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Grammar Errors that Create Confusion for the Reader  Run-on sentences  Misplaced modifiers  Unclear pronoun reference  Faulty parallelism  Agreement.

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Presentation on theme: "Grammar Errors that Create Confusion for the Reader  Run-on sentences  Misplaced modifiers  Unclear pronoun reference  Faulty parallelism  Agreement."— Presentation transcript:

1 Grammar Errors that Create Confusion for the Reader  Run-on sentences  Misplaced modifiers  Unclear pronoun reference  Faulty parallelism  Agreement

2 The most important aspect of grammar is understanding what a sentence is Sentence:A sentence is group of words with a subject and a verb that expresses a complete thought. Fragment:A fragment is a group of words that either is missing a subject or a verb or does not express a complete thought. Run-on:A run-on is two or more independent clauses that are not joined properly. For instance, a common mistake is to have a comma between the clauses.

3 Which are sentences (S), fragments (F), or run-ons (RO)? 1Rubidium has no major uses, however, it is more common in the earth than zinc, copper, or nickel. 2Although carbon dioxide occurs naturally, man has dramatically increased its concentration this past century. 3Several systems can detect plastic explosives. For example, thermal neutron activation systems, nitrogen sniffer systems, and enhanced x-ray systems. RO S S / F

4 Sentence (S), fragments (F), or run-on (RO)? 1Rubidium has no major uses, however, it is more common in the earth than zinc, copper, or nickel. RO Rubidium has no major uses; however, it is more common in the earth than zinc, copper, or nickel. Rubidium has no major uses. It is more common in the earth than zinc, copper, or nickel.

5 Three situations in which run-on sentences are apt to happen 1.A pronoun in the second clause refers to a noun in the first clause. The President’s popularity has plummeted, she apparently underestimated the opposition. The President’s popularity has plummeted. She apparently underestimated the opposition. The President’s popularity has plummeted; she apparently underestimated the opposition.

6 Three situations in which run-on sentences are apt to happen 2.A suggestion or directive occurs in the second clause. You will be responsible for this material on the final exam, study it thoroughly. You will be responsible for this material on the final exam. Study it thoroughly You will be responsible for this material on the final exam; therefore, study it thoroughly.

7 Three situations in which run-on sentences are apt to happen 3.When two clauses are connected by a transitional expression. Many people think protectionism can halt rising prices, however, the opposite is true. Many people think protectionism can halt rising prices; however, the opposite is true. Many people think protectionism can halt rising prices. However, the opposite is true.

8 Which are sentences (S), fragments (F), or run-ons (RO)? 3 Several systems can detect plastic explosives. For example, thermal neutron activation systems, nitrogen sniffer systems, and enhanced x-ray systems. S / F Several systems can detect plastic explosives. Examples include thermal neutron activation systems, nitrogen sniffer systems, and enhanced x-ray systems. She spent her first week on the job as a researcher. Selecting and compiling technical information from journals. She spent her first week on the job as a researcher, selecting and compiling technical information from journals. S / F

9 Placing a modifier in its appropriate place is also important These proteins indicate to the body what hormones should be given off among other things. These proteins indicate to the body, among other things, what hormones should be given off. In meeting the staff of the Parks Department, the greatest problem was that of water leakage. In meeting the staff of the Parks Department, we learned that the greatest problem was water leakage.

10 Unclear pronoun references cause ambiguities it??? Because the receiver presented the radiometer with a high flux environment, it was mounted in a silver-plated stainless steel container. This??? this??? If you receive an e-mail titled "Win A Holiday," do not open it. It will erase everything on your hard drive. Forward this e-mail out to as many people as you can. This is a very malicious virus and not many people know about it.

11 Making a list parallel also avoids confusion Animals that come in contact with oil can develop rashes, sores, and may leave the area. Animals that come in contact with oil can develop rashes, sores, and wandering tendencies. Animals that come in contact with oil can develop rashes and sores, and may leave the area.

12 Making a list parallel also avoids confusion The new apprentice is enthusiastic, skilled, and you can depend on her. The new apprentice is enthusiastic, skilled, and dependable. In his new job, he felt lonely and without a friend. In his hew job, he felt lonely and friendless.

13 Subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement are also important Grammatical agreement involves:  number (singular or plural)  person (first, second, third)  case (nominative or objective)  gender (male, female, or neither)


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