Presentation on theme: "1 Teaching Students to Read Words: Effective Strategies for Students with Reading Difficulties Rollanda E. O’Connor University of California at Riverside."— Presentation transcript:
1 Teaching Students to Read Words: Effective Strategies for Students with Reading Difficulties Rollanda E. O’Connor University of California at Riverside Jekyll Island, Georgia, 2008
2 From Early Literacy to Skilled Reading Oral language Phonemic awareness Letter to sound correspondences Decoding words Recognizing words Building reading fluency Comprehending language Comprehending written text (good spelling would be nice, too!)
3 Milestones Toward Effective Intervention Determine where the child falls on the reading continuum Choose an intervention with a strong research base Shore up preskills while maintaining age- appropriate oral language
4 Word Study Strategies Phonic Analysis Teach most common sound for each letter Structural Analysis Letter combinations; Silent –e rule Multisyllable Word Strategies Dropping a silent –e; Doubling rule; Affixes; BEST Morphemic Analysis Teach meaningful parts of words Contextual Analysis After a student tries a pronunciation: Does that make sense?
5 The Likely Suspects… Kindergarten Understanding & use of the alphabetic principle First Grade Alphabetic principle Phonics and decoding words Second Grade Alphabetic principle, phonics and decoding Reading fluently Third Grade Phonics and decoding, fluency Multisyllable words, morphemes, and comprehension Fourth Grade Decoding, fluency, multisyllable words, morphemes Active comprehension of sentences, paragraphs, and passages
6 Interventions in Kindergarten Segmenting Blending Letter Sounds The alphabetic principle [and meanings of words]
8 Teaching Letter Sounds Avoid alphabetical order (Carnine et al., 1998) Use cumulative introduction Teach short vowels in kindergarten Start teaching letter sounds as soon as possible Integrate letter sounds with phonological awareness activities (Ball & Blachman, 1991; O’Connor et al., 1995) Assess letter knowledge, and begin “catch-up” instruction immediately
12 Measuring Progress to the Alphabetic Principle Rapid Letter Naming Segmenting Goals: >50 Letters per minute >30 segments per minute
13 Rapid Letter Naming Time: 1 minute Number correct:________ DNbHfimOAR sEWyLTcXgk BFojaSprUe MzKCtqnJPx uGQlwZIvYd Vh
14 Segmenting "I will say a word, and you tell me the sounds you hear in the word. My turn. I can say the sounds in Mike. M--i--ke. Your turn.” (1 point/phoneme) 1. soap_______6. leaf_______ 2. van________7. fall_______ 3. food_______8. not_______ 4. show______9. mad_______ 5. make______10. zoo_______
15 Interventions in First Grade Segment to Spell Phonics High frequency words [and meanings of words]
16 Phonics Teach common sounds first Teach blending letter sounds After ~20 sounds are well known, add consonant digraphs like th, wh, ch After consonant digraphs, introduce letter combos (ee, ar, ing, or, al, er, ou) Next add the silent -e Rule
17 ai says /aaa/. ai says— Teach ai ai rain fail bait plain afraid fair Discriminate ai main boat fish paid old mail far Sight words they good come
18 Blending For stretchable sounds: Don’t stop between the sounds fast For stop sounds Blend the consonant-vowel first: fi — x ba - m
19 The problem with word families Discuss this problem with a colleague.
20 Word Building (p. 65) pet—pot—pat—pad—sad—sod
21 Sight Words 25 high frequency words make up nearly 1/3 of all print for primary readers 100 high frequency words make up nearly 1/2 of all print
22 28 High Frequency Words theyouarethis ofthatasfrom anditwithI ahehishave tofortheyor inwasatby isonbeone
23 Teaching Sight Words Constant time delay Spelling words aloud Word walls [ok, but be CAREFUL]
25 Patterns in the 100 Most Common Words th: that, than, this or: for, or, more ch: much, [which] wh: when, which, what ee: see, three al: all, call, also ou: out, around er: her, after ar: are, part
26 Teaching Silent -e One generalization covers them all: “When there’s an -e at the end, the vowel says its name.” Is there an -e at the end? Game sit hop hope ram yesno What’s the name of this letter? What’s the sound of this letter? Read the word
27 Assess Progress in Phonics Most common sound for each letter High frequency letter combinations Lists of 25, 50, 75, 100 common words
28 Interventions in Second Grade Common letter patterns & affixes Fluency [and meanings of words]
30 Small Moves toward 2-Syllables Inflected endings: -ed, -ing, -s, -es Words that divide between consonants Every syllable has at least one vowel Words that end in –le
31 Words That Divide Between Consonants cannothappen gobletkidnap cactusmagnet rabbittriplet plasticdentist tabletabsent
32 Words that End in –le Purplelittle Sparkleapple
33 Generate words that are decodable if: Students can add –le Students can divide words between consonants
34 Most Common Affixes Prefixes Un-, re-, in-, dis- account for 58% of words with prefixes (White et al., 1989) Suffixes -ly, -er/or, -sion/tion, -ible/able, -al, -y, - ness, -less
35 Why Bother Building Fluency? One piece of the comprehension puzzle Minimum fluency requirements (Good et al., in press; O’Connor et al., 2002) Silent reading is NOT effective in improving fluency (NRP, 2000) Building fluency requires frequent, long-term practice
36 Strategies to Increase Fluency Rereading (Dowhower, 1991; Sindelar et al., 1990) Partner reading (Fuchs et al; 1998; Greenwood et al., 1998) Control the difficulty level of text (O’Connor et al., 2002)
37 2 Methods of Partner Reading Modeled reading (PALS) Each student reads in 5 minute intervals Strongest partner reads first Allows a model for the poorer reader Sentence-by-sentence (CWPT) Partners take turns reading sentence by sentence Reread with other student starting first Encourages attention and error correction
38 Assess Reading Fluency Listen to student read aloud for 1 min from Grade level text Mark errors and omissions Help with hard words after 3 sec, but count as error Count the words read correctly in 1 min
43 Glass Analysis May What word? Which letter says /mm/? Which letters say /ay/? A-y. What sound? M. What sound? [take away letters and ask what’s left] waylayerdelaying daypayingpayment raysmayorSundays
44 Every What word? Which letters say /ev/? Which letters say /er/? Which letter says /y/? E-v. what sound? E-r. What sound? y. What sound? [take away letters and ask what’s left] nevercleverevident devilcrevicenevertheless levelseveralrevolution
45 Teaching Vocabulary Words What works:What doesn’t work : Direct teaching Frequent review Production responses Look it up Choose the best meaning Fill in the sentence
46 Prodigy A prodigy is a person with wonderful talent. What’s a prodigy? What do we call a person with wonderful talent? Is Harry Potter a prodigy? How do you know? Michael Smith has no special skills. Is he a prodigy? How do you know? What does prodigy mean? So--What would a child prodigy be? Mozart was a child prodigy.
47 Expedition Expedition means: a long trip or journey. What does expedition mean? What word means a long trip or journey? What’s another way to say: Shackleton took a long trip to Antarctica? Lewis and Clark took canoes from Washington, DC to Washington state. Was that an expedition? How do you know? I walked next door. Did I take an expedition? What would you call a hike from Brunswick to Savannah?
48 Features of Vocabulary Instruction Tell the definition or synonym. Have children repeat it. Have children use the word and the definition at least 7 times during your instruction.
50 Teaching Morphemes to Older Students --The meaningful parts of words-- “not” Un, dis, in, im (disloyal, unaware, invisible, imperfect) “excess” Out, over, super (outlive, overflow, superhuman) “number” Uni, mono, bi, semi (uniform, monofilament, bicolor, semiarid) “in the direction of” Ward (skyward, northward) “full of” Ful (merciful, beautiful)
51 Inter-- means between What does inter-- mean? So what does interstate mean? What would you call a highway between states? What would interperson mean? So what are interpersonal skills?
52 Word Strategies for Older Students Structural Analysis Letter combinations; Silent –e rule Multisyllable Word Strategies Dropping a silent –e; Doubling rule; Affixes; BEST Morphemic Analysis Teach meaningful parts of words Contextual Analysis After a student tries a pronunciation: Does that make sense?
53 Important Rules for Reading & Spelling Every syllable has at least 1 vowel magnanimous Drop the –e when you add a word part with a vowel close+ing, close+ly, sense +ible, sense+less Double the consonant when words end in –cvc and you add a word part with a vowel Drip+ing, drip+less, win+ing, wonder+ful
54 When do you drop the –e from a word? When the next part begins with a vowel. T: Does this word end in –e? Does the next part begin with a vowel? Will you drop the –e? make + ingport + able like + edcome + ly use + fuluse + ing back + edguide +ing
55 Rule for doubling the final consonant: WHEN do you double the final consonant in a short word? “When the word ends in CVC and the next part begins with a v.” mad + er mad + ly mad + est ask + ing big + er kind + er Dixon, et al.
56 Keys to Successful Intervention Determine where the child falls on the reading continuum Choose an intervention with a strong research base Shore up preskills while maintaining age-appropriate oral language Students with reading difficulties will need 7-20 practice sessions or more to master a new concept Use the student’s progress to determine the next appropriate intervention