Presentation on theme: "Gather DATA to identify business requirements"— Presentation transcript:
1Gather DATA to identify business requirements icaa5151B
2INtroEver been stopped on the street by a market researcher? Firstly there’s a screening question to make sure you fit the target profile and then come the questions. Businesses do much the same with their employees:- Extract information with a view to improving organisational performance.
3This UnitProvides information and activities to enable you to gain the skills required to identify the needs of a business or a business process and quantify those needs into technical requirements that will enable the business or process to meet expectations.
4The 4 topics covered are …. Identify key information sourcesGather data through formal processesEnsure analysis is accurate and completeSubmit analysis and gain agreement
51. Identify key information sources identify information repositories across the businessreview current organisational documentationdevelop critical questions to elicit information from key stakeholders using a mixture of open and closed questionsensure information gathering techniques use a quality assurance methodology and meet budgetary constraints
61. Identify key information sources What is the relationship betweenDataInformationKnowledgeData is info entered and stored in a computerProcessed data is informationInformation that is used for understanding or as a motive is knowledge
71. Identify key information sources Searching for information and data When gathering data to identify business requirements, you will find a wide variety of sources. Name some?Organisational charts, internal memos, product catalogues. Some information is current, some is not. To collect the right information may involve interviewing people.
81. Identify key information sources CATEGORIES OF DATA Quantitative vs Qualitative Data Quantitative can be measured: Performance reports, data capture forms, numeric results from surveys and statistical research. It can be analysed mathematically.
91. Identify key information sources CATEGORIES OF DATA Quantitative vs Qualitative Data Qualitative is a record of thoughts, observations, opinions or words: It comes from asking open-ended questions to which answers are not limited by a set of choices or scale.
101. Identify key information sources Information sources may come from internal or external sources. Internal examples: employees, annual reports, sales figures External examples: statistical information (Australian Bureau of Statistics), standards, or research from outside an organisationThe project in which you are involved will influence the balance of the internal or external information gathering effort. For example:A website design and development project may require you to gather and define internal requirements of a business. However, a significant effort should be put into external scanning. This may involve identifying 'best practice' associated with competitors or organisations with similar business models.A database design requires a significant proportion of internal data gathering, but as with website design, you should not exclude current trends and future expectations which may be evident through external scanning.
111. Identify key information sources Documents vs People There are often a lot of documents available, which means that an analyst must read extensively to gain limited information. On the other hand, people are also a source of information. An individual is a wonderful source of information that can respond dynamically to questions and stimuli.The advantages of gathering information through interviews, workshops and questionnaires must also be balanced with a degree of scepticism. When you gather information from an individual, you gather an individual's opinion. It’s important to remember that this opinion may (and probably will) differ from the opinions of others.
121. Identify key information sources Question 1:How would you categorise an interview with the project sponsor?Quantitative; internal; peopleQualitative; internal; peopleQualitative; external; peopleQuantitative; internal; documentQualitative; internal; documentQuestion 2:How would you categorize: A memo to the IT department?Question 3:How would you categorize: A report on the number of errors logged at the helpdesk?Qualitative; internal; peopleQualitative; internal; documentQuantitative; internal; document
131. Identify key information sources RESEARCH TASKDownload TimesThis activity is intended to help you qualify the quality of information sources.Answer the following questions.How long will users wait for web pages to download?What is the URL for the source you quoted?Can you trust the source you quoted? Why/Why not?(Hint : consider the search parameters "download speed" + "research")
141. Identify key information sources The Australian Bureau of StatisticsThe Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is a source of information. It also provides reference material on research and survey methodologies.There is a lot of information available at the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) website. (http://www.abs.gov.au/)
151. Identify key information sources SAMPLING When determining requirements, it is likely that you will have to collect information from a number of people. If the organisation is small, you may choose to collect information from all people - this is called a census. Alternatively, you may choose to collect information from only nominated specialists. This is known as judgement sampling or convenience sampling. Not all organisations are small and localised: consider determining requirements for an organisation with over 2000 computer users spread across 4 continents. In this situation, it is prudent to survey a sample of users. Two commonly used sampling techniques are randomisation and systematic sampling.
161. Identify key information sources Randomisation is a sampling technique characterised as having no predetermined pattern or plan for selecting sample data. Systematic sampling is a technique that attempts to reduce the variance of the estimates by spreading out the sampling. One example would be choosing documents or records by formula which avoids very high or low estimates.
171. Identify key information sources SAMPLING BLUNDERS See doc on network RANDOM SAMPLING SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING
181. Identify key information sources The Australian Bureau of Statistics The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is a source of information. It also provides reference material on research and survey methodologies. You can visit ABS at This activity is intended to help you classify and understand terms. Read pages 1-9 of Statistics - A powerful edge from the ABS and find the definition of data, information and statistics.Week 2 from here. Last week we made a simple graph from data from Statistics – A Powerful EdgeSee document Repositories
191. Identify key information sources Advantages and Disadvantages of SurveysRead paper page 16 of of Statistics - A powerful edge! from the ABS website and answer the following:One advantage of a ___________ is accuracy._______________ is a disadvantage of a census.Speed is an advantage of a sample ________ .
201. Identify key information sources ASSESS METHODSData Gathering Methods & Budget ConstraintsEach method has its pros and consThe project in which you are involved - as well as the project budget - will influence the blend of data gathering methods that you use.
211. Identify key information sources The METHODS for information gathering areResearchQuestionnaires (good for large groups, low cost)Interviews (most common)WorkshopsObservation
221. Identify key information sources RESEARCH Reviewing documents Reviewing documents is the process of searching, finding and extracting information from documents If you are developing a website with e-commerce facilities, it may be worthwhile reviewing customer order forms and documents identifying sales processes and procedures. If you are interested in identifying the number of items per order or the number of incorrect orders received from customers, you may need to sample records kept by the organisation.
231. Identify key information sources ManagementTo establish objectives, boundaries, constraints, policies, information requirements, involvement in the project, potential problemsClerical/operational staffTo establish actual procedures carried out, documents used, volume of work, job satisfaction, morale.Statements of company policy including mission statementsGather information on overall objectives and likely changesAdministrative procedure manualsQA documents, instruction and procedure manuals which provide a statement of the way in which tasks are supposed to be performed.Document blanks or data entry formsThese are forms that are filled in and passed between departments or stored for reference. This gives the analyst an indication of the formal data flows and data stores.Completed documents or data entry formsThese are forms that have been filled in and passed between departments or stored for reference. These give the analyst an indication of the 'actual' data that is currently required.
241. Identify key information sources Training manualsTo identify processes and procedures.Sales and promotional literatureTo identify products; company image; marketing style; target market.Job descriptions and specificationsThese should define the responsibilities of personnel.Reports for decision makingReports may include: sales; inventory; production; costing.Performance reportsIdentify gaps between actual performance and intended performanceIntranet and websiteExamine for metaphors, design features (such as colour). The intranet will be a valuable resource that can be searched for electronic copies of documentsMemos and lettersMay provide background for your problem statement and ultimate solution.Week 2 from here. Last week we made a simple graph from data from Statistics – A Powerful EdgeSee document Repositories
251. Identify key information sources RESEARCH Sampling Documents Sampling documents is the process of collecting representative samples of forms, records and other documents in order to ascertain an implied consistency for the total population. Two commonly used sampling techniques are randomisation and stratification.
261. Identify key information sources RESEARCHRandomisation is a sampling technique characterised as having no predetermined pattern or plan for selecting sample documents.Stratification is a systematic sampling technique that attempts to reduce the variance of estimates by equally dispersing the sample selection within a given population - that is, choosing documents or records by formula.
271. Identify key information sources Student population = 3000sample size 5% = 150 student enrolmentsCourseStudent enrolmentsSample sizeLaw and Justice20010Management Studies80040IT Studies150075Engineering50025Totals3000150An example of Stratification
281. Identify key information sources INTERVIEWSAn interview is a planned meeting during which you obtain information from another person. The personal interview is often the preferred information gathering technique when developing business and user requirements.
291. Identify key information sources INTERVIEWS 1. Determining the people to interview 2. Establishing objectives for the interview 3. Developing the interview questions 4. Preparing for the interview 5. Conducting the interview 6. Documenting the interview 7. Evaluating the interview
301. Identify key information sources OBSERVATION Observation is a technique that enables the analyst to view how processes and activities are being done in the context of the business. This additional perspective can give a better understanding of system procedures. It is sometimes worthwhile to read procedure manuals to find out how things should be done. Then interview people to find out how they believe it IS being done. Finally, observe processes to find out how it is actually being done. A note of caution: observation may induce a phenomenon known as the Hawthorne Effect – an increase in productivity when workers knew they were being observed.
311. Identify key information sources WORKSHOPSThere are two main types of workshops that we are interested in as information gatherers:Joint Application Design (JAD) - or Joint Requirements Planning (JRP)Brainstorming
321. Identify key information sources Joint Application Design (JAD) was developed by IBM in the late 1970s. It is a requirements determination method that brings together business and IT professionals in a structured workshop to determine and discuss system requirements. JAD is discussed further on the IBM website and in many other websites and textbooks.
331. Identify key information sources BrainstormingBrainstorming is a workshop or meeting where ideas are expressed and captured for later consideration. The three common rules of brainstorming are:Be spontaneous. Call out ideas as they occur.No criticism, analysis, or evaluation is permitted while the ideas are being generated. Any idea may be useful, if only to generate another idea.Focus on the quantity of ideas, rather than the quality of the ideas.
341. Identify key information sources QUESTIONNAIRESQuestionnaires are sometimes called surveys. A questionnaire involves questions written onto a form. The respondent provides their response in the form.Two common formats for questionnaires are free-format and fixed-format. A single questionnaire often includes both formats.Free-format questionnaires offer the respondent greater latitude in their answer. A question is asked, and the respondent records the answer in the space provided after the question. AKA?Fixed-format questionnaires contain questions that require the selection of predefined responses from individuals.Practical ExerciseUse Survey Monkey to construct the following survey:STUDENT SURVEY EXAMPLEThe purpose of this survey is to gain feedback from students regarding their study at this institution. For information regarding this survey please contact XXXX.Instructions:Please complete this survey online. The survey should be returned before (date)SURVEY QUESTIONS:1. Why did you enrol in the course?2. Which diploma are you studying? [select one or more]Website DevelopmentDatabase Design and DevelopmentNetwork AdministrationOther3. Please provide a response to the following statement.I had enough time to complete all assessments [select one box only]Strongly Agree Undecided Strongly Disagree4 Please select your study mode from the list below?Part-time Full-time ExternalUpon completing this course, I intent toDo another TAFE course Look for employment in same field Further study in same field Don’t know yetThank you for your time.RegardsThe Data Gatherers and the Business Requirement Identifiers
351. Identify key information sources Topic 1 Summary you have identified the difference between data, information and knowledge. You are aware that there are different sources of information. These include internal or external, documents or people and the data you collect may be qualitative or quantitative data. When selecting samples, you may choose a census, a judgment sample/convenience sample, randomised sample or a systematic sample. From each of the nominated information sources you can expect to get a variety of information.
36Collecting & Dealing with data SAMPLING Generally, for sampling, a good number to sample is the square root of the total number. n = √N where N is the total So if there are a 100 people to sample the √N = 10
37Collecting & Dealing with data GENERATING RANDOM NUMBERSwith a spreadsheetIn cell A1 enter the formula =INT(RAND()*100+1)Use the Fill Down function to copy this down to A50This formula generates a random decimal number between 0 and 1, multiplies the result by 100 and adds 1. Only the whole number part is considered.
38StatisticesPaste the values of the result of your randomiser and use the spreadsheet statistical functions to calculate the Average Count Mode
39Collecting & Dealing with data STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING This type of sampling splits the population into categories called strata. Opinions expressed by people from the same stratum may be similar to each other but may differ from opinions from other strata. The sample size from each strata should be proportional to the stratum size as compared to the population size.
40Strata Student population = 3000 sample size 10% = 300 student enrolmentsCourseStudent enrolmentsSample sizeLaw and Justice200Management Studies800IT Studies1500Engineering500Totals3000300
41Charting or graphingCreate a column graph to represent the results of 30 peoples responses to the preferred breakfasts.
42Charting or graphingCreate a compound column graph AND a multiple column graph to represent the comparison of sales made per quarter of “His” and “Her” fashion.Create a multiple column aka a clustered column graph as well.
45Gather data through formal processes Now that you know about identifying key information sources, you gather data through formal processes within an information technology environment.In this topic you will learn how to:conduct information gathering workshops and interviews to gather datareview reports and other data sources for relevant business informationconfirm business-critical factors relating to current and future directions of the organisation with stakeholdersanalyse group and individual responses to clearly define business prioritiesTopic 2
46Gather data through formal processes PROBLEM / OPPORTUNITY STATEMENTSIn order to implement data–gathering techniques, you will need to identify one of the following:the problem that has to be solvedthe opportunity that has to be realised.Topic 2
47Gather data through formal processes Once the problem or opportunity has been identified, it should be documented. This can then be included in a Business Requirements Report under the heading ‘Problem Statement’ or ‘Opportunity Statement’.Problem Statements may use key words like cannot, will not and unable to.Opportunity Statements may use key words like would like to, leverage and evolve toward.Topic 2
48Gather data through formal processes The following is an example of a Problem Statement:The XXX Company cannot efficiently update records to their database.The following is an Opportunity Statement:The XXX Company would like to increase sales through an e–commerce website.The problem or opportunity statement is usually ascertained from business owners or project sponsors. It is a high–level statement that concisely captures the problem or opportunity.Topic 2
49Gather data through formal processes Details associated with the problem or opportunity are documented in the functional requirements. These are sometimes called the business requirements.Topic 2
50Gather data through formal processes EXERCISE – Develop a Problem Statement from this:Interview Transcript with a Finance Officer of a Training InstituteWe have been given some information; however, we need to clarify some issues in order to develop a Business Requirements Report.Q. To clarify the issue, what do you see as the main problem that you need to resolve?I can't record the purchase price of PCs and where they are presently located.Q. Can we explore this further? Is it the current value of the system or the purchase price that you want to retain?We want a system so we can record PCs at their original purchase price and the date of the asset purchase. A method of depreciation and the current depreciated price might be good to keep, but let’s look at this in an enhancement to the system.Q. How do you want us to identify the location of the PC?The system must identify PC locations by room number and campus.Q. Where do you get PC values from, and how do you know that they are correct?The PC values are recorded on supplier orders and supplier invoices. The new system must source PC prices from supplier invoices. It would be nice if the new system could reconcile differences in pricing between orders and invoices.Topic 2Possible Problem StatementRTO Institute cannot record the purchase price of PCs, and it is unable to identify where PCs are presently located.There is a significant amount of additional information gained in the interview. Much of this additional information relates to the “functional requirements” for the system.Remember: The problem statement should be clear, concise, unambiguous and should include the company’s name.
51Gather data through formal processes BLOOM’S TAXONOMY Benjamin Bloom, an American educational psychologist, developed a system for organising and categorising thinking skills in a hierarchical order from lower to higher level, with the higher levels including all of the cognitive skills from the lower levels. The categorisation is often referred to as ‘Bloom’s Taxonomy’.Topic 2
52Gather data through formal processes Increasing difficultyTopic 2BLOOM’S TAXONOMYMGMT PYRAMID
53Management levels in an organisation Strategicdecisionstactical decisionsoperational decisionsOn-the-job decisionssenior managementmiddle managementoperational managementproduction, clerical and non-management employeesThe model of organisation’s management includes three levels with a fourth level made up of the production, clerical, and other non-management employees. Each level makes different types of decisions and requires different types and amounts of information.
54TYPES of Information systems Office systems Applications for administrative tasks that occur. Aka productivity software – word processing, desktop publishing, spreadsheet, database presentation graphics, web browsers, . Transaction Processing Systems TPS process data generated by the day-to-day transactions of an organisation. Billing systems, inventory control systems, accounts payables and order entry systems
55TYPES of Information systems Management Information Systems These evolved as managers realised that computer processing could be used for more than just day-to-day transaction processing and that the power of rapid calculations and data comparisons could be used to produce meaningful information for management. MIS are integrated with the TPS and the focus is on information that management needs to see fast or slow-selling products, customers with past-due account balances, inventory that needs re-ordering. Etc.
56Types of information systems Decision Support Systems These summarise or compare data from internal and external sources or both. Internal = sales, manufacturing, financial data. External = interest rates, population trends, new housing construction, raw material pricing A DSS can manipulate data to help with decision making. Like “what-if” querying.
57Types of information systems Expert Systems Also known as knowledge system, these simulate human experts’ reasoning and decision-making processes. For example the Ford Motor company has implemented a system to help its dealers diagnose engine repair problems. Previously, when they encountered a problem they could not sole, they would call Michigan to talk to experts. Now they access a nationwide computer system that duplicates the experts’ reasoning to troubleshoot a problem….. Expert systems are associated with AI – Artificial Intelligence.
58Gather data through formal processes 1. Knowledge – Gathering Information2. Comprehension – Confirming or understanding3. Application – Making use of knowledge4. Analysis – Taking apart5. Synthesis – Putting together6. Evaluation – Judging the outcomeTopic 2
59Gather data through formal processes Knowledge Exhibit memory of previously-learned materials by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers. Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics. Questions like: What are the health benefits of eating apples?Topic 2
60Gather data through formal processes Understanding or Comprehension Demonstrative understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas Questions like: Compare the health benefits of eating apples vs. oranges.Topic 2
61Gather data through formal processes Application Using new knowledge. Solve problems to new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way Questions like: Which kinds of apples are best for baking a pie, and why?Topic 2
62Gather data through formal processes ANALYSISExamine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations.Analyse relationshipsQuestions like: List four ways of serving foods made with apples and explain which ones have the highest health benefits. Provide references to support your statements.Topic 2
63Gather data through formal processes SYNTHESIS Compile information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions. Production of a plan, or proposed set of operations. Questions like: Convert an "unhealthy" recipe for apple pie to a "healthy" recipe by replacing your choice of ingredients. Explain the health benefits of using the ingredients you chose vs. the original ones.Topic 2
64Gather data through formal processes EVALUATION Present and defend opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria. Judgments in terms of internal evidence. Judgments in terms of external criteria. Questions like: Do you feel that serving apple pie for an after school snack for children is healthy? Why or why not?Topic 2
65Gather data through formal processes OPEN AND CLOSED QUESTIONS Question 1: What size is your PC monitor? Question 2: Are you well today? Question 3: Why do you use this form? Question 4: What would you do with the new information you collect? Question 5: Why? Question 6: How do you rate your satisfaction with the system?Topic 2
66Gather data through formal processes The ultimate open-ended questions “Now, have we missed anything?” or “Is there anything else you would like to say?”Topic 2
67Gather data through formal processes OPEN QUESTIONSThere are some disadvantages to open questions, which could include the following:trying to summarise the data into a concise form may be difficultit takes a lot longer to collect informationambiguities need to be recognised and expanded uponopen questions require more psychological effort on behalf of the respondent, and the respondent may answer in a haphazard manner.Topic 2
68Gather data through formal processes BIAS, SENSITIVITY AND PLASTICITY Bias elicits a desired result. Sensitivity stirs emotion. Plasticity is the wording and arrangement of questions in order to mould a desired answer.Topic 2
69Gather data through formal processes EXAMPLES of BIAS Are you in favour of educational institutions requiring that all lecturers join a union, thus raising educational costs? Is your life worth insuring? You don’t like this pair of jeans, do you? Don’t you agree that the new rule is a problem?Topic 2
70Gather data through formal processes SENSITIVITYDo you think the US was right or wrong in sending American troops to stop the Communist Invasion of South Korea ?Do you think the US made a mistake in deciding to defend Korea, or not?Topic 2
71Gather data through formal processes PLASTICITYOrderQuestionResult 1Result 2ADo you think a Communist country like Russia should let American newspaper reporters come in and send back to America the news as they see it?82% Yes64% YesBDo you think the United States should let Communist newspaper reporters from other countries come in and send back to their papers the news as they see it?75% Yes55% YesTopic 2When the above questions were ordered A–B, Result 1 was obtained. However, when the question order was B–A, Result 2 was obtained.
72Gather data through formal processes 2 SIMILAR SURVEYS - 2 DIFFERENT RESPONSES "Mr. Woolley, are you worried about the rise in crime among teenagers?" "Yes" "Do you think there is lack of discipline and vigorous training in our Comprehensive Schools?" "Yes" "Do you think young people welcome some structure and leadership in their lives?" "Yes" "Do they respond to a challenge?" "Yes" "Might you be in favour of reintroducing National Service?" "Yes"Topic 2
73Gather data through formal processes SURVEY 2"Mr. Woolley are you worried about the danger of war?" "Yes""Are you unhappy about the growth of armaments?" "Yes""Do you think there's a danger in giving young people guns and teaching them how to kill?" "Yes""Do you think it’s wrong to force people to take up arms against their will?" "Yes""Would you oppose the reintroduction of National Service?" "Yes"
74Gather data through formal processes FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTSOnce the problem has been identified, the next step is to do the following:Understand the problem, including the cause and effectUnderstand any constraints that may limit the solution.
75Gather data through formal processes What are functional requirements? “A functional requirement is a function or feature that must be included in an information system in order to satisfy the business need and be acceptable to the users Functional Requirements are actions, therefore a verb(s) should be included in the statement. .”
76Gather data through formal processes The system must associate non–stock purchases of raw materials to a specified customer order.The system must associate design work as well as production work to customer special orders.The system may track the completion status of customer special orders.The system must provide a users’ guide for products.The system must capture customer details online.The system may have password protection for a members’ only section.Examples of statements about functional requirements.In the above functional requirements the word “system” can be replaced by a more meaningful descriptive word. Here are some examples:The website may have password protection for a members only section.The database must retain customer details.
77Gather data through formal processes NON–FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS “A non–functional requirement is a description of the features, characteristics, and attributes of the system as well as any constraints that may limit the boundaries of the proposed solution” Some authors use the term “constraints” to identify non–functional requirements. Note: Non–functional requirements are less important to the Business Requirements report – but highly important to the Technical Requirements report. It is important to understand the difference between functional and non–functional requirements.
78NON-FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS typeExplanationPerformancePerformance requirements represent the performance the system is required to exhibit to meet the needs of users.What is the maximum download time for web pages?What is the acceptable throughput rate?What is the required response time?InformationInformation requirements represent the information that is pertinent to the users in terms of content, timeliness, accuracy and format.What are the necessary inputs and outputs? When must they happen?Where is the required data to be stored?How current must the information be?What are the interfaces to the external systems?EconomyEconomy requirements represent the need for the system to reduce costs or increase profits.What are the areas of the system where costs may be reduced?How much cost should be reduced or profits should be increased?What are the budgetary limits?What is the timetable for development?Control (and Security)Control requirements represent the environment in which the system must operate, as well as the type and degree of security that must be provided.Must access to the system or information be controlled?What are the privacy requirements?Does the criticality of the data necessitate the need for special handling (backups, off–site storage, etc) of the data?EfficiencyEfficiency requirements represent the system’s ability to produce outputs with minimal waste.Are there duplicate steps in the process that must be eliminated?Are there ways to reduce waste in the way the system uses its resources?ServiceService requirements represent needs in order for the system to be reliable, flexible and expandable.Who will use the system and where are they located?Will there be different types of users?What are the appropriate human factors?What training devices and training materials are to be included in the system?What training devices and training materials are to be developed and maintained separately from the system, such as stand–alone computer–based training (CBT) programs or databases?What are the reliability/availability requirements?How should the system be packaged and distributed?What documentation is required?Source: Whitten, J., Bentley, L., Dittman, K. (2001). System Analysis and Design Methods, Sydney, McGraw–Hill Irwin. Page 216
79Gather data through formal processes Non–functional requirements are often associated with the technical requirements of a system – therefore the non–functional requirements may be part of the Technical Requirements Report rather than the Business Requirements Report. Your organisation or client will often specify the format and content of the required report.
80Gather data through formal processes In this section, you have looked at functional requirements which should appear in the Business Requirements Report. Functional requirements are sometimes known as business requirements, and non–functional requirements are sometimes known as constraints. Constraints may limit the project or solution.
81Gather data through formal processes Summary In this 2nd topic you have identified that a problem statement or opportunity statement needs to be defined at the beginning of the project. You then use data–gathering techniques to understand the problem, including the cause and effects, as well as identifying constraints that may limit the project or solution. Problem/opportunity statements and functional requirements should all appear in the Business Requirements Report.
82Analysis is accurate & complete In this topic you will learn how to:analyse and evaluate information gathered for accuracy and consistencydocument conflicts in information gatheredresolve conflicts in information or points of view with stakeholders.
83Analysis is accurate & complete Broadly speaking you analyse data as you collect it or when it has been collected. The surveyed and what they said.
84Analysis is accurate & complete ORGANISING AND SUMMARISING Once you have classified data into meaningful categories, it should be documented in tables and summarised in a paragraph. Often data in tables can be visually represented through the use of charts. You need to carefully select the type of chart to match your data. Read pages of the Australian Bureau of Statistic’s Statistics – A Powerful Edge! to get a better understanding of graph types.Statistics – a powerful edge
85Analysis is accurate & complete CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING SCENARIO:-You have been asked by your manager to collect data from a survey about your company’s intranet. You and your manager feel that the site needs an upgrade, but you need evidence to support this view.Your task is to analyse the data and present the findings in a clear format to support your view.Select a method that shows the results of the survey, which are listed below:78% use the site regularly.65% find it easy to navigate.36% believe it should be upgraded.40% believe it needs more multimedia.55% have had technically problems with the site over the last 12 months.74% stated that the intranet is crucial to their daily business.31% stated that the colours used in the site were poor.15% stated that they still use paper manuals and avoid the site.
86Analysis is accurate & complete What data would you highlight? What data would you possibly omit? How would you present the data in your report and/or your presentation?
88Analysis is accurate & complete PRIORITISING REQUIREMENTS Categorising your data is the first stage of analysing it. Our particular interest is in business requirements so therefore we will rank them (aka functional requirements). Consider a website. Are each of the listed requirements A(pto) of equal importance?
90Analysis is accurate & complete A little caution needs to be taken when collating and analysing the results of a ranked list. You need to consider who responded to the request and their importance within the organisation. For example, if the distribution list included five from sales and marketing yet only one from finance, the results may skew toward sales. As another example, the business owner may want their response to be weighted three times the strength of their management team.
91Analysis is accurate & complete Absolute ranking is important, but relative ranking is also important. To use the example above, where there are 16 items listed, it should not be inferred that the item on the top of the list is 16 times more important than the item on the bottom of the list. Perhaps the item on the bottom of the list is only 50% less important. For this reason, a relative importance should be allocated to the requirement. A scale of 5-10 is frequently used when allocating the relevant importance of a business requirement. The reason for a relative scale becomes apparent next: "Capability Analysis".
92Analysis is accurate & complete The table below provides an example of relative and absolute rating,where the higher the number the more important the requirement is.Business Requirement (Functional Requirement)Importance RatingAbsolute (1-16)Relative (5-10)The system must display products on screen.1610RequirementsnThe system must enable customers to check delivery and production status.15
93Analysis is accurate & complete CONSIDERING AVAILABLE RESOURCES Once you have ranked and rated the requirements by importance, you have completed the second analysis stage. By now you should have a list of business requirements (functional requirements), and you should know how important they are to the organisation. Question: Should we implement all of them? Answer: "All things are possible given enough time and money." The answer to these questions requires the application of the third stage of analysis: CAPABILITY ANALYSIS
95Analysis is accurate & complete CAPABILITY ANALYSISIn order to estimate the ease of realisation, you need to know the following:your capabilitythe capability of your clientthe capability of your organisationthe capability of any other organisations that you may incorporate into the projectthe capability of the tools that will be used to develop the solution for the client.
96Analysis is accurate & complete Often a specialist or project manager who has experience in the field will rate the ease of realisation for a given business requirement. A simple method of applying capability to business requirements is to simply rate the ease of realisation between 5 and 10, where 10 is the easiest and 5 is the hardest. Once you have the ease of implementation, multiply it by the relative importance of the requirement.
97Analysis is accurate & complete Business Requirement(Functional Requirement)Importance RatingEase of RealisationFinal RatingAbsolute1-16Relative5-10The system must display products on screen1610880Requirementsnn x nThe system must enable customers to check delivery and production status155.527.5
98Analysis is accurate & complete There are various methods and software that can be used to assist in the identification of capability. When the solution is to be developed by a consulting firm, the capability resides with the consultant. A tool that can be used in the negotiation phases of the contract as well as the requirements determination phase is EasyWinWin. This software package has been designed for online workshop participants; when using the software, the team will be collecting and analysing data at the same time.
99Analysis is accurate & complete EasyWinWin sums the importance and realisation columns
100Analysis is accurate & complete Frequent Software Development Win-Lose Patterns(That Usually Turn into Lose-Lose Situations)Proposed solutionWinnerLoserQuickly build a cheap, sloppy productDeveloper and customerUserAdd lots of "bells and whistles"Developer and userCustomerDrive too hard a bargainCustomer and userDeveloper
101Analysis is accurate & complete By now, you should have a list of requirements that has been ordered by importance and ease of realisation. The final stage is to estimate how many of the requirements can be implemented given the available time and money. Again, there are various techniques to establish the boundaries, but put simply, you need to draw a line through the requirements list and identify what you can achieve and what you cannot achieve.
102Analysis is accurate & complete The requirements that you can achieve become mandatory functional requirements and retain the verb "MUST". The requirements that you cannot achieve become optional or desirable functional requirements and the verb "must" changes to "MAY".For example:The system must display products on screen.The system may enable customers to check delivery and production status.
103Bazaar ceramics PRIORITISING REQUIREMENTS EXERCISE A workshop was held with Bazaar Ceramics in order to determine the requirements for the proposed website. The workshop was conducted to compile a comprehensive list of website feature and functions which were ranked by participants in order of importance.The 9 elements identified for Bazaar Ceramics are:Images and descriptions of productsProduction techniques and tourse-commerce and ordering onlineAutomated functionsPolicies and ProceduresAwards and testimoniesProduct delivery and careMiscellaneous
104Bazaar ceramicsEach of the elements were discussed in detail. New features and functions were added to each element until a comprehensive list was developed. See the document on the network. Comprehensive requirements for Bazaar Ceramics.doc
105Bazaar ceramicsEach participant ranked the features and functions by their perceived order of importance. It is your job to aggregate the participant’s ranked value into one value that represents the priority of Bazaar Ceramics as a whole. When aggregating all participants’ values into one value, you need to consider the importance of each person’s opinion. A Production worker’s opinion is valued at ¼ of a Manager’s opinion. The Business Owner’s opinion is valued at double the value of a Manager’s opinion.
106Bazaar ceramicsOpen the spreadsheet called Bazaar ceramics workshop data and calculate the features’ ranking. Which is seen as the most important? Which is the least important?
107Conclusion of Topic 31. True or False: A workshop typically involves data collation and analysis after the workshop has been completed.2. What is the output from the first stage of analysis?a list of business requirementsa list of key stakeholdersan opportunity or problem statementa list of technical requirements3. True or False: Absolute rankings can give a false indication on the actual importance of a business requirement.4. The business requirements that you CAN achieve and which are described using the word “must” are called:optional functional requirementsdesirable functional requirementsmandatory functional requirementsall of the above
108Gain Approval Now that you know about identifying key information sources,gathering data through formal processes,and ensuring that the analysis is accurate and complete.We submit an analysis and gain agreement within an information technology environment.
109Gain approval In this final topic you will learn how to: prepare detailed documents according to documentation standards and organisational templateswrite documents in a style that is succinct and appropriate to the audiencecommunicate data gathered to the client to gain consensus and agreement on business requirements
110Gain approval REPORT FINDINGS The contents and degree of detail for a Requirements Report will vary depending on the size and scope of a project, but a Requirements Report is generally an informal document that can be easily understood by the customer. The report may contain only business requirements, or it may extend to technical requirements and a feasibility study. Your organisation will often provide a template for requirements documentation.
111Gain approvalPURPOSE OF A REQUIREMENTS REPORT to communicate and confirm the requirements. The next section describes the different sections of the report.
112Gain approvalThere are many templates available for writing a Requirements Report. This section looks at one possible report layout. There are some examples of alternative report layouts on the network in the folder Week 7 – Gather Data
113Gain approval Introduction System description Functional requirements Non-functional requirementsInformation domainProject costsBenefitsOther project specific topic
114Gain approval Requirements definition report elements Introduction PurposeScopeDefinitionsOverview of documentSystems descriptionOverall systemSub systemsOperating environmentFunctional requirementsLogical viewPhysical viewNon-functional requirementsPerformanceQualityBusiness rulesInformation domainData definitionsStructureProject costsAnalysisSoftware developmentHardware and networkBenefitsTangibleIntangible
115Gain approval STORYBOARDS FOR WEB PAGES A common technique for providing functional information for websites to the client is to provide a storyboard. Storyboards are a visual representation of what a website interface is supposed to look like. They can consist of a site map and a detailed representation of some or all of the pages in the site.Here is an example of a site map:
116Here is an example of a site map: Gain approval
117Gain approval Here is an example of a mock up of a website page: Here is an example of a site map:Gain approval
118Gain approval - Activity 1 Here is an example of a site map:Gain approval - Activity 1Activity 1 - Functional requirementsA workshop was held with Bazaar Ceramics in order to determine the requirements for the proposed website. The workshop was conducted to compile a comprehensive list of website features and functions which were ranked by participants in order of importance. The results of the workshop can be found in the Bazaar requirements workshop data.xls. It contains the requirements ranked in importance from highest to lowest, high having a larger number and low having smaller number.Pair up with another student (optional), analyse the information in the spreadsheet and put it into the IEEE standards document.
119Gain approval – activity 2 Here is an example of a site map:Gain approval – activity 2Role play: Presenting the requirements to the clientYou go to a meeting with your client at Bazaar Ceramics to present the mandatory and desirable functional requirements. The goal of the role play is to deal with any objections your client may have, and to reach agreement on the requirements.Consider the questions and objections your client may have and how you will deal with them.Round 1Deliver the presentation to the client; another plays the role of the client.Round 2Reverse roles (or rotate pairs) so that the pair who played the role of the client is now presenting their requirements.Each pair now gives feedback to the pair who presented to them. Give feedback on both the written document (the Requirements Report) and the presentation itself.