Presentation on theme: "History of Policing PSCI 2481. A BRIEF HISTORY OF POLICING Pre-Colonial Policing in England Colonial Policing in America Post-Revolutionary Policing The."— Presentation transcript:
History of Policing PSCI 2481
A BRIEF HISTORY OF POLICING Pre-Colonial Policing in England Colonial Policing in America Post-Revolutionary Policing The Rise of the Police Department (1790s-1840s) The Political Era The “Service” Department (1840s-1920s) The Reform Era Crime Fighting as Police Business (1930s-1970s) The Modern Era Community-Problem Solving (1980s - ????)
Early Policing in England “Era of voluntary peacekeeping” 1285 Statute of Winchester - Citizens are required to pursue criminals under the direction of the Constable. 1361 Justices of the Peace appointed by the Crown Watchmen introduced By King Charles II (1649-1685). 1748 - Henry Fielding – author of “Tom Jones” takes over as JP of the Bow Street Court Leads efforts to educate the public about the crime problem - Covent Garden Journal Also published the Weekly Pursuit - a 1 page flyer (precursor of the modern “.Ten Most Wanted” List) organized an ex-constable band called the “Bow Street Runners” - salaried group of “vigilantes” but also the first London force.
American Colonial Period Era of Self-policing: –Similar backgrounds, similar religious beliefs, little to steal, nowhere to hide, towns provided protection against the wilderness. (similar to the society found in Tristan de Cuhna) Of course the settlers were hardly the cream of European society. Many were legal and religious castoffs.
American Colonial Period Era of British Rule: Two principal “police” institutions The Constable Chosen by the townspeople Job - Suppress violations of community religious (moral) edicts, primarily victimless crimes. Keep drunks in line. Watch for gambling and prostitution. The Night Watch A patrol of “volunteers” supervised by a Constable Report drunks and single women out after dark. Duty was avoided by paying others to take your shift. (precursor of the paid police force)
American Colonial Period During this period, citizens, regardless of their economic status, were responsible for the identification and pursuit of criminal offenders. –Once a criminal was identified, it was the citizens’ responsibility to raise the “hue and cry” and to join the posse to track down the criminal. –In those days, the penalties were severe so criminals had the incentive to run. Detection of crime was largely a private affair. Initiatives were encouraged through rewards paid to informers. The early years were marked by high levels of lawlessness especially in certain sections of urbanized areas were agents of the law were rarely seen.
American Colonial Period While night watch groups were established in the northern colonies, groups of white men organized into slave patrols in the southern colonies. Slave patrols were responsible for controlling, returning, and punishing runaway slaves. These slave patrols are generally considered to be the first "modern" police organizations in this country. (In 1837, Charleston, South Carolina, had a slave patrol with over one hundred officers, which was far larger than any northern city police force at that time).
American Colonial Period Policing on the western frontier varied widely. Settlers originally from northern colonies created marshals and police forces similar to those in northern colonies. Settlers from southern colonies developed systems with sheriffs and posses. In many western settlements, however, there was no formal organized law enforcement. In these areas, groups of vigilantes were formed by volunteer citizens to combat any threat to the order of the settlements.
The First Police Departments London (“The British Model”) Formed in 1829 under the command of Robert Peel. His officers were called “Peelers” and late “Bobbies”, a derogatory term at first used by British citizens suspicious of this new police presence in their community. Police force of over 1000 officers with a new approach to crime fighting. The success of the Metropolitan Police of London led to Peel’s eventual rise to Prime Minister of England in 1835.
Peeler’s Principles “The police are the public and the public are the police.” 1.The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder. 2.The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon the public approval of police actions. 3.Police must secure the willing co-operation of the public in voluntary observation of the law. 4.The degree of co-operation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force. 5.Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion, but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law. 6.Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when persuasion, advice, & warning is found to be insufficient.
Boston – The American Prototype When first initiated by the city Council in 1824, the department under the supervision of the city Marshall, was charged with "the care of the streets, the care of the common sewers, and the care of the vaults, and whatever else affects the health, security, and comfort of the city." In these early days, an officer on duty carried a six-foot pole, painted blue and white to protect himself, and a "police rattle" to call for assistance.
Boston Police Department A Brief Historical Chronology 1635: First night watch established. 1788: The word "police" appeared for the fist time, designating a specific office, "Inspector of Police". 1822: The Town of Boston became the City of Boston. Increases in the population and in the number of businesses operating created increased demand for police patrol. 1838: Law passed permitting day patrol. City had a Day Police and a Night Watch, which operated completely independently of one another. 1852: The metal badges were issued – a six point star made of brass. 1854: Boston Police Department established, structured after the model developed by Sir Robert Peeler. 1858: Telegraph system completed, linking central office and police stations. 1861: White cotton gloves worn by the officers for the first time. Thereafter, "full uniform" included the wearing of such gloves. 1872: The Great Boston Fire of November 9 and 10 which destroyed 776 buildings. The fire was discovered by a patrolman who was chasing boys on Lincoln Street. 1873: First mounted patrol established. 1903; First motor patrol wagon placed in service – a Stanley Streamer touring car operated by a chauffeur; the police officer sat on higher seat so that he could look over area’s back fences.
The New York Police Department In 1844, the NYPD was formed by combining day and night forces into a single integrated PD, the first such arrangement in this country. NYPD adopts a uniform (Blue becomes the color of the force in 1853), and a paramilitary structure like the British. No training, meager salaries, limited public respect. Politics influences too much of their activities. Boston and Philadelphia give its officers guns for the first time in 1854 and NY follows suit in 1857.
WHERE DID THE TERM "COPS" COME FROM? When the first NY police force began patrolling in the summer of 1845, they only badges on their civilian clothing. The badges were 8 pointed stars with the seal of the City at the center and were made of stamped copper. The newspapers of the time referred to the new force as the "Star Police" but people seeing the shiny copper shields began to call the new force "Coppers" which was later shortened to "Cops."
Early Police Forces in America
20 th Century Policing Technology changes police operations The telegraph The telephone Walkie-talkies Cars Radio-cars (“Angels of Death”) Radar Computers Computers in cars Crime analysts Training techniques and Police academies New weaponry
Reform Wickersham Commission of 1931 President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice 1967 National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals 1973 Criminology as a college major.
The Job Today Numbers Federal Structure Salaries
Number of Fulltime Law Enforcement Personnel (2003) Type ofNumber of agencyagenciesTotalSwornCivilian Total15,766993,442683,599309,843 Local police12,656580,749451,737129,013 Sheriff3,061330,274174,251156,022 State police4982,41957,61124,808
American Police Agencies by Population Served (2003) Population servedNumberPercent All sizes12,656100 1,000,000 or more170.1 500,000 to 999,999390.3 250,000 to 499,999420.3 100,000 to 249,9991771.4 50,000 to 99,9994223.3 25,000 to 49,9997766.1 10,000 to 24,9991,88714.9 2,500 to 9,9994,04832.0 Less than 2,5005,24841.5
Average Salaries for Police Officers, by City Size (2005) Population group Starting Salary Maximum Salary Over 1,000,000338,20657,401 500,000 to 1,000,0001140,37458,624 250,000 to 499,9991240,47455,319 100,000 to 249,9999541,31557,393 50,000 to 99,99915940,56856,711 25,000 to 49,99930537,75951,904 10,000 to 24,99974335,48449,584
Average Salaries for Police Chiefs (2005) Region Average Chief Salary Northeast217$92,536 North Central564$65,395 South662$63,901 West173$103,328
The Chiefs of Big City America
Our image of police officers and police departments today
How much confidence do you have in the ability of the police to protect you from violent crime? AQuiteNot None great a lotvery at all dealmuch 2000 (Aug)20%42316 1999 (Mar)29%41254 1998 (0ct)19%36378 1995 (Sep)20%30399 1993 (0ct)14%31459 198914%34428 198515%37396 198115%34428
How much respect do you have for the police in your area? A Hardly great dealSomeany 2000 (Aug)60%30 9 1999 (Mar)64%29 7 1991 (Mar)60%32 7 196777%17 4 196570%22 4
How high would you rate the honesty and ethical standards of people in these different fields? VeryHigh Ave.Low Very High Low Clergy15%39%33%7%2% Doctors10%42%38%6%3% Policemen8%34%42%10%4% Journalists4%23%54%13%2% Bankers4%23%53%14%3% Lawyers3%15%43%25%11% CongressmenI %10%43%32%11 % Car SalesmenI %4%32%41 %18%
How would you rate the ____ that serve your community in accomplishing their criminal justice mission? Excellent Only Fair Not Sure or Good or Poor Police64%34% 2% Prosecutors48%44% 9% Judges45%48% 7% Prisons32%54%14% Parole Boards22%57%21 %
Impact of Timeliness in Reporting Crime Probability of an Arrest Crime Reported While In Progress33% 1 Minute Afterwards 9% 10 Minutes Afterwards 5%
Reasons for Not Calling the Police Private Matter Police WouldFear of Didn’t Want Not Be EffectiveReprisal CRIME To Bother Them (% Not Reported) Robbery27%45% 0% (35%) Burglary30%63% 2% (42%) Sex Offenses*40%50% 5% (49%) Family65%17% 7% Crimes (50%) Auto20%60%20% Theft (11%) * Other than Rape