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1 HTML - V22.0004 Introduction to Hypertext  HTML: Hypertext Markup Language  Hypertext …  links within and among Web documents  connect one document.

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Presentation on theme: "1 HTML - V22.0004 Introduction to Hypertext  HTML: Hypertext Markup Language  Hypertext …  links within and among Web documents  connect one document."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 HTML - V

3 Introduction to Hypertext  HTML: Hypertext Markup Language  Hypertext …  links within and among Web documents  connect one document to another  Although this seems rather mundane today, this is a radical departure from the structure of books since the invention of the printing press

4 Origins of HTML  HTML is based on SGML (Standardized General Markup Language)  “A philosophical rule was that HTML should convey the structure of a hypertext document, but not the details of its presentation.”  Since then, HTML has evolved into a presentation language.

5 What is HTML? HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) HTML standards are developed under the authority of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), headed by Tim Lee HTML is the set of "markup" symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on a World Wide Web browser. The markup tells the Web browser how to display a Web page's text, images, sound and video files for the user. The individual markup codes are referred to as elements (but many people also refer to them as tags).

6 HTML  HTML is easy to pick up.  There are many good books as well as resources on-line  Our goal is to teach you the basics so that you can pick up the rest on your own.

7 HTML Documents HTML documents are text documents We use simple ASCII text files Html file extensions:.html or.htm You can create html documents using: Notepad in Windows and TextEdit (MAC OS X) You can also use HTML Editors

8 HTML Editors HTML editors are called “WYSIWYG” What You See Is What You Get! Examples of HTML Editors: Dreamweaver Front Page Go Live

9 HTML Editors: Cons –They do not always generate clean HTML Add redundant tags Add their own tags –They do not offer good graphic tools to manipulate images –It can be hard to fix HTML tags since every time you open a document, code is added. Pros –Good for beginners You do not have to know much HTML to use editors It is easy to create complex tables, image maps, and use advanced functions such as Style Sheets and JavaScript Easy for design due to the WYSIWYG interface

10 HTML Document Structure HTML Document contains Text (content of the page) HTML uses the following file extensions or suffix:.HTML or.HTM Embedded tags: provides instruction for the structure, and appearance of the content

11 HTML Document Structure The HTML document is divided into two major parts: HEAD: contains information about the document: Title of the page (which appears at the top of the browser window) Meta tags: used to describe the content (used by Search engines) JavaScript and Style sheets generally require statements in the document Head BODY: Contains the actual content of the document This is the part that will be displayed in the browser window

12 Sample HTML Document My web page Content of the document

13 HTML Tags All HTML tags are made up of a tag name and sometimes they are followed by an optional list of attributes which all appear between angle brackets Nothing within the brackets will be displayed by the browser (unless the HTML is incorrectly written and the browser interprets the tags as part of the content) Attributes are properties that extend or refine the tag’s functions

14 Basic Syntax  Most (but not all!) HTML tags have a start tag and an end tag:  Hello, world!  Basic Document Structure  header: information about the page, e.g. the title.  body: the actual content of the page.  document starts with  and ends with

15 HTML Tags Standalone tags –There are a few HTML tags which do not use an end tag and are used for standalone elements on the page: to display an image Line break header

16 HTML Tags Attributes Attributes are added within a tag to extend a tag’s action. You can add multiple attributes within a single tag. Attributes belong after the tag name; each attribute should be separated by one or more spaces. Most attributes take values, which follow an equal sign “=“ after the attribute’s name. Values are limited to 1024 characters in length.

17 This is Information which the browser will ignore: Tabs multiple spaces will appear as a single space Example: – “Hello, How are you?” The browser will ignore the blanks and new line: Hello, How are you?

18 v. Tags v. Tags  : Break  : Paragraph tag. Creates more space than a BR tag.  : Creates a Horizontal Rule

19 Paragraph Tag Paragraph Tag Leaves one empty line after the tag Multiple tags with no intervening text is interpreted as redundant by all browsers and will display a single tag

20 Line break Line break This tag breaks the line and starts text at a new line. It will not add an empty line like the paragraph tag Multiple tags will display multiple line breaks

21 Using blockquotes Use …. to set up a “block” of text. Nested blockquotes will further indent. For example: Tiffany was one of America's most acclaimed and multitalented artists working in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Of all of Tiffany's artistic endeavors, stained glass brought him the greatest recognition. … will display as: Tiffany was one of America's most acclaimed and multitalented artists working in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Of all of Tiffany's artistic endeavors, stained glass brought him the greatest recognition.

22 Comments Comments Browser will NOT display text in between I. E. uses the following tag as a comment: this a comment

23 Headings:.. Headings:.. You can create Headlines of various sizes on your page Headlines appear as bold letters An empty line will also follow the headlines. Used for titles –H1 is the largest font and h6 is the smallest heading –Headings need an end tag

24 Font Tags to specify color, font type and size The Curse of Xanadu by By Gary Wolf, Wired Magazine  Font tags:  face: Arial, Courier, etc.  size: e.g. 3, 6  color: e.g. “RED”, “GREEN”, etc.

25 Text format tags Bold: some text or Italic some text or (Horizontal Rule) Displays horizontal line in the browser window. The line fills the window from left to the right margins. It’s useful to separate sections of your document You can use attributes with such as –

26 Lists Lists are used to organize items in the browser window: Unordered list: Bulleted list (most popular), list items with no particular order Ordered list: Numbered list

27 Lists  HTML supports two types of Lists:  Ordered Lists (OL): e.g. 1,2,3  UnOrdered Lists (UL): e.g. bullets.  Basic Syntax: Item 1 Item 2

28 Unordered list: –Unordered list: Bulleted list (most popular), lists items with no particular order Fruit Banana Grape Fruit Banana Grape

29 Ordered list: Numbered list: Fruit Banana Grape Fruit 1. Banana 2.Grape

30 Hyperlinks (Anchor Tag): Hyperlinks are used for linking: within the same page (Named tags) To another page in your web site (Relative Link or local link) To another page outside your web site (Absolute or remote link) Link Hyper Links: are highlighted and underlined text. When you click on it, it takes you to another page on the web. highlighted text

31 Hyperlinks: Absolute Link: These are links to another page outside of your web site. These links specify the entire URL of the page: NYU Web Site

32 Hyperlinks: Relative Link: These are links to another page in your site so you do not have to specify the entire URL. Go back to main page

33 Targeted Links  A tag includes a target attribute. If you specify target=“_blank”, a new browser window will be opened.  NYU  More on this when we get to frames...

34 Link: You can someone at: Send to J.J.

35 HTML Tables  Tables represent a simple mechanism for creating rows and columns of data.  This is a great tool for laying out the content of any web page, especially when you omit the border by using:  … border = “0” …  Tables are very widely used and supported by all common browsers.  Tables use a very simple tag structure.

36 Backgrounds Use for a background color with a hex version of a web-safe color: For a tiled background using an image file:

37 Tables tags starts with 1. tag, then 1. defines table rows. Each represents one row in the table. The number of rows is determined by the number of 2. Table data or Table Header can follow the tag The number of cells in each row is determined by the number of (Table Header) and/or (Table data) tags contained within that row. text will be in bold, and centered 2. HTML - Tables cell 1 cell 2 cell 3 cell 4 cell 5 cell 6 cell 7 cell 8 cell 9

38 Basic Tag Structure Ticker Price MSFT 71 1/16 KO 46 15/16 TR: Table Row TH: Table Heading TD: Table Data Every must have a matching. Every must have a matching.

39 Align: "left", "center" or "right“ - "left" is the default Border: thickness of the border in pixels - 0 for no borders Bgcolor: is background color in HEX or as a name color Background=url (works with IE only) Cellpading=n (n is number of pixels (space) between cell content and its border Cellspacing=n (n is number of pixels (space) between cells) Height=n (height of table in pixels or percentages 100%) Width=n (Width of table in pixels or percentages 100%) Table Attributes

40 Scrolling text using the tag scrolling text Welcome to my website! Be sure to visit again!

41 40 HTML and Multimedia

42 Images  Image Attributes  src: URL or filename for the image  width/height: not required  border: not required.  alt: recommended for users running a text browser.

43 Adding multimedia files listen to sound file view movie clip

44 File TypeExtention/Mime type ================================ plain text:.txt HTML document:.html GIF image:.gif or.jpg or.png Acrobat file:.pdf AIFF sound file:.aiff.au. wav MP3.mp3 QuickTime movie:.mov MPEG movie:.mpeg or.mpg Multimedia Filetypes


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