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History of Policing PSCI 2481.

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1 History of Policing PSCI 2481

Pre-Colonial Policing in England Colonial Policing in America Post-Revolutionary Policing The Rise of the Police Department (1790s-1840s) The Political Era The “Service” Department (1840s-1920s) The Reform Era Crime Fighting as Police Business (1930s-1970s) The Modern Era Community-Problem Solving (1980s - ????)

3 Early Policing in England
“Era of voluntary peacekeeping” 1285 Statute of Winchester - Citizens are required to pursue criminals under the direction of the Constable. 1361 Justices of the Peace appointed by the Crown Watchmen introduced By King Charles II ( ). Henry Fielding – author of “Tom Jones” takes over as JP of the Bow Street Court Leads efforts to educate the public about the crime problem - Covent Garden Journal Also published the Weekly Pursuit - a 1 page flyer (precursor of the modern “.Ten Most Wanted” List) organized an ex-constable band called the “Bow Street Runners” - salaried group of “vigilantes” but also the first London force. The system of crime prevention and law enforcement had hardly changed since the Medieval times. JPs or Justices of the Peace were appointed by the Crown (and had been since 1361). These were assisted by Constables who only worked part-time and were very unreliable as the pay was so bad! Watchmen were also employed. These were called Charleys after King Charles II who introduced them. The problem with Charleys was that they were useless! The Lord Mayor of London, Matthew Wood said that they spent very little time patrolling, instead they would be in their boxes playing cards, going to pubs with prostitutes or sleeping! He also said that some of them took bribes from criminals. London was growing fast, and so was the crime rate, and something needed to be done. The famous writer Henry Fielding (author of Tom Jones) became chief magistrate at Bow Street Court in He wrote a report about the rise in crime, and published it in 1751. The Inquiry into the Causes of the Late Increase of Robbers broke down the problems: --- too many people coming to London expecting an easy life --- corruption in the government --- people were choosing crime rather than hard work --- the constables were mostly useless - only 6 out of 80 were worth keeping on. He set up a horse patrol and a magazine called the Covent Garden Journal to give people information about crimes and criminals - a bit like the TV programme Crimewatch:UK today!

4 American Colonial Period
Era of Self-policing: Similar backgrounds, similar religious beliefs, little to steal, nowhere to hide, towns provided protection against the wilderness. (similar to the society found in Tristan de Cuhna) Of course the settlers were hardly the cream of European society. Many were legal and religious castoffs. Note the original Jamestown colony was wiped out by indians.

5 American Colonial Period
Era of British Rule: Two principal “police” institutions The Constable Chosen by the townspeople Job - Suppress violations of community religious (moral) edicts, primarily victimless crimes. Keep drunks in line. Watch for gambling and prostitution. The Night Watch A patrol of “volunteers” supervised by a Constable Report drunks and single women out after dark. Duty was avoided by paying others to take your shift. (precursor of the paid police force)

6 American Colonial Period
During this period, citizens, regardless of their economic status, were responsible for the identification and pursuit of criminal offenders. Once a criminal was identified, it was the citizens’ responsibility to raise the “hue and cry” and to join the posse to track down the criminal. In those days, the penalties were severe so criminals had the incentive to run. Detection of crime was largely a private affair. Initiatives were encouraged through rewards paid to informers. The early years were marked by high levels of lawlessness especially in certain sections of urbanized areas were agents of the law were rarely seen.

7 American Colonial Period
While night watch groups were established in the northern colonies, groups of white men organized into slave patrols in the southern colonies. Slave patrols were responsible for controlling, returning, and punishing runaway slaves. These slave patrols are generally considered to be the first "modern" police organizations in this country. (In 1837, Charleston, South Carolina, had a slave patrol with over one hundred officers, which was far larger than any northern city police force at that time).

8 American Colonial Period
Policing on the western frontier varied widely. Settlers originally from northern colonies created marshals and police forces similar to those in northern colonies. Settlers from southern colonies developed systems with sheriffs and posses. In many western settlements, however, there was no formal organized law enforcement. In these areas, groups of vigilantes were formed by volunteer citizens to combat any threat to the order of the settlements.

9 The First Police Departments
London (“The British Model”) Formed in 1829 under the command of Robert Peel. His officers were called “Peelers” and late “Bobbies”, a derogatory term at first used by British citizens suspicious of this new police presence in their community. Police force of over 1000 officers with a new approach to crime fighting. The success of the Metropolitan Police of London led to Peel’s eventual rise to Prime Minister of England in 1835. Peel founded the Metropolitan Police Force when he was Home Secretary in Lord Liverpool’s Cabinet. This force became the model for the creation of all the provincial police forces; at first in the London Boroughs, and then into the counties and towns, after the passing of the County Police Act in (An ironic point however;  the Lancashire town of Bury, birthplace of Sir Robert, was the only major town which elected not to have its own separate police force.)

10 Peeler’s Principles “The police are the public and the public are the police.”
The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon the public approval of police actions. Police must secure the willing co-operation of the public in voluntary observation of the law. The degree of co-operation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force. Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion, but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when persuasion, advice, & warning is found to be insufficient. Excerpts

11 Boston – The American Prototype
When first initiated by the city Council in 1824, the department under the supervision of the city Marshall, was charged with "the care of the streets, the care of the common sewers, and the care of the vaults, and whatever else affects the health, security, and comfort of the city." In these early days, an officer on duty carried a six-foot pole, painted blue and white to protect himself, and a "police rattle" to call for assistance.

12 Boston Police Department A Brief Historical Chronology
1635: First night watch established. 1788: The word "police" appeared for the fist time, designating a specific office, "Inspector of Police". 1822: The Town of Boston became the City of Boston. Increases in the population and in the number of businesses operating created increased demand for police patrol. 1838: Law passed permitting day patrol. City had a Day Police and a Night Watch, which operated completely independently of one another. 1852: The metal badges were issued – a six point star made of brass. 1854: Boston Police Department established, structured after the model developed by Sir Robert Peeler. 1858: Telegraph system completed, linking central office and police stations. 1861: White cotton gloves worn by the officers for the first time. Thereafter, "full uniform" included the wearing of such gloves. 1872: The Great Boston Fire of November 9 and 10 which destroyed 776 buildings. The fire was discovered by a patrolman who was chasing boys on Lincoln Street. 1873: First mounted patrol established. 1903; First motor patrol wagon placed in service – a Stanley Streamer touring car operated by a chauffeur; the police officer sat on higher seat so that he could look over area’s back fences.

13 The New York Police Department
In 1844, the NYPD was formed by combining day and night forces into a single integrated PD, the first such arrangement in this country. NYPD adopts a uniform (Blue becomes the color of the force in 1853), and a paramilitary structure like the British. No training, meager salaries, limited public respect. Politics influences too much of their activities. Boston and Philadelphia give its officers guns for the first time in 1854 and NY follows suit in 1857. The NYPD model was next adopted by Chicago in 1851, Cincinnati in 1852, ….

When the first NY police force began patrolling in the summer of 1845, they only badges on their civilian clothing. The badges were 8 pointed stars with the seal of the City at the center and were made of stamped copper. The newspapers of the time referred to the new force as the "Star Police" but people seeing the shiny copper shields began to call the new force "Coppers" which was later shortened to "Cops." According to the NYC Police Museum ( But according to the NYPD, the STAR badges were made of brass: This was the first badge of the New York City Police Department. It was made of brass and worn between 1845 and The star was worn over the left side of the policeman's coat and was his only badge of office, since he wore no uniform. Alternatives… Copper as slang for policeman is first found in print in 1846, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The most likely explanation is that it comes from the verb "to cop" meaning to seize, capture, or snatch, dating from just over a century earlier (1704). There is also a British police term; Constable On Patrol which may account for the term "cops" in England. By the way, the French call their police gendarmes, which came from gens d'arme (people with weaponry) which ranked just below knight in medieval armies

15 Early Police Forces in America

16 20th Century Policing Technology changes police operations
The telegraph The telephone Walkie-talkies Cars Radio-cars (“Angels of Death”) Radar Computers Computers in cars Crime analysts Training techniques and Police academies New weaponry

17 Reform Wickersham Commission of 1931
President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice 1967 National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals 1973 Criminology as a college major.

18 The Job Today Numbers Federal Structure Salaries

19 Number of Fulltime Law Enforcement Personnel (2003)
Type of Number of agency agencies Total Sworn Civilian 15,766 993,442 683,599 309,843 Local police 12,656 580,749 451,737 129,013 Sheriff 3,061 330,274 174,251 156,022 State police 49 82,419 57,611 24,808

20 American Police Agencies by Population Served (2003)
Number Percent All sizes 12,656 100 1,000,000 or more 17 0.1 500,000 to 999,999 39 0.3 250,000 to 499,999 42 100,000 to 249,999 177 1.4 50,000 to 99,999 422 3.3 25,000 to 49,999 776 6.1 10,000 to 24,999 1,887 14.9 2,500 to 9,999 4,048 32.0 Less than 2,500 5,248 41.5

21 Average Salaries for Police Officers, by City Size (2005)
Population group Starting Salary Maximum Salary Over 1,000,000 3 38,206 57,401 500,000 to 1,000,000 11 40,374 58,624 250,000 to 499,999 12 40,474 55,319 100,000 to 249,999 95 41,315 57,393 50,000 to 99,999 159 40,568 56,711 25,000 to 49,999 305 37,759 51,904 10,000 to 24,999 743 35,484 49,584

22 Average Salaries for Police Chiefs (2005)
Region Average Chief Salary Northeast 217 $92,536 North Central 564 $65,395 South 662 $63,901 West 173 $103,328

23 The Chiefs of Big City America

24 Our image of police officers and police departments today

25 How much confidence do you have in the ability of the police to protect you from violent crime?
A Quite Not None great a lot very at all deal much 2000 (Aug) 20% 1999 (Mar) 29% 1998 (0ct) 19% 1995 (Sep) 20% 1993 (0ct) 14% % % %

26 How much respect do you have for the police in your area?
A Hardly great deal Some any 2000 (Aug) 60% 1999 (Mar) 64% 1991 (Mar) 60% % %

27 How high would you rate the honesty and ethical standards of people in these different fields?
Very High Ave. Low Very High Low Clergy 15% 39% 33% 7% 2% Doctors 10% 42% 38% 6% 3% Policemen 8% 34% 42% 10% 4% Journalists 4% 23% 54% 13% 2% Bankers 4% 23% 53% 14% 3% Lawyers 3% 15% 43% 25% 11% Congressmen I % 10% 43% 32% 11 % Car Salesmen I % 4% 32% 41 % 18%

28 How would you rate the ____ that serve your community in accomplishing their criminal justice mission? Excellent Only Fair Not Sure or Good or Poor Police 64% 34% 2% Prosecutors 48% 44% 9% Judges 45% 48% 7% Prisons 32% 54% 14% Parole Boards 22% 57% 21 %

29 Police operations

30 Impact of Timeliness in Reporting Crime
Probability of an Arrest Crime Reported While In Progress 33% 1 Minute Afterwards 9% 10 Minutes Afterwards 5%

31 Reasons for Not Calling the Police
Private Matter Police Would Fear of Didn’t Want Not Be Effective Reprisal CRIME To Bother Them (% Not Reported) Robbery 27% 45% 0% (35%) Burglary 30% 63% 2% (42%) Sex Offenses* 40% 50% 5% (49%) Family 65% 17% 7% Crimes (50%) Auto 20% 60% 20% Theft (11%) * Other than Rape

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