family Pictures I and II Spatial Span Faces I and II Family Pictures I and II Spatial Span Optional Subtests Information and Orientation Word Lists I and II Digit Span Mental Control Information and Orientation Word Lists I and II Digit Span Mental Control Visual Reproduction AUDITORY PRESENTATION VISUAL PRESENTATION 16

17 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Insert Figure 3.5, page 40 of Administration & Scoring Manual (51A) Record Form 17

18 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Insert Figure 3.6, page 42 of Administration & Scoring Manual (51B) Record Form 18

19 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Insert Figure 3.7, page 44 of Administration & Scoring Manual (51C) Record Form 19

20 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Reliability Coefficients: Indexes WMS–III Primary Index WMS–RWMS–III Average Internal Consistency Auditory Immediate Visual Immediate Immediate Memory Auditory Delayed Visual Delayed Auditory Recognition Delayed General Memory Working Memory Auditory Immediate Visual Immediate Immediate Memory Auditory Delayed Visual Delayed Auditory Recognition Delayed General Memory Working Memory.77 (Verbal Index).70 (Visual Index).81 (General Memory Index).77 (Delayed Recall Index).90 (Attention/Concentration Index).77 (Verbal Index).70 (Visual Index).81 (General Memory Index).77 (Delayed Recall Index).90 (Attention/Concentration Index)

21 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Reliability Coefficients: Subtests WMS-III Primary Subtest WMS–RWMS–III Average Internal Consistency Logical Memory I Faces I Verbal Paired Associates I Family Pictures I Letter-Number Sequencing Spatial Span Logical Memory II Faces II Verbal Paired Associates II Family Pictures II Auditory Recognition Delayed Logical Memory I Faces I Verbal Paired Associates I Family Pictures I Letter-Number Sequencing Spatial Span Logical Memory II Faces II Verbal Paired Associates II Family Pictures II Auditory Recognition Delayed

22 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Stability Coefficients: Indexes WMS–III Primary IndexWMS–RWMS–III Average (All Ages) Auditory Immediate Visual Immediate Immediate Memory Auditory Delayed Visual Delayed Auditory Recognition Delayed General Memory Working Memory Auditory Immediate Visual Immediate Immediate Memory Auditory Delayed Visual Delayed Auditory Recognition Delayed General Memory Working Memory.73 (Verbal Index).71 (Visual Index).80 (General Memory Index).79 (Delayed Recall Index).86 (Attention/Concentration Index).73 (Verbal Index).71 (Visual Index).80 (General Memory Index).79 (Delayed Recall Index).86 (Attention/Concentration Index)

23 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Alzheimer’s Disease WAIS–III Scales/Indexes WAIS–III Scales/Indexes WMS–III Primary Indexes WMS–III Primary Indexes WMS–III Auditory Process Composites WMS–III Auditory Process Composites (N=35) 23

24 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Traumatic Brain Injury WAIS–III Scales/Indexes WAIS–III Scales/Indexes WMS–III Primary Indexes WMS–III Primary Indexes WMS–III Auditory Process Composites WMS–III Auditory Process Composites (N=22) 24

25 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Parkinson’s Disease WAIS–III Scales/Indexes WAIS–III Scales/Indexes WMS–III Primary Indexes WMS–III Primary Indexes WMS–III Auditory Process Composites WMS–III Auditory Process Composites (N=10) 25

26 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Level of Performance Description Example Relative to individuals of comparable age, this individual is currently functioning in the [descriptive classification ] range on a standardized measure of [name of index ]. 26

27 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Patterns and Profiles of Performance Profile analyses can be used to evaluate scatter within or among indexes. Profile analyses can be used to generate hypotheses that are, in turn, either corroborated or refuted by other evaluation results, such as  background information,  direct behavioral observation,  additional evaluation,  consistency with injury or disorder. Profile analyses can be used to evaluate scatter within or among indexes. Profile analyses can be used to generate hypotheses that are, in turn, either corroborated or refuted by other evaluation results, such as  background information,  direct behavioral observation,  additional evaluation,  consistency with injury or disorder. 27

28 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Although statistically significant differences between scores can occur in many clinical groups, the same differences may also occur frequently in the normally functioning population (Matarazzo, 1990). Statistical significance does not necessarily mean clinical significance. It is critical to evaluate the frequency of discrepancies between scores. Statistical Versus Clinical Significance 28

29 Copyright 1997 by The Psychological Corporation. All rights reserved. © Base rate information provides a basis for estimating the rarity or commonness of the examinee's obtained difference within the normal adult population. A discrepancy that is statistically significant yet frequent in the standardization sample most likely reflects normal variations in an individual’s abilities. A discrepancy that is both statistically significant and rare in the standardization sample could represent a meaningful difference. In general, the larger the discrepancy and the less frequent its occurrence in the general population, the less likely it can be explained as normal variation. Base rate information provides a basis for estimating the rarity or commonness of the examinee's obtained difference within the normal adult population. A discrepancy that is statistically significant yet frequent in the standardization sample most likely reflects normal variations in an individual’s abilities. A discrepancy that is both statistically significant and rare in the standardization sample could represent a meaningful difference. In general, the larger the discrepancy and the less frequent its occurrence in the general population, the less likely it can be explained as normal variation. Base Rate Interpretation 29


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