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1 Teaching Students to Read Words: Effective Strategies for Students with Reading Difficulties Rollanda E. O’Connor University of California at Riverside.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Teaching Students to Read Words: Effective Strategies for Students with Reading Difficulties Rollanda E. O’Connor University of California at Riverside."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Teaching Students to Read Words: Effective Strategies for Students with Reading Difficulties Rollanda E. O’Connor University of California at Riverside Jekyll Island, Georgia, 2008

2 2 From Early Literacy to Skilled Reading Oral language Phonemic awareness Letter to sound correspondences Decoding words Recognizing words Building reading fluency Comprehending language Comprehending written text (good spelling would be nice, too!)

3 3 Milestones Toward Effective Intervention  Determine where the child falls on the reading continuum  Choose an intervention with a strong research base  Shore up preskills while maintaining age- appropriate oral language

4 4 Word Study Strategies  Phonic Analysis Teach most common sound for each letter  Structural Analysis Letter combinations; Silent –e rule  Multisyllable Word Strategies Dropping a silent –e; Doubling rule; Affixes; BEST  Morphemic Analysis Teach meaningful parts of words  Contextual Analysis After a student tries a pronunciation: Does that make sense?

5 5 The Likely Suspects…  Kindergarten Understanding & use of the alphabetic principle  First Grade Alphabetic principle Phonics and decoding words  Second Grade Alphabetic principle, phonics and decoding Reading fluently  Third Grade Phonics and decoding, fluency Multisyllable words, morphemes, and comprehension  Fourth Grade Decoding, fluency, multisyllable words, morphemes Active comprehension of sentences, paragraphs, and passages

6 6 Interventions in Kindergarten  Segmenting  Blending  Letter Sounds  The alphabetic principle  [and meanings of words]

7 7 Stretched Blending

8 8 Teaching Letter Sounds  Avoid alphabetical order (Carnine et al., 1998)  Use cumulative introduction  Teach short vowels in kindergarten  Start teaching letter sounds as soon as possible  Integrate letter sounds with phonological awareness activities (Ball & Blachman, 1991; O’Connor et al., 1995)  Assess letter knowledge, and begin “catch-up” instruction immediately

9 9 Onset-rime with 1st Sound m

10 10 Segment 3-phoneme Words

11 11 Ex: Segment to Spell a m s t i f

12 12 Measuring Progress to the Alphabetic Principle  Rapid Letter Naming  Segmenting  Goals: >50 Letters per minute >30 segments per minute

13 13 Rapid Letter Naming  Time: 1 minute Number correct:________ DNbHfimOAR sEWyLTcXgk BFojaSprUe MzKCtqnJPx uGQlwZIvYd Vh

14 14 Segmenting  "I will say a word, and you tell me the sounds you hear in the word. My turn. I can say the sounds in Mike. M--i--ke. Your turn.” (1 point/phoneme) 1. soap_______6. leaf_______ 2. van________7. fall_______ 3. food_______8. not_______ 4. show______9. mad_______ 5. make______10. zoo_______

15 15 Interventions in First Grade  Segment to Spell  Phonics  High frequency words  [and meanings of words]

16 16 Phonics  Teach common sounds first  Teach blending letter sounds  After ~20 sounds are well known, add consonant digraphs like th, wh, ch  After consonant digraphs, introduce letter combos (ee, ar, ing, or, al, er, ou)  Next add the silent -e Rule

17 17 ai says /aaa/. ai says— Teach ai ai rain fail bait plain afraid fair Discriminate ai main boat fish paid old mail far Sight words they good come

18 18 Blending  For stretchable sounds: Don’t stop between the sounds fast  For stop sounds Blend the consonant-vowel first: fi — x ba - m

19 19 The problem with word families Discuss this problem with a colleague.

20 20 Word Building (p. 65) pet—pot—pat—pad—sad—sod

21 21 Sight Words  25 high frequency words make up nearly 1/3 of all print for primary readers  100 high frequency words make up nearly 1/2 of all print

22 22 28 High Frequency Words theyouarethis ofthatasfrom anditwithI ahehishave tofortheyor inwasatby isonbeone

23 23 Teaching Sight Words  Constant time delay  Spelling words aloud  Word walls [ok, but be CAREFUL]

24 24 How Regular a Language is English?

25 25 Patterns in the 100 Most Common Words  th: that, than, this  or: for, or, more  ch: much, [which]  wh: when, which, what  ee: see, three  al: all, call, also  ou: out, around  er: her, after  ar: are, part

26 26 Teaching Silent -e  One generalization covers them all:  “When there’s an -e at the end, the vowel says its name.” Is there an -e at the end? Game sit hop hope ram yesno What’s the name of this letter? What’s the sound of this letter? Read the word

27 27 Assess Progress in Phonics  Most common sound for each letter  High frequency letter combinations  Lists of 25, 50, 75, 100 common words

28 28 Interventions in Second Grade  Common letter patterns & affixes  Fluency  [and meanings of words]

29 29 Highly Regular Letter Combinations thoaquoi erarayoy ingeaighph chooolwr wheeirau oraiuraw oushkn

30 30 Small Moves toward 2-Syllables  Inflected endings: -ed, -ing, -s, -es  Words that divide between consonants  Every syllable has at least one vowel  Words that end in –le

31 31 Words That Divide Between Consonants cannothappen gobletkidnap cactusmagnet rabbittriplet plasticdentist tabletabsent

32 32 Words that End in –le Purplelittle Sparkleapple

33 33 Generate words that are decodable if:  Students can add –le  Students can divide words between consonants

34 34 Most Common Affixes  Prefixes Un-, re-, in-, dis- account for 58% of words with prefixes (White et al., 1989)  Suffixes -ly, -er/or, -sion/tion, -ible/able, -al, -y, - ness, -less

35 35 Why Bother Building Fluency?  One piece of the comprehension puzzle  Minimum fluency requirements (Good et al., in press; O’Connor et al., 2002)  Silent reading is NOT effective in improving fluency (NRP, 2000)  Building fluency requires frequent, long-term practice

36 36 Strategies to Increase Fluency  Rereading (Dowhower, 1991; Sindelar et al., 1990)  Partner reading (Fuchs et al; 1998; Greenwood et al., 1998)  Control the difficulty level of text (O’Connor et al., 2002)

37 37 2 Methods of Partner Reading  Modeled reading (PALS) Each student reads in 5 minute intervals Strongest partner reads first Allows a model for the poorer reader  Sentence-by-sentence (CWPT) Partners take turns reading sentence by sentence Reread with other student starting first Encourages attention and error correction

38 38 Assess Reading Fluency  Listen to student read aloud for 1 min from Grade level text  Mark errors and omissions  Help with hard words after 3 sec, but count as error  Count the words read correctly in 1 min

39 39 Reading Rates GradeAverage RateDanger 1, March4525 1, May6040 2, Dec7550 2, May , Dec , May13580

40 40 Interventions in Third Grade  BEST  Morphemes  Rules for combining morphemes  Comprehension strategies  [and meanings of words]

41 41 BEST for Multisyllable Words  Break apart  Examine the stem  Say the parts  Try the whole thing

42 42 BEST Examples (Shackleton)  understandingly  expedition  unknown  Antarctic  Uninhabited

43 43 Glass Analysis  May What word? Which letter says /mm/? Which letters say /ay/? A-y. What sound? M. What sound? [take away letters and ask what’s left] waylayerdelaying daypayingpayment raysmayorSundays

44 44 Every What word? Which letters say /ev/? Which letters say /er/? Which letter says /y/? E-v. what sound? E-r. What sound? y. What sound? [take away letters and ask what’s left] nevercleverevident devilcrevicenevertheless levelseveralrevolution

45 45 Teaching Vocabulary Words What works:What doesn’t work :  Direct teaching  Frequent review  Production responses Look it up Choose the best meaning Fill in the sentence

46 46 Prodigy  A prodigy is a person with wonderful talent. What’s a prodigy? What do we call a person with wonderful talent?  Is Harry Potter a prodigy? How do you know?  Michael Smith has no special skills. Is he a prodigy? How do you know?  What does prodigy mean? So--What would a child prodigy be? Mozart was a child prodigy.

47 47 Expedition  Expedition means: a long trip or journey. What does expedition mean? What word means a long trip or journey?  What’s another way to say: Shackleton took a long trip to Antarctica?  Lewis and Clark took canoes from Washington, DC to Washington state. Was that an expedition? How do you know?  I walked next door. Did I take an expedition?  What would you call a hike from Brunswick to Savannah?

48 48 Features of Vocabulary Instruction  Tell the definition or synonym.  Have children repeat it.  Have children use the word and the definition at least 7 times during your instruction.

49 49 Your turn:  Dissect  Intelligible  Dwelling  License

50 50 Teaching Morphemes to Older Students --The meaningful parts of words--  “not” Un, dis, in, im (disloyal, unaware, invisible, imperfect)  “excess” Out, over, super (outlive, overflow, superhuman)  “number” Uni, mono, bi, semi (uniform, monofilament, bicolor, semiarid)  “in the direction of” Ward (skyward, northward)  “full of” Ful (merciful, beautiful)

51 51 Inter-- means between  What does inter-- mean?  So what does interstate mean?  What would you call a highway between states?  What would interperson mean?  So what are interpersonal skills?

52 52 Word Strategies for Older Students  Structural Analysis Letter combinations; Silent –e rule  Multisyllable Word Strategies Dropping a silent –e; Doubling rule; Affixes; BEST  Morphemic Analysis Teach meaningful parts of words  Contextual Analysis After a student tries a pronunciation: Does that make sense?

53 53 Important Rules for Reading & Spelling  Every syllable has at least 1 vowel magnanimous  Drop the –e when you add a word part with a vowel close+ing, close+ly, sense +ible, sense+less  Double the consonant when words end in –cvc and you add a word part with a vowel Drip+ing, drip+less, win+ing, wonder+ful

54 54 When do you drop the –e from a word?  When the next part begins with a vowel.  T: Does this word end in –e?  Does the next part begin with a vowel?  Will you drop the –e?  make + ingport + able  like + edcome + ly  use + fuluse + ing  back + edguide +ing

55 55 Rule for doubling the final consonant: WHEN do you double the final consonant in a short word? “When the word ends in CVC and the next part begins with a v.”  mad + er  mad + ly  mad + est  ask + ing  big + er  kind + er Dixon, et al.

56 56 Keys to Successful Intervention  Determine where the child falls on the reading continuum  Choose an intervention with a strong research base  Shore up preskills while maintaining age-appropriate oral language  Students with reading difficulties will need 7-20 practice sessions or more to master a new concept  Use the student’s progress to determine the next appropriate intervention


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