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What were the causes and consequences of the ‘Great Leap Forward’? L/O – To be able to recall the reasons for, key features and effects of the Great Leap.

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Presentation on theme: "What were the causes and consequences of the ‘Great Leap Forward’? L/O – To be able to recall the reasons for, key features and effects of the Great Leap."— Presentation transcript:

1 What were the causes and consequences of the ‘Great Leap Forward’? L/O – To be able to recall the reasons for, key features and effects of the Great Leap Forward: 1958

2 What was the The Great Leap Forward? In 1958 Mao introduced a second five year plan which became known as the ‘Great Leap Forward’ (GLF). He believed it was possible for China to overtake Britain as a leading industrial power within seven years and the USA soon after. It was to be achieved through mass mobilisation but was really a gigantic experiment that ended with the death of over 20 million Chinese.

3 Why was a new plan needed? Mao believed the first Five Year Plan was too slow and resulted in too much bureaucracy. Mao envisaged a decentralisation of control to local Party cadres who would mobilise the masses across China. Why decentralise? China could then achieve rapid and sustained economic growth that would take China from the stage of Socialism to the stage of Communism.

4 Reasons for the Great Leap Forward 1.Political - Mao wanted another revolution to take control of industry & agricultural away from middle class ‘experts’. 2.Social - Still a lot of unemployment and Mao believed he could mobilise the masses in a continuing revolution to boost growth. Private family life would prevent this so had to abolished. 3.Economic - Was determined to turn China into a powerful industrial nation as quickly as possible. Greater factory and agricultural production was needed.

5 Key Features: Communes Mass mobilisation was achieved by a new method of organising peasant life – the commune. He wanted to abolish the private, family sphere of peasant life. Collective and Co-operative farms were joined into 24,000 communes with a population of 30,000 people each. People in communes were organised into brigades of workers between and then teams of workers of

6 Key Features: Communes The government tried to persuade people to join communes by using propaganda. By 1958, the whole of China was organised into communes with about 700 million people. They seemed the ideal way to organise China’s peasant labour force: They were large enough to tackle large projects like irrigation and could run their own local schools and clinics. They also set up their own local industries to mine coal and iron and make steel in blast furnaces. Life in the commune was lived communally. Peasants ate in mess halls and nurseries looked after children.

7 Key Features: Party Propaganda A key element in the GLF was Party propaganda. Posters, slogans and newspaper articles were all used to encourage mass enthusiasm and long hours of work. Loudspeakers played revolutionary music and stirring speeches encouraging workers to go beyond targets. As a result of Party propaganda, many projects were finished on time.

8 Key Features: Industry New industries were set-up in cities to solve unemployment. Increasingly Higher targets for production were set. Central, rational planning was abandoned in favour of local organisation. Small commune factories were set up to make all kinds of products like cement, ball-bearing and fertiliser. Great emphasis was placed on the production of steel and the establishment of 600,000 ‘backyard’ steel furnaces in towns and villages.

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11 Key Features: Industry In Autumn 1957, he declared that China would produce 40 million tonnes of steel by In Autumn 1958, he predicted 700 million tonnes of steel by 1970! As Mao’s confidence grew, his expectations were raised even higher. Mao just kept setting even higher targets. Critics didn’t want to labelled as ‘rightists’ so no one questioned Mao.

12 Results of the GLF - Industry 1.Thousands of small factories was just wasteful and inefficient. Most of the steel produced in ‘backyard’ furnaces was rubbish. 2.Furnaces took too much of the countries coal supply and trains could not operate! 3.Party workers urged people to work faster and produce more steel to make themselves look good – this meant machines broke down and workers fell asleep at machines.

13 Results of the GLF - Agriculture 1.Food production slumped because too many peasants had moved into industry. 2.By 1961, China was having to import grain and impose rationing. Bad farming methods, floods and droughts caused bad harvests for three years. 3.The harvest of 1960 was reduced by 144 million tonnes due to the GLF. Between , over 20 million Chinese starved to death.

14 Results of the GLF - Communes 1.Most proved too large to be run efficiently as they were hurriedly constructed by Party cadres keen to impress. 2.Peasants resented the loss of private plots and the attack on family life. 3.Members could not own private property, all received the same wages and families were broken up. This meant that members had no incentive to work hard and production actually fell!

15 Why did it fail? 1.Natural disasters affected the harvests. In 1960 northern China had a drought whilst there was serious flooding the south of the country. 2.Mao fell out with Khrushchev and in 1960 ordered all Soviet economic and scientific advisors back to the USSR. China was short of educated technicians. 3.Mainly Mao’s fault - He was in too much of a hurry and did not think about practical problems. 4.It was stupid! Mao rejected capital investment, technology and planning as revisionist and wrong! He was afraid of losing control of the revolution to experts.

16 Consequences of the GLF 1.Famine caused by the bad planning of the GLF and bad harvests resulted in over 20 million deaths and widespread Cannibalism! 2.China had to import food which undermined Mao’s aim of ‘self-reliance’ that the GLF was supposed to achieve. 3.Mao took part of the blame for the failure of the GLF, and in late 1958, resigned as head of state.

17 Consequences of the GLF China was now controlled by three leading communists: President, Liu Shao-chi Prime Minister, Chou En-lai The CCP General Secretary, Deng Xiaoping They all tried to abandon the GLF by closing down ‘backyard’ factories, returning workers to farming, giving private land back to farmers and reducing communes to one-third of original size.

18 Homework 1.Finish your grids. 2.Complete questions on hand-out. 3.Complete hand-out question on the Hundred Flowers Campaign. 4.Revise for exam question on Hundred Flowers Campaign and the Great Leap Forward. Revise: THE REASONS FOR… KEY FEATURES AND… EFFECTS OF EACH EVENT

19 Exam Question “Describe the key features of the Great Leap Forward or the Hundred Flowers Campaign.” (7 marks) Question (b) will always give you a choice of two factors. You have to choose one of these and describe its key features. Spend 10 minutes. You need to describe at least two key features. Try to write a paragraph on each. A key feature can be a cause, event or result.

20 Exam Question Make a link or links between the key features. Use connective words: this led to, as a result, moreover, furthermore, as a consequence, in addition. First Reason Give the feature. Fully explain it. LinkMake a link with the second feature. this led to, as a result, moreover, in addition… Second Reason Give the feature. Fully explain it. ConclusionSum up the two features stressing the links between them. “Describe the key features of the Great Leap Forward or the Hundred Flowers Campaign.” (7 marks)

21 Question B – Mark Scheme LevelDescriptorMark Level 1 Simple or generalised statements or key features Statements lack any supporting contextual knowledge or makes generalisations e.g. Tried to introduced free speech mark for one simple statement 2 marks for two or more Level 2 Developed Statements of key features Supports their statement with relevant contextual knowledge e.g. Mao tried to introduce free speech in order to direct criticism at the government and his rivals who he disagreed with. He worried about a growing middle class marks for one developed statement 4-5 marks for two or more Level 3 Developed exposition of key features An exposition of more than one factor supported by selected knowledge. e.g. Mao tried to introduce free speech as a way of directing criticism at his rivals in government like Zhou Enlai who he disagreed with about the future of economic development after the 1 st Five Year Plan. Zhou favoured planned growth led by government whilst Mao wanted growth to come from the mass mobilisation of the peasants because… marks for two or more factors 7 marks for answers which show links between factors

22 Exam Question Make a link or links between the key features. Use connective words: this led to, as a result, moreover, furthermore, as a consequence, in addition. First Reason Give the feature. Fully explain it. LinkMake a link with the second feature. this led to, as a result, moreover, in addition… Second Reason Give the feature. Fully explain it. ConclusionSum up the two features stressing the links between them. “Describe the key features of the Great Leap Forward or the Hundred Flowers Campaign.” (7 marks)

23 Possible Answer The first key feature of the Hundred Flowers Campaign was Mao’s motives for starting the campaign. Some believe he genuinely encouraged free speech and criticism. Mao had travelled widely throughout China during the early 1950s and had always been received very warmly. He appears to have believed that it was now possible to allow greater freedom of expression in China. Others believe that the Campaign was a deliberate plan by Mao to flush out critics of the government and the CCP and re- establish full control. As a consequence of the Campaign there was a rush to respond and criticism of Mao, the government and the CCP gathered momentum. Many people openly criticised the Plan, especially university lecturers, artists, writers and teachers. Party individuals and policies were attacked as being corrupt, inefficient or unrealistic. Even Mao himself was included. Leading figures in government, education and the arts were attacked for their failures. Have a go at the other key feature, the first Five Year Plan.


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