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www.mathsrevision.com Higher Outcome 4 Higher Unit 3 www.mathsrevision.com What is a Wave Function Connection with Trig Identities Earlier Maximum and.

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Presentation on theme: "www.mathsrevision.com Higher Outcome 4 Higher Unit 3 www.mathsrevision.com What is a Wave Function Connection with Trig Identities Earlier Maximum and."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Higher Outcome 4 Higher Unit 3 What is a Wave Function Connection with Trig Identities Earlier Maximum and Minimum Values Exam Type Questions Solving Equations involving the Wave Function

3 Higher Outcome 4 The Wave Function Heart beat Electrical Many wave shapes, whether occurring as sound, light, water or electrical waves, can be described mathematically as a combination of sine and cosine waves. Spectrum Analysis

4 Higher Outcome 4 The Wave Function General shape for y = sinx + cosx 1.Like y = sin(x) shifted left 2.Like y = cosx shifted right 3.Vertical height different y = sin(x) y = cos(x) y = sin(x)+cos(x)

5 Higher Outcome 4 Whenever a function is formed by adding cosine and sine functions the result can be expressed as a related cosine or sine function. In general: With these constants the expressions on the right hand sides = those on the left hand side FOR ALL VALUES OF x The Wave Function

6 Higher Outcome 4 Worked Example: Re-arrange The left and right hand sides must be equal for all values of x. So, the coefficients of cos x and sin x must be equal: A pair of simultaneous equations to be solved The Wave Function

7 Higher Outcome 4 The Wave Function Find tan ratio note: sin(+) and cos(+) Square and add

8 Higher Outcome 4 The Wave Function C A S T 0o0o 180 o 270 o 90 o Note: sin(+) and cos(+)

9 Higher Outcome 4 The Wave Function Example Square and add Find tan ratio note: sin(+) and cos(+) Expand and equate coefficients C A S T 0o0o 180 o 270 o 90 o

10 Higher Outcome 4 Finally: The Wave Function

11 Higher Outcome 4 Example The Wave Function Square and add Find tan ratio noting sign of sin(+) and cos(+) Expand and equate coefficients C A S T 0o0o 180 o 270 o 90 o

12 Higher Outcome 4 Finally: The Wave Function

13 Higher Outcome 4 Maximum and Minimum Values Worked Example: b) Hence find: i) Its maximum value and the value of x at which this maximum occurs. ii) Its minimum value and the value of x at which this minimum occurs.

14 Higher Outcome 4 Maximum and Minimum Values Square and add Find tan ratio note: sin(+) and cos(-) Expand and equate coefficients C A S T 0o0o 180 o 270 o 90 o

15 Higher Outcome 4 Maximum, we have: Maximum and Minimum Values

16 Higher Outcome 4 Minimum, we have: Maximum and Minimum Values

17 Higher Outcome 4 A synthesiser adds two sound waves together to make a new sound. The first wave is described by V = 75sin t o and the second by V = 100cos t o, where V is the amplitude in decibels and t is the time in milliseconds. Example Find the minimum value of the resultant wave and the value of t at which it occurs. For later, remember K = 25k Maximum and Minimum Values

18 Higher Outcome 4 Maximum and Minimum Values Square and add Expand and equate coefficients C A S T 0o0o 180 o 270 o 90 o Find tan ratio note: sin(-) and cos(+)

19 Higher Outcome 4 The minimum value of sin is -1 and it occurs where the angle is 270 o Therefore, the minimum value of V result is -125 Adding or subtracting 360 o leaves the sin unchanged Maximum and Minimum Values remember K = 25k =25 x 5 = 125

20 Higher Outcome 4 Minimum, we have: Maximum and Minimum Values

21 Higher Outcome 4 Solving Trig Equations Worked Example: Compare Coefficients: Square &Add True for ALL x means coefficients equal. Step 1:

22 Higher Outcome 4 Solving Trig Equations C A S T 0o0o 180 o 270 o 90 o Find tan ratio note: sin(+) and cos(+)

23 Higher Outcome 4 Step 2: Re-write the trig. equation using your result from step 1, then solve. Solving Trig Equations C A S T 0o0o 180 o 270 o 90 o

24 Higher Outcome 4 Step 2: Solving Trig Equations

25 Higher Outcome 4 Solving Trig Equations Example C A S T 0o0o 180 o 270 o 90 o Square and add Find tan ratio note: sin(-) and cos(-) Expand and equate coefficients

26 Higher Outcome 4 2x – = 16.1 o, ( o ),( o ),( o ) 2x – = 16.1 o, o, o, o, …. 2x = o, o, o, o, …. x = o, o, o, o, …. Solving Trig Equations

27 Higher Outcome 4 Example (From a past paper) A builder has obtained a large supply of 4 metre rafters. He wishes to use them to build some holiday chalets. The planning department insists that the gable end of each chalet should be in the form of an isosceles triangle surmounting two squares, as shown in the diagram. a)If θ o is the angle shown in the diagram and A is the area m 2 of the gable end, show that c)Find algebraically the value of θ o for which the area of the gable end is 30m Solving Trig Equations

28 Higher Outcome s s Let the side of the square frames be s. Part (a) Use the cosine rule in the isosceles triangle: This is the area of one of the squares. The formula for the area of a triangle is Total area = Triangle + 2 x square: (From a past paper) Solving Trig Equations

29 Higher Outcome 4 Part (b) Finally: (From a past paper) Solving Trig Equations Square and add Find tan ratio note: sin(+) and cos(+) C A S T 0o0o 180 o 270 o 90 o

30 Higher Outcome 4 Part (c) Find algebraically the value of θ o for which the area is the 30m 2 (From a past paper) Solving Trig Equations C A S T 0o0o 180 o 270 o 90 o From diagram θ o < 90 o ignore 2 nd quad

31 Higher Maths Strategies Click to start The Wave Function

32 Maths4Scotland Higher The Wave Function The following questions are on Non-calculator questions will be indicated Click to continue You will need a pencil, paper, ruler and rubber.

33 Maths4Scotland Higher Part of the graph of y = 2 sin x + 5 cos x is shown in the diagram. a)Express y = 2 sin x + 5 cos x in the form k sin ( x + a ) where k > 0 and 0  a  360 b) Find the coordinates of the minimum turning point P. Hint Expand k sin( x + a ): PreviousNext Quit Equate coefficients: Square and add Dividing: Put together: Minimum when: P has coords. a is in 1 st quadrant (sin and cos are +)

34 Maths4Scotland Higher Hint Expand k sin( x - a ): PreviousNext Quit Equate coefficients: Square and add Dividing: Put together: Sketch Graph a)Write sin x - cos x in the form k sin ( x - a ) stating the values of k and a where k > 0 and 0  a  2  b) Sketch the graph of sin x - cos x for 0  a  2  showing clearly the graph’s maximum and minimum values and where it cuts the x-axis and the y-axis. Table of exact values a is in 1 st quadrant (sin and cos are +)

35 Maths4Scotland Higher Hint Expand k cos( x + a ): PreviousNext Quit Equate coefficients: Square and add Dividing: Put together: Express in the form a is in 1 st quadrant (sin and cos are +)

36 Maths4Scotland Higher Hint Express as R cos( x - a ): PreviousNext Quit Equate coefficients: Square and add Dividing: Put together: Find the maximum value of and the value of x for which it occurs in the interval 0  x  2 . a is in 4 th quadrant (sin is - and cos is +) Max value:when Table of exact values

37 Maths4Scotland Higher Hint Expand k sin( x - a ): PreviousNext Quit Equate coefficients: Square and add Dividing: Put together: a is in 1 st quadrant (sin and cos are both +) Express in the form

38 Maths4Scotland Higher Hint Max for sine occurs PreviousNext Quit Max value of sine function: Max value of function: The diagram shows an incomplete graph of Find the coordinates of the maximum stationary point. Sine takes values between 1 and -1 3 Coordinates of max s.p.

39 Maths4Scotland Higher Hint Expand k cos( x - a ): PreviousNext Quit Equate coefficients: Square and add Dividing: Put together: a is in 1 st quadrant (sin and cos are both + ) a) Express f ( x ) in the form b) Hence solve algebraically Solve equation. Cosine +, so 1 st & 4 th quadrants

40 Maths4Scotland Higher Hint Use tan A = sin A / cos A PreviousNext Quit Divide Sine and cosine are both + in original equations Solve the simultaneous equations where k > 0 and 0  x  360 Find acute angle Determine quadrant(s) Solution must be in 1 st quadrant State solution

41 Maths4Scotland Higher Hint Use R cos( x - a ): PreviousNext Quit Equate coefficients: Square and add Dividing: Put together: a is in 2 nd quadrant (sin + and cos - ) Solve equation. Cosine +, so 1 st & 4 th quadrants Solve the equation in the interval 0  x  360.

42 Maths4Scotland Higher Previous Quit You have completed all 9 questions in this presentation Back to start

43 Higher Outcome 4 Are you on Target ! Update you log book Make sure you complete and correct ALL of the Wave Function questions in the past paper booklet.Wave Function


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