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Action of a simple cell. Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+) Dilute sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 Zn 2+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ SO 4 2- e e.

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Presentation on theme: "Action of a simple cell. Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+) Dilute sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 Zn 2+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ SO 4 2- e e."— Presentation transcript:

1 Action of a simple cell. Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+) Dilute sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 Zn 2+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ SO 4 2- e e

2 Action of a Simple cell. To make a simple cell in a Laboratory, the following are required: Copper rod.

3 Action of a Simple cell. To make a simple cell in a Laboratory, the following are required : Copper rod. Zinc rod.

4 Action of a Simple cell. To make a simple cell in a Laboratory, the following are required. Copper rod. Zinc rod. dilute sulphuric acid.

5 Action of a Simple cell. To make a simple cell in a Laboratory, the following are required. Copper rod. Zinc rod. dilute sulphuric acid. Connecting wire.

6 Action of a Simple cell. To make a simple cell in a Laboratory, the following are required. Copper rod. Zinc rod. dilute sulphuric acid. Connecting wire Beaker 100 cm 3.

7 Action of a Simple cell. When the Copper and Zinc plates are joined by awire and dipped into dilute sulphuric acid the following observations are made: The Zinc rod slowly dissolves in the sulphuric acid.

8 Action of a Simple cell. When the Copper and Zinc plates are joined by awire and dipped into dilute sulphuric acid the following observations are made: The Zinc rod slowly dissolves in the sulphuric acid.

9 Action of a Simple cell. When the Copper and Zinc plates are joined by awire and dipped into dilute sulphuric acid the following observations are made: Bubbles of Hydrogen are formed on the copper plate.

10 Action of a Simple cell. A current of electrons drifts through the wire from the Zinc to Copper.

11 Action of a Simple cell. dilute sulphuric acid ionises according to the equation. H 2 SO 4 (aq) 2H + (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq)

12 Action of a Simple cell. Zinc atoms dissolves from the Zinc plate and go into solution as Zn 2+ ions each of which leaves two electrons behind on the Zinc rod.

13 Action of a Simple cell. These electrons are the source of electron current which goes through the wire from the Zinc to the Copper.

14 What happens at the Copper rod? At the Copper rod Hydrogen ions are discharged to form Hydrogen atoms and molecules. H + + e H atom H + H H 2 (g)

15 Conventional direction of electric current. Current flows from positive terminal of a cell to the negative terminal.

16 Conventional direction of electric current. The electrons are driven by ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE emf.

17 Emf of a cell. Emf of a cell is equal to the potential difference across its terminal when it is not producing current in a circuit.

18 Emf of a simple cell. The emf of a simple cell is about 1.0 volts.

19 Emf of a simple cell. If a small pocket bulb is connected to the terminals of acell its filament will glow for a few minutes.

20 Action of a simple cell. Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+) Dilute sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 Zn 2+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ SO 4 2- e e

21 Action of a simple cell. Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+) Dilute sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 Zn 2+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ SO 4 2- e e

22 Action of a simple cell. Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+) Dilute sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 Zn 2+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ SO 4 2- e e e

23 Action of a simple cell. Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+) Dilute sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 Zn 2+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ SO 4 2- e e e e

24 Action of a simple cell. Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+) Dilute sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 Zn 2+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ SO 4 2- e e e ee

25 Action of a simple cell. Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+) Dilute sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 Zn 2+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ SO 4 2- e e e ee e

26 Action of a simple cell. Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+) Dilute sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 Zn 2+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ SO 4 2- e e e e e e e

27 Action of a simple cell. Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+) Dilute sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 Zn 2+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ SO 4 2- e e e e e e e e

28 Action of a simple cell. Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+) Dilute sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 Zn 2+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ SO 4 2- e e e ee e e e e

29 Action of a simple cell. Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+) Dilute sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 Zn 2+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ SO 4 2- e e e ee e e e e

30 Faults of a Simple cell. The emf of a simple cell quickly falls to a small value From about 1.0 V to 0.2 V.

31 Polarisation. The defect results from formation of a layer of Hydrogen bubbles on the Copper Plate and is called Polarisation.

32 Polarisation. The hydrogen layer sets up a back emf in the cell in opposition to that due to Copper and Zinc.

33 Polarisation. The hydrogen gas partially insulates the plate hence increases the internal resistance of the cell.

34 How to stop Polarisation. The original emf of the cell can be restored by adding a depolarizing agent Potassium dichromate to the cell which oxidises hydrogen to water.

35 Local Action. If the Zinc used is impure Bubbles of hydrogen will be seen coming off the Zinc.

36 Local Action. This is called Local Action

37 Local Action. Local action is produced by the presence of impurities such as carbon

38 Local Action. Local action is produced by the presence of impurities such as carbon iron

39 Local Action. Which set up tiny local cells at the Zinc surfaces.

40 Local Action. Bubbles of hydrogen are given off from the impurity and the surrounding Zinc slowly dissolves in the acid.

41 Local Action. This merely wastes the Zinc.

42 To prevent Local Action.. To prevent local action the Zinc is cleaned and a small globule of mercury is rubbed over the surface with a piece of cotton wool.

43 To prevent Local Action. The mercury forms a bright coating of Zinc amalgam all over the surface.

44 To prevent Local Action The amalgam covers up the impurities and prevents them from coming into contact with the acid.

45 Thats the end of the lesson. Get ready to answer some revision questions

46 Revison Questions. State five materials required to make a simple cell in a lab i.............................. ii................................ iii............................... iv............................... v...............................

47 Revision questions. 2When Copper and Lead are joined by a wire when dipped in sulphuricacid i...................... Slowly dissolves into the sulphuric acid.

48 Revision questions. 2When Copper and Lead are joined by a wire when dipped in sulphuricacid ii............................................ are formed on the Copper plate.

49 Revision questions. 2When Copper and Lead are joined by a wire when dipped in sulphuricacid iii a current of electrons drifts through the wire from the................... To the...........

50 Revision questions. 3 Conventional current direction is from.......................terminal of a cell to........................ The terminal.

51 Revision questions. 4 Emf means..............................................

52 Revision questions. 5 Electrons in a cell are driven by................

53 Revision questions. 6Emf of a simple cell is A 0.2 V B 1.0 V C 1.5 V D 2.5 V

54 Revision questions. 7Presence of Emf is shown by..........................................

55 Revision questions. 8Emf of a Simple cell quickly falls to a small value due to formation............................ on the copper plate 9This defect is called.................................

56 Revision questions. 10 The hydrogen layer sets up a....................and partially insulates the plate hence increases the.................................. of the cell.

57 Revision questions. The original emf of the cell can be restored by adding a........................ called................................................................

58 Revision questions. If impure zinc is used in a simple cell, then local action can be prevented by using........................................

59 The end This work was Produced and presented by John Ssemmondo P O Box 1901 Kampala tel 075630283 basemondo@hotmail.com

60 Faults of a Simple cell

61 Action of a simple cell Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+) Dilute sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 Zn 2+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ SO 4 2- e e e e e e e e e

62 Action of a simple cell Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+) Dilute sulphuric acid H 2 SO 4 Zn 2+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ SO 4 2-

63 Action of a simple cell Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+)

64 Action of a simple cell Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+)

65 Action of a simple cell Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+)

66 Action of a simple cell Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+)

67 Action of a simple cell Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+)

68 Action of a simple cell Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+)

69 Action of a simple cell Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+)

70 Action of a simple cell Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+)

71 Action of a simple cell Zinc rod (-) Copper rod (+)


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