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The Origins, History and Evolution of Anime and Manga

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1 The Origins, History and Evolution of Anime and Manga
Senior Project Presentation by Ivy

2 The Origins & History of Manga
The Zen cartoons of the medieval period and the comic animal scrolls of the tenth century were the very first examples of manga (Japanese comics). In the 13th century, pictures of the afterlife and animals started appearing on temple walls and are similar to modern manga. From there, manga started to branch out to many other subjects. The manga drawn on wood blocks in the 1600's was known as edo. Edo was often graphically erotic, but branched out to encompass other subjects like buildings and satire Above: Example of Edo. Below: example of Animal Scrolls, choujuugiga

3 In 1815, the term “manga” came into existence
In 1815, the term “manga” came into existence. “Man" meaning “in spite of oneself” or “whimsical”, and "ga" meaning picture. The next kind of manga, emerging in the 16th century, were ink brushed illustrated prints with captions, but it lacked a progressive story. Because of the censorship in Japan during the late 1920's and early 30's the Japanese government began to intimidate artists and publishers. The result was the closing-down or extreme censoring of magazines. To say what needed to be said, "jail editors" would take the blame for publishing a comic that criticized the government and went to jail. Tezuka debuted with a comic book in 1947, “New Treasure Island”, an Akahon (a cheap "Red Book"). Akahon was a niche industry that provided entertainment to the poor children of post-war Japan. New Treasure Island sold an unprecedented 400,000 copies, changing the face of manga forever. Above: Tezuka’s “New Treasure Island.” Below: Hokusai’s Great Wave wood block, a very famous manga.

4 The Origins & History of Anime
In 1963, Tetsuwan Atomu (the Japanese name for Astroboy, means “Mighty Atom”) came out as a television series. This was the first anime. Astroboy was a robot that wished to be a real boy. Next hit anime to come down the pike was Speed Racer In 1967. Hi No Tori (Bird of Fire) was Tezuka’s greatest work, (not Astroboy) in America known as Phoenix 2772.

5 Anime is just what the Japanese call Animation in general.
The end of the 70s brought Captain Harlock: Space Pirate, Space Cruiser Yamato and Galaxy Express which fused drama and high adventure like no other before. Mobile Suit Gundam turned industry upside down with its character development, "Newtypes" and "one of the greatest stories ever told in anime" (Right Stuf International).

6 The golden years of anime
The golden years of anime In 1981, Rumiko Takahashi's “Urusei Yatsura” (Those Obnoxious Aliens) was a hit, as well “Maison Ikkoku” and “Ranma F”. It was Carl Macek got "Robotech" (Macross) syndicated for American TV, which triggered Third Wave fandom. “Macross” was a hit. There were several highly popular films put out in the mid 80s: Miyazaki's "Nausïca of the Valley of the Wind", “Castle in the Sky"; Urusei Yatsura: "Only You" and "Beautiful Dreamer"; "My Youth in Arcadia", "Queen Millenia Movie." The first video players/recorders came out during this time. Following video players came a new way to make anime at a much lower cost. OVA's (Original Video Animation) were cheaper to make and saved failing studios.

7 By 1990s anime was influencing and influenced by Western culture: a “cross-pollination that enriches and complicates anime” . At about this time, anime was getting a bad rep thanks to the LA Times and Fox News calling anime an “assault an American Morals.” From leaps were made in the technology of animation. But not much was going on otherwise except for the success of “Macross” and “Giant Robo.” Finally, US anime licensers, those that legally bring anime to US fans, are gaining a foot hold in the American market.

8 Anime [R]Evolution Because Tezuka animated for Disney and was influenced by their animation and that of Max Fleischer. Tezuka’s design was reminiscent of the Disney style of that era, but the nose was made smaller and the eyes slightly bigger, to show more emotion. After Astroboy’s success, other artists began drawing anime to suit their own ideas of this up and coming art form. Leiji Matsumoto's new design, which was based on a French singer, motivated other artists to create new styles of anime during the 1970’s

9 From here, who knows to what bounds anime and manga will expand?
At the end of the 80’s, Rumiko Takahashi’s Ranma ½ (aka Ranma F) was a huge success. “During the early 1990's, Takahashi's design caused quite an uproar and everyone wanted to copy this style.” (McPherson) Later, the popular style was that of Gundam Wing and Evangelion. Anime artists and studios, sticking with this style, eventually lead to the end of the cash crunch in 1996. Considering the progression of anime since its beginning, the most logical turn for anime in the future is computer animation. Anime and manga is already integrating with the digital age. interactive games are becoming more frequent.

10 Citations "A Global History of Anime." The Right Stuf International. The Right Stuf International. 23 Nov < "Anime Terms!." ~~Kawaii Anime Manga Page~~. 23 Nov < Cirulnick, Brian. "HISTORY OF ANIME: Osamu Tezuka ." TAP anime. 23 Nov < Hadad, Ivan . "Glossary." Anime and American Cartoons. 23 Nov < McPherson, Mark. "The Evolution of Anime." Anime Bordom. 23 Nov < Napier, Susan J. Anime from Akira to Princess Mononoke. New York: PALGRAVE, 2000. "The History of Manga." TAP anime. TAP anime. 23 Nov < "What do all of the weird words used on these pages mean?" 23 Nov < The Anime Encyclopedia: A Guide to Japanese Animation Since by Jonathan Clements, Helen McCarthy. Stone Bridge Press, September 1, 2001.

11 ありがとう 端

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