Presentation on theme: "Teacher Developed Supports for At-risk Students"— Presentation transcript:
1 Teacher Developed Supports for At-risk Students Tim Lewis, Ph.D.Barbara MitchellUniversity of Missouripbis.org
2 Starting Point We can’t “make” students learn or behave We can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behaveEnvironments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity
3 Big Ideas Using data at each step of the process Intervention selected based on presenting behavior patternModify environment (classroom) to promote practice opportunities & meet “function”
4 Essential FeaturesUnderstand interaction between behavior and the teaching environmentBehavior is functionally related to the teaching environmentBuild Positive Behavior Support Plans that teach pro-social “replacement” behaviorsCreate environments to support the use of pro-social behaviors (practice, practice, practice)Around individual student need / self-managementClassroomSchool-wide4
5 Basic Steps in FBA-BIP Process Conduct functional behavioral assessmentCreate plan based on functional assessment outcomeDevelop infra-structure to support behavior change (system change)
6 Positive Behavior Support Plan Teach replacement behavior(s) that result in same/similar outcomeEnvironment should not allow problem behavior to result in previous outcomesIdeally replacement behavior should be more efficient than problem behavior
7 How do schools get there? Build parallel systemic processesProvide school/district teams with a process to address the presenting challengeDevelop a parallel process for districts/states to support school implementation and continue to expand with integrity
8 Positive Behavior Support Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMESSupportingDecisionMakingSupportingStaff BehaviorDATASYSTEMSPRACTICESSupportingStudent Behavior
9 Are School Teams Ready? 80% or better on SET Action plan to maintain UniversalsUse data in team meetingsCreate a decision rule to identify students in needAssessment to identify what supports students needStrategy to implement classroom-based supportsEqual emphasis on systems, data and practice supports
10 Classroom Systems of Support within SW-PBS: Universals & Targeted 10
11 Classroom ChallengesStudents spend majority of their school day in the classroomMajority of “discipline problems” originate in the classroom and often result in removal from instructionRemaining engaged in instruction essential to student academic and social success“Culture” of education often reinforces ineffective practices and creates barriers to implementing effective practices11
13 Universals: Classroom Classroom expectations/rules defined and taughtClassroom routines defined and taught“4:1” positive feedbackActive supervisionStudents actively engagedMultiple opportunities to respondMinors addressed quickly and quietly/privatelySchool wide procedures for majors are followed
14 Connecting Classrooms to SW-PBS Efforts Tie academic and social behavior prevention effortsMaximize time student spends in instruction & learning (i.e., keeping in class vs. sending them out)Build expertise within the school via the PBS teamFocused professional developmentBrief in-service, multiple practice opportunities, structured feedbackMove to collaborative problem solvingPeer coaching, model/demonstrations
15 Structural Analysis Setting Factors Assessment Tool Level 1: Classroom Set-up and StructureLevel 2: Context Specific ActivitiesLevel 3: Instructional Delivery and TasksLevel 4: Student BehaviorStichter, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Johnson, N., & Trussell, R. (2004). Toward a structural assessment: Analyzing the merits of an assessment tool for a student with E/BD. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 30,
18 Applied Work in Progress A Systematic Process to Implement Individual PlansAs Tim said my name is Barbara Mitchell.For the past 10 years I’ve been a special education teacher with Columbia Public Schools in Columbia Missouri. Currently I am on leave from the district to work with the Missouri State PBS Team.Most recently I taught in a self-contained class for students with Emotional and Behavior disorders at Gentry Middle SchoolI’ve been working with Tim off and on for the past 10 years. First as his student, but most recently in helping Gentry figure out how to develop supports for at-risk and high-risk students.My job today is to tell you a little bit about the work we’ve been doing at Gentry and the process our teachers use to identify function based interventions.First, let me give some background about our district and school.
19 Background and Context PBS in Columbia Public Schools18 elementary buildings3 middle schools3 junior highs3 high school programs17,000 studentsGentry is one of three middle schools in Columbia.Our district includes 18 elementary buildings, 3 middle schools, 3 junior highs and 3 high school programs. Altogether we serve approximately 17,000 studentsThrough work with Tim and the MU Center, PBS has been in some of our schools for a number of years. Four years ago PBS officially became a district wide initiative.Currently, most of our schools are implementing PBS at some level.Work across the district is supported by a coordinator and a full-time facilitator who help guide and direct the work in individual buildings.
20 Gentry Middle School Three core teams per grade level Elective team Five general education teachersOne special educationElective teamLiteracy support centerSelf-contained/Special educationAdministrative teamGentry opened as a Middle School in 1994.We serve approximately students in grades 6-7Our students are divided into 3 teams per grade level. We call this their Core Team.Each Core Team includes 5 general education teachers and a special education teacher. Core teams teach our Reading, Language Arts, Science, Social Studies and Math classes. Our core teams stay together for both 6th and 7th grade.In addition to Core Teams, we also have a team of Elective teachers. While students are in Elective classes, their Core teachers have a 45 minute planning period and then 45 minutes to meet together as a team.Working with our Core Teams we have a Literacy Support Center to serve students who are performing below grade level in reading and/or writing.We have two self-contained classes for students who need high levels of special education service.And we have an administrative team, which includes 3 administrators, 3 counselors and a part time school psychologist.
21 PBS at Gentry Year 1-6 Universal Features PBS team Building wide expectations (RRKS) & MatrixLesson plans and teaching scheduleTrack discipline dataSystem for acknowledging (RRKS Ribbon)Continuum of responseDocument minors (RRKS TOC)Gentry has been implementing PBS for a number of years.We have a PBS team which meets monthly.Our building wide expectations are Respectful, Responsible, Kind and Safe; we call this RRKSWe developed a Matrix, which defines behavior expectations for students throughout different settings in the building.Our office referral form is aligned with SWIS and we track and share data with our faculty on a monthly basis.We also have a system for acknowledging expected behavior. We call this a RRKS Ribbon. Teachers hand them out to students when they demonstrate appropriate behavior. Core teams set a goal and celebrate after students collect a certain number of ribbons.Most recently we outlined and documented a school-wide continuum of response. When a student is not meeting expectations the procedure at Gentry is verbal reminder or prompt, safe seat, buddy room, then office referral.We also have a system for documenting loss of instructional time when a buddy room placement occurs. This system is called a RRKS TOC, which stands for time out of class. This allows us to keep track of classroom problems that are not at the level of an office referral.
22 With these features in place this is what our office referral data looked like. This chart shows data from the school year.The first bar shows appx 20% of our students received 1-3 referrals that year.The next bar shows we had a smaller number of students who received 4-6 referrals. Roughly 6% of our population.The remaining 4 bars show the number of students who received 7 or more office referrals during that school year. 19 of these kids had referrals. The kids in these last four bars account for about 9% of our population.
23 We acknowledge- up front- there are features we can put in place- particularly at the classroom level- to reduce the number of students in these first 2 bars.We also acknowledge that an efficient system of secondary interventions would prevent some kids from moving into these last 4 bars.But we also know that it takes a long time to build good classroom and secondary systems.Good investment, and one we continue to work on, but the reality is every school has these kind of kids- ones with 10 or 20 or 45 office referrals. We have them every year, they disrupt the learning of others, they frustrate our teachers and they are on track for low achievement, school failure and long term outcomes that are not good.The focus of what I’m talking about today is the kinds of kids in these last 4 bars. At Gentry we continue to work on classroom and secondary systems, but at the same time- in our school- we needed to do something for these kids and we just couldn’t let them wait.
24 Building a System to Implement Individual Plans SAT-STAT-RRKSSo, what did we doWe did 2 things… First, we set up a system for working with our teachers.Then we used that system to teach our faculty a process for function based intervention.The goal was … learn to use data, select an intervention based on pattern of the problem, then construct an environment to meet the student’s needs.Let me show you the first part… How we built a system for working with our teachers…
25 Core Team Representative District PBS Support Method for Communicating PracticeSAT ProcessTeacher Assistance and SupportTargeted/Small Group InterventionsIndividual Student PlansSAT TeamCounselors, Administrators,School Psych, &Behavior Specialist* Meets WeeklyCore Team/ClassroomsImplement AISMonitor ProgressEvaluate OutcomesSTAT TeamCore Team Facilitator,SAT Partner, &Core Team Teachers* Meets WeeklySchool-Wide SystemsMatrixLesson PlansSchool-Wide DataAcknowledgementCommunicationThis is how it looks in our school.At Gentry we organized ourselves into three groups.First, at the base level is our Universal PBS team. It includes administrators, counselors, and one representative from each core team. This group meets once a month and our focus is school-wide, non-classroom and classroom systems.At the next level is what we call a STAT team. One day per week each core team uses 45 minutes of release time to have a STAT meeting. This is a designated day and time to have conversation about students within that core team who are having problems. The focus of this group is implementing function based interventions. The challenge though is that many of the members at this level may not know how to identify and implement those interventions. So…At the top of the triangle we have our student assistance or SAT team. Now, we call it a student assistance team, but the truth is we are actually a teacher assistance team. This group includes administrators, counselors, our school psychologist and myself. Our focus is working with teachers. Each of us is partnered with one core team and we attend that teams weekly STAT meeting. We provide guidance and support as those teams identify and implement function based interventions.One of the essential features of the SAT group is having flexibility in our schedule that allows us to work with teachers in their classrooms and during their STAT meetings.RRKS TeamCore Team RepresentativeDistrict PBS SupportBuilding Administrator and Counselors* Meets Monthly
26 Provide Ongoing Support Periodic, intensive, with follow-upClassroom/team universalsAIS processFollow-up AISFeedback and systems maintenanceWeekly, skills-based, with modeling and feedbackThis is how our support model works.First, we provided periodic, intensive training sessions with one member of each core team.Then we follow up on those sessions during our weekly STAT team meetings.For example, during our first training session last year we showed how to create classroom and team rules and routines. One member of the core team created an example, then during a STAT team meeting we gave time for the rest of the group to do the same.In the second training session we showed steps for using data to identify an intervention. Teams selected students who were having problems, then during weekly STAT meetings we helped them identify and implement interventions.In our third training session each core team had time to report about students they worked with and interventions they selected. The follow up STAT meetings focused on refining interventions and how to monitor progress.Our last session was used to organize student outcome data. These outcomes were then shared during STAT team meetings.For us the most important piece of this system was the weekly follow up during STAT team meetings. Learning to use data, identifying interventions according to data and then monitoring outcomes is a pretty tough and often unfamiliar task. For us, training sessions alone were not enough. Our teachers needed scheduled time during those weekly STAT meetings to have some very structured conversations.
27 Designing a Process for Implementing Individual Plans Gentry AIS and FBA MatrixSo, that we how we set up a system to work with our teachers….Now let me show you the process we taught them to use.Again, the goal is use data to select an intervention that matches the problem. Then adapt the environment to support use and practice.
28 Intervention Strategy Process Assemble dataConstruct environmental supportsComplete a student interviewDelineate positive and response outcomesDefine the problem behaviorCommunicate action to others involvedComplete a student scheduleImplement strategiesMonitor and document progressDevelop hypothesisIdentify replacement behavior (s)These are the steps we worked through for each student we selected…Now, for a special education teacher or a PBS veteran most of these steps are pretty familiarBut think for a minute… what if I’m a first year reading teacher? I know a lot about reading skills and comprehension strategies, but I may not know anything about this. What if I’m a PE teacher or someone who’s been teaching social studies for 20 year?? I’ve definitely got at-risk and high-risk students in my class, but I probably don’t have a lot of experience using data to identify interventions.We know it’s not effective for one person to write an intervention plan, hand it out and hope everyone implements with integrity. Teachers need to understand the practices they are being asked to use and why those practices support at risk kids.That’s is why we taught our teachers this process.Now- in order to teach this process we created a handout- I think you’ve got a copy of it. This form is specific to our school based on information and outcomes that are important to us. Steps in the process are the same across kids, but some of the details of this paper won’t necessarily make sense outside of our setting.Let me also say…We created a handout but the message was… it’s not about completing the papers or filling out the form. The handout was the way we guided conversation during those weekly STAT meetings. Instead of venting and complaining about kids, we used this process to be productive and identify and select an intervention that was likely to give good outcomes. So, it’s not about filling out the form and kid gets better, it’s about making informed decisions based on the data you have.
29 Intervention Strategy Process Assemble dataConstruct environmental supportsComplete a student interviewDelineate positive and response outcomesDefine the problem behaviorCommunicate action to others involvedComplete a student scheduleImplement strategiesMonitor and document progressDevelop hypothesisIdentify replacement behavior (s)Briefly, let me show you what this would look like in a STAT team meeting.First, steps 1 and 2 are about gathering information. At Gentry we decided attendance, grades, office referrals and RRKS TOCS are data we already collect AND are important indicators of a problem or success for students. So this is the type of information we want to gather.In addition, we talk to the student. Nothing formal, nothing fancy- just a 10 minute conversation with a kid about what is and isn’t going well at school. Gotta tell you some of the best information comes straight from the kidsNext, we use the information we gathered to define the problem.After we defined the problem we completed a student schedule. This means we asked teachers to think about when and where, under what types of conditions the problem does or doesn’t occur.From this we could develop a hypothesis or make our best guess about why the problem occurs.Next, we identify a replacement behavior. This means… what do we want the student to do instead…Number 7… constructing environmental supports is about the classroom. It means what can I do in my environment to support the replacement behavior… Maybe it’s giving more precorrects or increasing feedback. Might be increasing opportunities to respond or giving access to a peer partner. For lots of kids environmental supports may mean changing an academic task. The goal here is to identify variables in the environment that can be altered to meet the needs of the student.
30 Intervention Strategy Process Assemble dataConstruct environmental supportsComplete a student interviewDelineate positive and response outcomesDefine the problem behaviorCommunicate action to others involvedComplete a student scheduleImplement strategiesMonitor and document progressDevelop hypothesisIdentify replacement behavior (s)Number 8 is about consistency. It means I need to think about what I will do every time my student demonstrates the replacement behavior- how will I acknowledge this AND what is my consistent response for when student is not meeting expectationsSteps 9 and 10 are probably the most important and of course also the toughest. Once we’ve identified what we will do about the problem we have to tell our plans to everyone who works with the child and then ensure each person implements the plan correctly and consistently. Huge challenge!How do we do it?? Same way we would for kids… we provide lots of modeling and feedback.Finally, the last step is about keeping track of how the plan is going. Doesn’t make sense to continue if something else is needed, but we won’t know this unless we track the students progress. What do we use to track progress??? Same data that indicated there was a problem in the first place. At Gentry we’re looking at Office referrals, RRKS Tocs, attendance and grades.So…An 11 step plan makes this look easy. Of course it’s not, it’s messy and it’s complicated. Thats why we had to build a system to support our teachers and then try to work through the process.
31 Gentry FBA Matrix After Gentry struggled for a good long while, Tim finally created a Matrix to help us out. Again, like the AIS handout, this matrix is specific to our school.One of the places we struggled most was with types of intervention. I think our teachers were expecting some kind of pre-packed commercial kit, or lots of counseling and small group instruction outside of class.This matrix let us see what kinds of interventions might match a particular problem.But we use this matrix with caution- it’s not a plug and chug; we still need to look at data and make thoughtful, informed decisionsAgain, this is a guide for productive conversationLewis, 2008
32 Student Data ODR-RRKS TOC-Attendance-Grades Outcomes and ResultsStudent DataODR-RRKS TOC-Attendance-GradesLet me tell you quickly about some of our outcomes and results… This is not research data, instead it’s information about students in our schoolAgain, our immediate goal was teaching a process to faculty. At this stage we considered it bonus if we also got good outcomes for kids.We ended up with pre/post data for 15 studentsIndicators we looked at wereoffice referrals (average per day of school attended),RKKS TOC which means time out of class (non-office referral/buddy room)Attendance andGrades
33 Intervention Strategies Implemented Targeted Classroom InterventionIncrease precorrects & feedbackSmall Group InterventionCheck-in/Check-outIndividualized InterventionCICO with modified course scheduleOf the students we worked with the interventions we provided surfaced into 3 general categoriesImportant to understand though… the intervention was developed after we looked at data about the presenting problem. We didn’t just plug kids into an existing group- we made informed decisions.The idea is we want to have a bank of interventions that are readily available and easily accessible, but we don’t use those interventions unless they match the problem presentedIn our group…1 student received what we call a targeted intervention- this means his teachers simply increased their rate of precorrects and feedbackA separate group of 8 students participated in a CICO program with access to a weekly reinforcerAnother 4 students participated in CICO, but also had a modified course schedule, which means we eliminated at least a portion of one core class each day so these students could access a free choice activity on a daily basis.Then we also had 2 students who’s interventions were incorrectly matched with function- when we look at the data see if you can tell who these 2 students are…
34 Monitor Progress Week 9 3/3/08 3/4/08 3/5/08 3/6/08 3/7/08 Weekly AverageStudent 194%95%97%No SchoolStudent 1This is an example of how we monitored progress during the intervention14 of the students we worked with used a daily point sheet, so this is the kind of data we discussed during the weekly STAT team meeting.Depending on the data… we could decide to fade, continue or intensify the intervention.
35 Evaluate Outcomes Questions to Consider… Is intervention being implemented with integrity?Does intervention match the function of student behavior?Does the student need more intensive, individualized support?As we looked at data- particularly if a student was not meeting a goal- these were the questions we discussed.Is the intervention being implemented with integrity?Does the intervention match the function of behavior?If we answered yes to both of those questions, then we knew it might be time to consider more intensive support.
36 So, outcomes… what did we get?? This is office referral data.In general and on average we saw a decrease in office referrals for many students.Also important though are the “non-responders” (students 8, 9 and 14)These are the students we ask those questions about.. Did we implement with integrity and does intervention match function?For example, in the case of student 14…. data clearly indicated there were academic needs going on with this kid, but the team continued CICO as an intervention. For the most part, this was an intervention that didn’t meet his need.
37 This is RRKS Toc data- which means time out of class On average we saw a decrease in loss of instructional timeAnd for several kids, classroom problems ended completely.But then there is kid 15:Another example of team selecting an intervention regardless of the data pattern.For this student the data indicated avoid task issues, but team insisted on CICO as an intervention.Providing extra adult attention clearly was NOT a good response for this student. Worse yet, this team ignored weekly progress monitoring and continued with the intervention well after it was clearly not effective.
38 Attendance was an area where we didn’t see as much gain. Overall, there was a slight increase in attendance, but most of these students already had pretty high rates of attendance prior to the intervention.However, if you look at students 1, 4, and 12 we did find the greatest gains among kids with the lowest attendance rates
39 The last indicator we looked at was grade point average. Overall we saw an increase in work completion and accuracy –But more telling is the information for students like 10, 11, 12 and 14. These kids have incredibly low grade point averages both before and after intervention. Although they showed some improvement it’s clear that in addition to the intervention they received, more intense academic support is also required.
40 Use data Select intervention Modify environment Lessons LearnedUse dataSelect interventionModify environmentThinking through both our system for supporting teachersAnd the process we used to provide interventions for kids…Did we learn anything?
41 Build Buy-In Start small Training on function based intervention Same things we do for students…Teach expected behaviorProvide supportReinforce reasonable approximationAcknowledge successOutcome dataYes…We know that learning to use data, selecting appropriate intervention and then creating supportive environments is a skilled and technical process.However, in order to provide adequate supports for at-risk and high-risk students we have to have teachers who understand this process.At Gentry trying to get there meant…. starting small-We had lots of kids in the high risk category, but we didn’t take them all on at once. We set up a system to work with our teachers, then we provided training and support for a process.
42 Big Ideas Using data at each step of the process Intervention selected based on presenting behavior patternModify environment (classroom) to promote practice opportunities & meet “function”
43 Teacher Developed Supports for At-risk Students Tim Lewis, Ph.D.Barbara MitchellUniversity of Missouri
44 Core Team Representative District PBS Support Method for Communicating PracticeSAT ProcessTeacher Assistance and SupportTargeted/Small Group InterventionsIndividual Student PlansSAT TeamCounselors, Administrators,School Psych, &Behavior Specialist* Meets WeeklyCore Team/ClassroomsImplement AISMonitor ProgressEvaluate OutcomesSTAT TeamCore Team Facilitator,SAT Partner, &Core Team Teachers* Meets WeeklySchool-Wide SystemsMatrixLesson PlansSchool-Wide DataAcknowledgementCommunicationThis is how it looks in our school.At Gentry we organized ourselves into three groups.First, at the base level is our Universal PBS team. It includes administrators, counselors, and one representative from each core team. This group meets once a month and our focus is school-wide, non-classroom and classroom systems.At the next level is what we call a STAT team. One day per week each core team uses 45 minutes of release time to have a STAT meeting. This is a designated day and time to have conversation about students within that core team who are having problems. The focus of this group is implementing function based interventions.At the top of the triangle is our student assistance or SAT team. We call it a student assistance team, but the truth is we are actually a teacher assistance team. This group includes administrators, counselors, our school psychologist and myself. Our focus is working with teachers. Each of us is partnered with one core team and we attend that teams weekly STAT meeting. We provide guidance and support as those teams identify and implement function based interventions.One of the essential features of the SAT group is having flexibility in our schedule that allows us to work with teachers in their classrooms and during their STAT meetings.RRKS TeamCore Team RepresentativeDistrict PBS SupportBuilding Administrator and Counselors* Meets Monthly