2Hyper Text Markup Language What is HTMLHyper Text Markup LanguageIt is a markup language used to create the content and semantic structure of Web pages.A Web page is comprised of a number of HTML elements, each of which has a particular meaning in the context of a Web page.
3Web BrowsersThe purpose of a web browser (Chrome, Internet Explorer, Firefox) is to read HTML documents and display them as web pages.The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses these tags to interpret the content of the page.
5HTML TagsHTML tags are keywords (tag names) surrounded by angle brackets like <html>HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b>The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tagThe end tag is written like the start tag, with a forward slash before the tag name
6HTML ElementsAn HTML element is everything between the start tag and the end tag, including the tags:HTML Element:<h1>This is a heading</h1>
7Element AttributesHTML elements can have attributes, which provide additional information/usageAttributes are always specified in the start tagAttributes come in name/value pairsEg:<div id=“container” style=“background:#000;”></div><img src=“test.jpg” alt=“sample” width=“200” height=“200” />
9Basic Structure of a HTML document <html> <title>Page title</title> <head></head> <body> ****Content comes here**** </body> </html>
10Deprecated Tags and Attributes In HTML 4, several deprecated tags and attributes were used to style documents. These tags are not supported in HTML 5.Avoid using the elements <font>, <center>, and <strike> and the attribute bgcolor.
11Some important tags <h1> to <h6>-Headings <p> - Paragraphs<a href=“”> Anchor tag – links<img src=“”> – adding images<div> -adding divisions, basically used for layout and with CSS<input type=“”> - checkboxes, text-area, submit buttons, radio,etc.<form> - creating a HTML formNote that the <img> and <input> do not have closing tags
12Some important tags <table> creates a table <tr> - table row<td> - table cell<br> - break line<hr> - horizontal line
13Cascading Style Sheets CSSCascading Style SheetsStyles define how to display HTML elements.CSS was introduced together with HTML 4, to provide a better way to style HTML elements.
15Adding CSS to HTML CSS can be added to HTML in the following ways: Inline - using the style attribute in HTML elementsInternal - using the <style> element in the <head> sectionExternal - using an external CSS fileThe preferred way to add CSS to HTML, is to put CSS syntax in external CSS files.
16Inline StylesAn inline style can be used if a unique style is to be applied to one single occurrence of an element.To use inline styles, use the style attribute in the relevant tag. The style attribute can contain any CSS property.
17Internal Style SheetsAn internal style sheet can be used if one single document has a unique style.Internal styles are defined in the <head> section of an HTML page, by using the <style> tag
18External style sheetsExternal style sheets enable you to change the appearance and layout of all the pages in a Web site, just by editing one single file!Saved in .css extensionEach page must link to the style sheet using the <link> tag:
19Style priority Inline style Internal style sheet External style sheet Decreasing Priority!important – used with a style attributes to override other style attributes assigned to an element
21CSS SelectorsThey allow authors to target specific HTML elements so that they can be styled.
22Type selectorThe type selector is written using the element type only.A type selector selects every instance of the element type regardless of their position in the document tree.
23ID & ClassIn addition to setting a style for a HTML element, CSS allows you to specify your own selectors called "id" and "class".The id selector is used to specify a style for a single, unique element.The class selector is used to specify a style for a group of elements.
24ID SelectorsThe id selector is written using a “#” followed by the id value.Note: Class values are case-sensitive. Browsers will interpret “a” and “A” differently.
25Class SelectorsThe class selector is written using a “.” followed by the class value.Note: Class values are case-sensitive. Browsers will interpret “a” and “A” differently.
26Class SelectorsYou can also combine type and class selectors to isolate specific instances of an element. For example:This means that only paragraphs with a class of “big” will be selected.