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Genre en de mode van de vertelling Theorie en Analyse II Eggo Müller.

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1 Genre en de mode van de vertelling Theorie en Analyse II Eggo Müller

2 genre Waar komen we het fenomeen tegen? tv kijken: zappen naar de film gaan: kiezen in de videotheek/dvd-zaak in de omroepgids in gesprekken over media met als gevolg: honderden van genrenamen

3 … in de wetenschap genre: soort of type (frz.) overzicht over uiteenlopende benaderingen tot genre en genre-analyse historiciteit van genres genre en modes van de vertelling openingssequenties

4 definities auto auto in tegenstelling tot fiets doel/context van een definitie? – classificatie: indelen van fenomenen in een wetenschappelijk systeem – (culturele) functie begrijpen en analyseren

5 Verstraten genre vs. auteurfilm oorspronkelijkheid vs. voorspelbaarheid kunst vs. commercie notitie genre vooral van belang met het oog op de functie van genre-elementen voor het ontplooien van de artistieke vertelling gericht op de analyse van een (artistieke) tekst

6 Mittell genre als culturele categorie in de context van productie – distributie – receptie genre-analyse richt zich op de culturele context waarbinnen genre-categorieën ontstaan doelt op de economische, ideologische en esthetische functie van genre-categorieën richt zich vooral niet op de analyse van individuele films of tv-programmas

7 vraagje Kun je alle films en tv-programmas onder een bepaald genre scharen? wat kenmerkt genre-films/programmas? wat kenmerkt niet-genre-films/programmas voorspelbaarheid van het verhaal vertrouwdheid met bepaalde patronen

8 classificatorische benadering Linnaeus' tabel van het dierenrijk uit de Systema Naturae (1735)

9 classificatorische benadering indelen van films en tv-programmas in groepen op grond van overeenkomst of verwantschap in eigenschappen of kenmerken – personages, plaatsen, rekwisieten, mythes, iconografie taxonomie (taxon: groep): – wetenschappelijk onderbouwd systeem brengt orde aan in de vage wereld van genres – ca. 300 uiteenlopende genrenamen voor films, ca. 700 voor tv-programmas in gebruik

10 classificatorische benadering Taxonomy film genres door Th. & V. Sobchack (1980) (1) film: (a) fiction and (b) non-fiction (2a) fiction: (a) comedy and (b) melodrama (3a) comedy: – slapstick comedy; romantic comedy, including 'screwball comedy' and musical comedy; musical biography; and fairy tale. (3b) melodrama: – adventure films, including 'the swashbuckler' and 'survival films' (the war movie, the safari film, and disaster movies); the western; 'fantastic genres', including fantasy, horror and science fiction; and 'antisocial genres', including the crime film (the gangster film, the G-man film, the private eye or detective film, the film noir, the caper film) and so- called 'weepies' (or 'women's films)

11 classificatorische benadering D. Chandlers overview over tv- genrenamen die gehanteerd zijn in het Britse magazineWhats on TV? over enkele maanden in 1993 s/intgenre/intgenre6.html

12 classificatorische benadering verwantschap: – eindige lijst van bepaalde kenmerken vs. –familiegelijkenis (Wittgenstein) : x kenmerken uit een pool van y kenmerken ------------- a-historische benadering levert vooral definitieproblemen op

13 formalistische benadering Vladimir Propp (1895-1970) Morphology of the Folk Tale (1928) – analyse van kleinse vertellende elementen in Russische sprookjes – set van 8 typische personages –narrateme met bepaalde vertellende functie

14 Propps personages 1.the villain struggles against the hero. 2.the dispatcher character who makes the lack known and sends the hero off. 3.the (magical) helper helps the hero in the quest. 4.the princess or prize the hero deserves her throughout the story but is unable to marry her because of an unfair evil, usually because of the villain. 5.her father gives the task to the hero, identifies the false hero, marries the hero, often sought for during the narrative. 6.the donor prepares the hero or gives the hero some magical object. 7.the hero or victim/seeker hero reacts to the donor, weds the princess. 8.false hero takes credit for the heros actions or tries to marry the princess.

15 Propps narratieve functies (1) 1.ABSENTATION: A member of a family leaves home (the hero is introduced); 2.INTERDICTION: An interdiction is addressed to the hero ('don't go there', 'go to this place'); 3.VIOLATION of INTERDICTION: The interdiction is violated (villain enters the tale); 4.RECONAISSANCE: The villain makes an attempt at reconnaissance (either villain tries to find the children/jewels etc; or intended victim questions the villain); 5.DELIVERY: The villain gains information about the victim; 6.TRICKERY: The villain attempts to deceive the victim to take possession of victim or victim's belongings (trickery; villain disguised, tries to win confidence of victim); 7.COMPLICITY: Victim taken in by deception, unwittingly helping the enemy;

16 Propps narratieve funcites (2) 8.VILLAINY or LACK: Villain causes harm/injury to family member (by abduction, theft of magical agent, spoiling crops, plunders in other forms, causes a disappearance, expels someone, casts spell on someone, substitutes child etc, comits murder, imprisons/detains someone, threatens forced marriage, provides nightly torments); Alternatively, a member of family lacks something or desires something (magical potion etc); 9.MEDIATION: Misfortune or lack is made known, (hero is dispatched, hears call for help etc/ alternative is that victimised hero is sent away, freed from imprisonment); 10.BEGINNING COUNTER-ACTION: Seeker agrees to, or decides upon counter- action; 11.DEPARTURE: Hero leaves home; 12.FIRST FUNCTION of the DONOR: Hero is tested, interrogated, attacked etc, preparing the way for his/her receiving magical agent or helper (donor);

17 Propps narratieve functies (3) 13.HEROS REACTION: Hero reacts to actions of future donor (withstands/fails the test, frees captive, reconciles disputants, performs service, uses adversary's powers against them); 14.RECEIT of a MAGICAL AGENT: Hero acquires use of a magical agent (directly transferred, located, purchased, prepared, spontaneously appears, eaten/drunk, help offered by other characters); 15.GUIDANCE: Hero is transferred, delivered or led to whereabouts of an object of the search; 16.STRUGGLE: Hero and villain join in direct combat; 17.BRANDING: Hero is branded (wounded/marked, receives ring or scarf); 18.VICTORY: Villain is defeated (killed in combat, defeated in contest, killed while asleep, banished); 19.LIQUIDATION: Initial misfortune or lack is resolved (object of search distributed, spell broken, slain person revivied, captive freed);

18 Propps narratieve functies (4) 20.RETURN: Hero returns; 21.PERSUIT: Hero is pursued (pursuer tries to kill, eat, undermine the hero); 22.RESCUE: Hero is rescued from pursuit (obstacles delay pursuer, hero hides or is hidden, hero transforms unrecognisably, hero saved from attempt on his/her life); 23.UNRECOGNIZED ARRIVAL: Hero unrecognised, arrives home or in another country; 24.UNFOLDED CLAIMS: False hero presents unfounded claims; 25.DIFFICULT TASK: Difficult task proposed to the hero (trial by ordeal, riddles, test of strength/endurance, other tasks); 26.SOLUTION: Task is resolved; 27.RECOGNITION: Hero is recognised (by mark, brand, or thing given to him/her);

19 Propps narratieve functies (5) 28.EXPOSURE: False hero or villain is exposed; 29.TRANSFIGURATION: Hero is given a new appearance (is made whole, handsome, new garments etc); 30.PUNISHMENT: Villain is punished; 31.WEDDING: Hero marries and ascends the throne (is rewarded/promoted). ------------------- klopt maar voor een zeer beperkte corpus negeert talige/aesthetische vorm en variaties focust op vertellende dimensie van een tekst

20 structuralistische benadering Claude Levi-Strauss (1908-2009) – mythical thought always progres- ses from the awareness of oppo- sitions toward their resolution fundamentele structuur van mythes 1.elements that oppose or contradict each other 2.other elements that mediate, or resolve, those oppositions

21 structuralistische benadering A visual summary of Claude Levi-Strauss's analysis of the Native American trickster's mediating function.

22 structuralistische benadering Will Wright (1975) Sixguns and Society: A Structural Study of the Western 4te genstellingen die de personages van een western beschrijven: – inside society/outside society, – good/bad, – strong/weak, – wilderness/civilization Westerner als bemiddelaar

23 structuralistische benadering Structuur van tegenstellingen in het narratief an de (klassieke) Western volgens Wright (1975) 1.The hero is or was a member of society. 2.The villains do harm to the hero and to the society. 3.The society is unable to punish the villains. 4.The hero seeks vengeance. 5.The hero goes outside of society. 6.The hero is revealed to have a special ability. 7.The society recognizes a difference between themselves and the hero: the hero is given a special status. 8.A representative of society asks the hero to give up his revenge. 9.The hero gives up his revenge 10.The hero fights the villains. 11.The hero defeats the villains. 12.The hero gives up his special status. 13.The hero enters society.


25 structuralistische benadering Will Wright (1975) The Western, like any myth, stands between individual human consciousness and society. If a myth is popular, it must somehow appeal to or reinforce the individuals who view it by communicating a symbolic meaning to them. This meaning must, in turn, reflect the particular social institutions and attitudes that have created and continue to nourish the myth. Thus, a myth must tell its viewers about themselves and their society. vraag naar de maatschappelijke functie

26 ritualtistische benadering Thomas Schatz (1981): Hollywood Genres Functie van genre […] is the ritualization of collective ideal, the celebration of temporaly resolved social and cultural conflicts, and the concealment of disturbing cultural conflicts behind the guise of entertainment. gemeenschapsvormende kracht van genres verzoening van culturele/sociale conflicten

27 ideologie-kritische benadering Judith Hess Wright (1986): Genre Films and the Status Quo Genre films […] serve the interests of the ruling class by assisting in the maintenance of the status quo […]. When we return to, and they throw a sop to oppressed groups who […] eagerly accept the genre films absurd solutions to economic and social conflicts. functie: onderdrukking en manipulatie

28 ideologie-kritische benadering John Fiske (1987): Television Culture Audiences different potential pleasures are channeled and disciplined by genres, which operate by producing recognition of the already known set of response and rules of engagement. […] Such is the contract of genre. It entails a loss of freedom, of desire and demand in order to achieve efficiency and properly labeled packaging. functie: repressie en optimalisering van economische circulatie

29 circulatie benadering Steve Neale (1980) Genre Genres are not to be seen as forms of textual codifications, but as systems of orientations, expectations and conventions that circulate between industry, text and subject. economische calculeerbaarheid structurering van productieprocessen verwachtingspatronen in receptieprocessen

30 historische benadering genre-ontwikkeling – verandering van genres – ontstaan van nieuwe genres – hybride genres, genre-mix prototypen historisch veranderend genrebewustzijn

31 overzicht genre-analyse corpus-analyse – teksten, para-teksten, praktijken (a) kenmerken van films/tv-programmas – formalistische benadering – structuralistische benadering (b) functie van films/tv-programmas – ritualistische benadering – idoelogie-kritische benadering –circulatie benadering

32 waarom genre-analyse? matrix van culturele productie (praktijken!) – economisch, ideologisch, vormelijk, receptief agenda: brengt bepaalde themas en conflicten onder de aandacht interpretatie: manier om de wereld op een geritualiseerde manier te duiden historisch specifiek en veranderend ideale invalshoek om vormelijke (tekst) en sociaal-historische (context) analyse te koppelen

33 dooddoeners genre moeilijk om te definiëren omdat… – er zo veel uiteenlopende definities zijn – er zo veel uiteenlopende films/tv-programmas zijn die bij een genre horen – er zo veel hybride genres zijn die moeilijk zijn om in te delen in een systeem kenmerken bepalen en toepassen –Is Vor Sonnenaufgang van G. Hauptman een naturalistisch toneelstuk?

34 openingssequenties Klassieke expositie introduceert – personages – plaats en tijd – probleem/conflict –mode en genre van de vertelling – vorm en stijl van de vertelling/cinematografie Amerikaanse handboeken scenario schrijven – na 10 minuten conflict neergezet en expositie afgerond

35 mode van de vertelling mode: oorspronkelijk maat (measure) A genre varies significantly between periods and social formations; a mode tends to be more fundamental, les transient, and more pervasive. In this spirit, I will consider modes of narration to transcend genres, schools, movements, and entire national cinemas. […] A narrational mode is a historically distinct set of norms of narrational construction and comprehension. (Bordwell, Narration in the Fiction Film 1985, p. 150 )

36 Bordwells voorbeelden historische modes van vertelling: –Classical Narration (Hollywood) –Art-Cinema Narration –Historical-Materialist Narration –Parametric Narration

37 genre-analyse in TA2 hoe introduceert een film/tv-programma zijnmode en genre van de vertelling? als de film/het tv-programma geen genre- achtige film/tv-programma is: gebruikt die wel genre-elementen voor bepaalde doeleinden? verhouding tussen oorspronkelijke elementen en bekende patronen functie daarvan in het verhaal

38 literatuur D.Bordwell (1985) Narration in the Fiction Film. London: Methuen. D. Chandler (1997) An Introduction to Genre Theory. Online: G. Cleeber, T. Miller & J. Tulloch (red.) (2007) The Television Genre Book. London: BFI J. Fiske (1987) Television Culture. London: Methuen W. Goldman (1983) Adventures in the Screen Trade. New York: Warner Books. B.K. Grant (red.) (1986) Film Genre Reader. Austin: University of Texas Press. J. Hess Wright (1986) Genre Films and the Status Quo. In: Grant 1986 S. Neale (1980) Genre. London, BFI. S. Neale (red.) (2002) Genre and Contemporary Hollywood. London: BFI V. Propp (1968) Morphology of the Folktale. Th. Schatz (1981) Hollywood Genres. Philadelphia: Temple UP. Th.&V. Sobchack (1980) Introdcution to Film. Boston: Little Brown. L. Wittgenstein (1982) Philosophische Untersuchungen. (3e druk). Frankfurt a.M.

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