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Fundamentals of Grammar April 21, 2014. The Comma Splice Her scandal is not that of adultery, she commits the sin of the comma splice.

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Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Grammar April 21, 2014. The Comma Splice Her scandal is not that of adultery, she commits the sin of the comma splice."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fundamentals of Grammar April 21, 2014

2

3 The Comma Splice Her scandal is not that of adultery, she commits the sin of the comma splice.

4 Independent clause, DOES NOT A SENTENCE MAKE!!!!! ANDBUTOR,,, HOWEVER  COORDINATING CONJUNCTION, nor, for, so, yet

5 You create a comma splice if you use a comma to try to connect two complete sentences, you should use a semicolon or a coordinating conjunction instead.

6 You create a comma splice if you use a comma to try to connect two complete sentences; therefore, you should use a semicolon or a coordinating conjunction instead.

7 “Here is a lesson in creative writing. First rule: Do not use semicolons. They are transvestite hermaphrodites representing absolutely nothing. All they do is show you've been to college.” Kurt Vonnegut

8 Quick Little Reminder The semicolon (;) is used to separate two complete sentences or independent clauses. It can be thought of as a “weak period” or a “flashing red light”. Break momentarily, then proceed. Semicolons indicate a close relationship between two thoughts. Never, ever, never, ever follow a semicolon with a fragment. What comes before AND after the semicolon must be a COMPLETE SENTENCE that can STAND ALONE. ***They can also be used to separate items in a list when the items already include commas.

9 She is no adulteress, however, she does commit the occasional comma splice. She is no adulteress; however, she does commit the occasional comma splice. He never does the assigned reading. Nevertheless, he seems to ace every exam. Although he never does the assigned reading, he seems to ace every exam. She does not commit adultery; she does, however, occasionally commit the sin of the comma splice

10 However, however, is not a FANBOY. Conjunctive Adverbs An adverb is a part of speech that modifies a verb, adverb, adjectives, clauses, and sentences, anything but a noun. Many adverbs end in -ly, although not all of them. A conjunction is a part of speech that connects phrases and clauses. Therefore, a conjunctive adverb is a type of adverb that joins together two clauses. These clauses are usually independent clauses, otherwise known as complete sentences. To correctly punctuate a conjunctive adverb, a writer will use a semicolon or period at the end of the first independent clause. The conjunctive adverb is then used followed by a comma and the next independent clause. (Serve as great transitions and sentence starters, too.)adverbsconjunctionindependent clauses

11 While there is some overlap, DO NOT CONFUSE Conjunctive Adverbs with Subordinating Conjunctions. Let’s visit Grammar Bytes to walk through Conjunctive Adverbs. Chomp Chomp! veadverb.htm

12 And now we have Subordinate Conjunctions… Let’s allow Grammar Bytes to walk us through using Collaborate’s Web Tour Feature. ateconjunction.htm

13 However, one chooses to go about the task, the important thing is that it gets done. HOWEVER=ADVERB BUT NOT A CONJUNCTION X

14 Common Comma Pitfalls Do not mistake the semicolon (;) for the colon (:)!

15 Colons Can Do Many Things: 1) Integrate a quotation. 2) Introduce a list. 3) Introduce proof, description, or explanation. EX: I have one house rule: there must, without exception, be an ample stash of chocolate on hand at all times. 4) Introduce a logical consequence EX: Only one possibility remained: he would have to cut off his arm to free himself. ALT: Only one possibility remained: to cut off his arm to free himself.

16 There is much confusion surrounding the debate: All of the candidates seem to have contradicted their prior platforms, including their most fundamental convictions.

17 In the Iditarod, a race unlike any competition in the world, humans and animals work together to accomplish an epic feat: Traversing a route from Anchorage, in south central Alaska, to Nome, on the western Bering Sea coast, each team of 12 to 16 dogs and their musher cover over 1150 miles of tundra, mountains, and forest in 10 to 17 days.

18 As with a semicolon, what precedes a colon MUST always be a complete sentence. Unlike a semicolon, what follows a colon DOES NOT have to be a complete sentence.

19 Despite considering myself a pacifist, I can agree with one thing the army stands for: to be all you can be. It is often said that to achieve great success only one thing is truly necessary: determination.

20 Blunder : ( Lists trip people up…. The great Greek orators were known for their use of rhetorical devices such as: praeteritio, polysyndeton, and prolepsis. Using specific rhetorical devices: praeteritio, polysyndeton, and prolepsis, the Greeks became superior rhetoricians. In my opinion, the following three rhetorical devices are most characteristic of Greek rhetorical style: praeteritio, polysyndeton, and prolepsis.

21 Identify & Correct The executive summary explains why the customer needs the product, how it would alleviate pain to patients with small kidney stones that are usually allowed to pass on their own.

22 The executive summary explains the product’s benefit to the customer: It alleviates the pain associated with small kidney stones that are usually allowed to pass on their own.

23 Remember your conjunctive adverbs and transitional phrases… also, consequently, furthermore, however, moreover, nevertheless, therefore, ultimately, meanwhile, thus, still in all, otherwise, that is, for instance, on the other hand, in addition… (There are plenty of lists available online. It is a great practice to keep a list nearby as you are working the revision muscle. Usage will become natural over time, but there is nothing shameful about referring to a list to experiment and gain comfort.)

24 Identify & Correct One could argue that there is never a defense for disregarding the boundaries of others, ultimately respect between human beings comes down to honoring other people even if they have commitments distinct from our own.

25 Common Comma Pitfalls Avoid putting your reader in a comma coma… Unfortunately, I do not get along with Doris, who is my dog walker, because, she always gives my dog too many greasy, unhealthy treats, even though, I have asked her not to.

26 Unfortunately, I do not get along with Doris, my dog walker, because she always gives my dog too many greasy, unhealthy treats even though I have asked her not to.

27 Appropriate Comma Use Adjective Clauses: Sally, whom you met at last night's dance, wants to know if you found her purse. Participial Phrases: Mr. Duffy, named hotdog eating champion in 1985, has been promoted to T-Bone Ambassador. Adjective Phrases: Julianna, crazed with power, refused to acknowledge defeat. Noun appositives: Jim, acrobat extraordinaire, wanted to climb the precipitous monkey bars.

28 Only set a phrase apart with commas if it is non- restrictive or non-essential. If the phrase/clause helps to single out one of many possibilities, then it is vital to the meaning of the sentence.

29 Essential: The guy whom you met on the hike just waved out the window of that car. This clause is essential because it identifies the person waving out the window. Non-Essential: Jake, whom I met at the art show last night, wants to meet to play chess. This clause is non-essential because it adds information that does not change the meaning of the sentence.

30 Gems that sparkle often elicit forgiveness. Gems, which can range in appearance from dull rocks to sparkling diamonds, may elicit forgiveness or a turned up nose depending on where they fall along the spectrum.

31 Identify and Correct Integrating quotations: In his essay “Self-Reliance,” Ralph Waldo Emerson boldly celebrates individuality and self-expression, he says, “Whoever would be a man must be a nonconformist.”

32 Possible Correction In his essay “Self-Reliance,” Ralph Waldo Emerson boldly celebrates individuality and self- expression with the proclamation, “Whoever would be a man must be a nonconformist.”

33 Alternative Emerson’s proclamation that “whoever would be a man must be a nonconformist” illustrates his reverence for individuality and self-expression--and some would say his sexism, as well.

34 Genius, according to Emerson, is a fundamental human capacity accessible if we would only listen to our innermost voice: “To believe your own thought,” he says, “to believe that what is true for you in your private heart is true for all men, — that is genius.”

35 CONSULT YOUR STYLE GUIDE! MLA, Chicago, APA, etc. have varying standards and expectations that are, for better or for worse, seemingly always under review.


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