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**The Path to Accessible Math**

Neil Soiffer Design Science, Inc University of Guelph May 27, 2009 Copyright © 2009, Design Science Inc., All rights reserved.

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**Outline The Good The Bad – Limitations The Ugly – Making it Work**

Accessible Math MathML & Standards Authoring Tools Renders DAISY The Bad – Limitations The Ugly – Making it Work The Discussion…

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**Accessible Math What Where Why**

Expressions, Graphs, Figures, Animations, Manipulatives Where Textbooks, homework, articles, work Web, MS Word, PDF, ebooks Why Every day, every student takes math It is one of the 3 "R"s It’s the Law… Every school day, in ever classroom, children are taught math

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**Accessible Math Requirements**

Blindness Audio description Navigation Braille math translation Low Vision Font size and color control Print-related Learning Disabilities Synchronization of highlighting with speech Needs are not really different from those related to normal text Images don’t meet these needs, even if they have alt text

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**Math as Images What’s Wrong with Images MathML to the rescue…**

Math can and is spoken many different ways Alt text is static Pronunciation: “a plus b” No magnification, navigation, braille, or sync highlighting MathML to the rescue…

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**MathML Example Presentation Content**

<math> <mroot> <mi> x </mi> <mn> 3 </mn> </mroot> </math> <math> <apply> <root/> <degree> <cn> 3 </cn> <degree/> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </math>

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**MathML In Standards MathML 2 (2003); MathML 3 (2010?) DocBook**

DocBook DAISY (Digital Talking Books) NIMAS: K-12 Textbooks eBooks: ePub (OEBPS) PDF (?!) PDF/UA support for Math HTML5 (2012???) Presentation Linebreaking control Support for elementary math mglyph supports image inclusion Content Completely rewritten chapter Clearer mapping to OpenMath Semantics grounded in OpenMath

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**Authoring MathType —Word, iWork, … WebEQ — Java-based MathML editor**

MathFlow—ArborText, XMetaL, XMAX Open Office Scientific Notebook TeX→MathML —TtM, TeX4ht,LaTeXML Mathematica, Maple, MathCAD

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**Design Science Authoring Tools**

MathType WYSIWYG TeX editing Works with Word PowerPoint iWork ’09 Wikipedia…

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**WebEQ & MathFlow Editor**

Single Equations WebEQ Content MML XML Editors MathFlow Arbortext XMetaL SDK – suite of tools for custom apps WebEq includes equation editor SDK good for one off things (hook up editor to connexions interface)

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**MathType & MathPage MathPage for Word MathPlayer Word-> XHTML**

Display Interaction Accessible

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**Works in Popular Browsers**

IE+MathPlayer Firefox

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**MathPlayer Accessibility Features**

Display Matches font size and color Allows magnification of expressions Synchronized highlighting Speech Supports multiple speech styles Supports multiple languages Supports prosody (pauses, rate, …) Braille Supports multiple MathML-to-braille translators DotsPlus (emboss to Tiger printers)

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**Demo Time Word+MathType MathPage to get XHTML+MathPlayer**

MathPlayer Accessibility

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**MathPlayer Multilingual Speech**

Translations Usable: Chinese, German, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Spanish, Swedish In Process Bulgarian, Czech, Dutch, Korean What it takes to do a translation ~150 words + 74 descriptions 3,000 Unicode characters (~500 needed) Need French Fame, Glory, and Fortune – only two out of three

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**DAISY DAISY is a highly accessible format Contains a MathML extension**

Collection of files Audio, Text, or a combination Contains a MathML extension Used by Other Standards NIMAS is a subset of DAISY Part of ePub (ebooks)

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**Word & “Save as DAISY” Version 2: Full DAISY book Demo…**

Uses MathType Uses MathDaisy Demo… Edit (WYSWYG, TeX) SAD Also Open Office Add-in

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**The Bad: DAISY Only two visual players support Math**

gh Player Dolphin EasyReader v4 (+)Works with all Audio only players Not much technical material in DAISY Multiple files complicates delivery NIMAS should cause lots more material to be added Pearson HTML books

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**The Bad: MathML on the Web**

Not Universally Supported Doesn’t work in Safari, Chrome Doesn’t work in IE w/o MathPlayer Accessible only w/MathPlayer or FireVox Fonts JavaScript and/or Greasemonkey-like solutions coming FireVox: “screen reader for Firefox”

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**The Ugly: MathML on the Web**

Serving XHTML application/xhtml+xml Use .xht as suffix dessci.com/en/products/mathplayer/author/creatingsites.htm UMM – PHP server solution MathML-aware browser → MathML Otherwise → Generate & Send Image GTKMathView (free) or MathFlow SDK umm.sourceforge.net

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**Summary Authoring: MathType, MathFlow, … Works with DAISY tools**

Display: MathPlayer, Firefox, gh Player, EasyReader Flexible Speech & Braille Generation MathML used in lots of places Project SMART: ‘MathML is good’

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