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1 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke U.S. Government

2 Rachelle Renee Rinke

3 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Quick Facts about the USA  National Independence:  Motto:  Largest Cities:  Border Countries and Oceans:  Population:  Land Area:  Highest Point:  Lowest Point:  Largest State:  Smallest State:  National Bird:  National Flower:  National Anthem:

4 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Quick Facts about the USA  National Independence: July 4, 1776  Motto: In God We Trust  Largest Cities: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, Phoenix, San Antonio, San Diego, Dallas, San Jose  Border Countries and Oceans: Canada, Mexico, Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Pacific Ocean  Population: 298,444,215 (July 2006 est.)  Land Area: 3,615,123 sq. mi. (9,375,720 sq. km.)  Highest Point: Mt. McKinley, Alaska, 20,320 ft. (6194 m.) above sea level  Lowest Point: Death Valley, California, 282 ft (86 m.) below sea level  Largest State: Alaska  Smallest State: Rhode Island  National Bird: Bald Eagle  National Flower: Rose  National Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner

5 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke What is the capital of the United States of America? ??? NYC

6 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Washington, D.C.

7 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke  New York City was the first capital of the United States once the Constitution was ratified. This is where Congress (that was formed under the Articles of Confederation) met. It is also where George Washington took the oath of office from the balcony of the old City Hall to become the first President of the United States.  One of the issues the President had to deal with was a permanent location for the country’s seat of government. As part of a compromise, it was decided that the capital would move to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1791 for ten years and then to a suitable permanent location on the Potomac River.  Washington chose an area that included land from the states of Maryland and Virginia. At this time the area was primarily farm and marsh lands. Nevertheless, Congress was scheduled to meet in the new capital on the first Monday in December Source: 12/nation/capital.html

8 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke  New York City was the first capital once the Constitution was ratified.  This is where Congress met.  George Washington took the oath of office from the balcony of the old City Hall to become the first President of the United States. Source: 12/nation/capital.html

9 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke  George Washington had to decide on a permanent location for the country’s seat of government.  The capital was moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1791 for ten years and then to a suitable permanent location on the Potomac River. Source: 12/nation/capital.html

10 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke  The new capital included land from the states of Maryland and Virginia (primarily farm and marsh lands.) Source: 12/nation/capital.html

11 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke  The "Federal City“ (Washington City, The District)  On June 11, 1800, Philadelphia was no longer the seat of government.  The capital of the United States now had a permanent home in Washington, District of Columbia Source: 12/nation/capital.html

12 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Historical Documents  Declaration of Independence

13 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Branches of Government Source: ranches.jpg

14 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Branches of Government  The Founding Fathers, the framers of the Constitution, wanted to form a government that did not allow one person to have too much authority or control. While under the rule of the British king they learned that this could be a bad system. Yet government under the Articles of Confederation taught them that there was a need for a strong centralized government.  With this in mind the framers wrote the Constitution to provide for a separation of powers, or three separate branches of government. Each has its own responsibilities and at the same time they work together to make the country run smoothly and to assure that the rights of citizens are not ignored or disallowed. This is done through checks and balances. A branch may use its powers to check the powers of the other two in order to maintain a balance of power among the three branches of government.

15 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Branches of Government  The Founding Fathers  Form a government that did not allow one person to have too much authority or control

16 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Founding Fathers

17 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Branches of Government  The framers wrote the Constitution to provide for a separation of powers, three separate branches of government.  Each has its own responsibilities.  Checks and Balances  A branch may use its powers to check the powers of the other two in order to maintain a balance of power among the three branches of government.

18 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke  The delegates to the Constitutional Convention faced a difficult challenge. They wanted to ensure a strong, cohesive central government, yet they also wanted to ensure that no individual or small group in the government would become too powerful. Because of the colonies’ experience under the British monarchy, the delegates wanted to avoid giving any one person or group absolute control in government. Under the Articles of Confederation, the government had lacked centralization, and the delegates didn’t want to have that problem again. To solve these problems, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention created a government with three separate branches, each with its own distinct powers. This system would establish a strong central government, while insuring a balance of power.  Governmental power and functions in the United States rest in three branches of government: the legislative, judicial, and executive. Article I of the Constitution defines the legislative branch and vests power to legislate in the Congress of the United States. The executive powers of the President are defined in Article 2. Article 3 places judicial power in the hands of one Supreme Court and inferior courts as Congress sees necessary to establish.  Though in this system of a "separation of powers" each branch operates independently of the others. However, there are built in "checks and balances“ to prevent tyrannous concentration of power in any one branch and to protect the rights and liberties of citizens. For example, the President can veto bills approved by Congress and the President nominates individuals to serve in the Federal judiciary; the Supreme Court can declare a law enacted by Congress or an action by the President unconstitutional; and Congress can impeach the President and Federal court justices and judges.

19 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Checks & Balances

20 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke e.g., John G. Roberts, Chief Justice

21 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Legislative Branch

22 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Legislative Branch  The legislative branch of government is made up of the Congress and government agencies, such as the Government Printing Office and Library of Congress, that provide assistance to and support services for the Congress. Article I of the Constitution established this branch and gave Congress the power to make laws. Congress has two parts, the House of Representatives and the Senate.

23 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Legislative Branch  Congress and Government Agencies  such as the Government Printing Office and Library of Congress  Article I of the Constitution established this branch and gave Congress the power to make laws.  Congress has two parts:  the House of Representatives and  the Senate.

24 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Legislative Branch  Article I of the Constitution establishes the legislative or law making branch of government with the formation of a bicameral Congress. This system provides checks and balances within the legislative branch.  Only after much debate did the Founding Fathers agree on the creation of the House of Representatives and the Senate. A major issue was how representation in the legislative body would be determined. Delegates to the Constitutional Convention from larger and more populated states argued for the Virginia Plan that called for congressional representation should be based on a state's population. Fearing domination, delegates from smaller states were just as adamant for equal representation and supported the New Jersey Plan. Roger Sherman, a delegate from Connecticut, proposed the bicameral legislature. The Great Compromise, among other provisions, resulted in the creation of two houses, with representation based on population in one and with equal representation in the other.  Members of Congress are now elected by a direct vote of the people of the state they represent. It has not always been this way for the Senate. Prior to 1913 and the 17th Amendment to the Constitution, Senators were chosen by their state legislatures because the Senate was viewed as representative of state governments, not of the people. It was the responsibility of Senators to ensure that their state was treated equally in legislation.  Agencies that provide support services for the Congress are also part of the legislative branch. These include the Government Printing Office (GPO), the Library of Congress (LC), the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), the Government Accountability Office (GAO), and the Architect of the Capitol.

25 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke The Powers of Congress:  Some of the congressional powers are:  Coining money (deciding what the legal tender is).  Maintaining a military.  Declaring war on other countries.  Regulating interstate and foreign commerce  And more …

26 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke How laws are made …

27 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke  US educational series  Songs about educational topics, e.g., politics, history, grammar, math, science  Broadcasted on American Broadcasting Company (ABC): present

28 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke How laws are made …

29 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke  The voters from Representative Jones' state constituents want a law requiring seatbelts on school buses. He and his staff write a bill, which is a draft (early version) of the proposed law. The bill is then passed out to each Representative. A Standing Committee (a small, permanent group made up of legislators who studies and reports on bills) reviews the bill and does one of three things: 1. Sends the bill back with no changes. 2. Makes changes and sends it back. 3. Tables the bill -- In other words, they can do nothing.

30 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke  If the committee sends it back with no changes, then the bill goes on the House's calendar to be voted on. When that day comes, the bill is voted on and a majority of the representatives (218 of 435) must vote yes to pass it.

31 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke  If the bill is passed by the House, it then moves to the other branch of Congress, the United States Senate. The bill goes to a Senate committee, which studies the bill, and then is voted on by the senators. Just as in the House, over half of the senators (51 of 100) must vote yes to pass the bill.

32 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke  If the bill is passed in both the House and Senate, the bill goes to the President of the United States. If the president signs the bill, it then becomes a law. It may also become law if the president does not sign it for 10 days. If the president rejects, vetoes the bill, it can still become a law if two-thirds of the House and two-thirds of the Senate then vote in favor of the bill.  A bill may begin in either the House of Representatives or the Senate. So, Senator Smith could introduce a bill of her own just like Representative Jones. This bill would take the same steps only it would begin in the Senate instead of the House of Representatives. Source: ttp://www.house.gov/putnam/graphics/br anches.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.house. gov/putnam/pages/kidspage.htm&h=352 &w=558&sz=41&hl=de&start=1&um=1&t bnid=TgK7pF9gTfLmNM:&tbnh=84&tbnw =133&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbranches %2Bof%2Bgovernment%26svnum%3D1 0%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dde

33 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Judicial Branch Source: eral%20Courts.jpg

34 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Judicial Branch  Article III of the Constitution established the judicial branch of government with the creation of the Supreme Court. This court is the highest court in the country and vested with the judicial powers of the government. There are lower Federal courts but they were not created by the Constitution. Rather, Congress deemed them necessary and established them using power granted from the Constitution.  Courts decide arguments about the meaning of laws, how they are applied, and whether they violate the Constitution. The latter power is known as judicial review and it is this process that the judiciary uses to provide checks and balances on the legislative and executive branches. Judicial review is not an explicit power given to the courts but it is an implied power. In a landmark Supreme Court decision, Marbury v. Madison (1803), the courts' power of judicial review was clearly articulated.

35 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Judicial Branch  Article III of the Constitution established the judicial branch of government with the creation of the Supreme Court.  This court is the highest court in the country.  Courts decide arguments about the meaning of laws, how they are applied, and whether they violate the Constitution.

36 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Executive Branch

37 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Executive Branch Food and Drug Administration Federal Emergency Management Agency

38 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Executive Branch  The executive branch of Government makes sure that the laws of the United States are obeyed. The President of the United States is the head of the executive branch of government. This branch is very large so the President gets help from the Vice President, department heads (Cabinet members), and heads of independent agencies.  President: Leader of the country and commands the military.  Vice President: President of the Senate and becomes President if the President can no longer do the job.  Departments: Department heads advise the President on issues and help carry out policies.  Independent Agencies: Help carry out policy or provide special services.

39 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Executive Branch  This branch makes sure that the laws of the United States are obeyed.  The President is the head of the executive branch of government.  President: Leader of the country and commands the military.  Vice President: President of the Senate and becomes President if the President can no longer do the job.  Departments: Department heads advise the President on issues and help carry out policies.  Independent Agencies: Help carry out policy or provide special services.

40 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Executive Branch  When the delegates to the Constitutional Convention created the executive branch of government, they gave the president a limited term of office to lead the government. This was very different from any form of government in Europe and caused much debate. The delegates were afraid of what too much power in the hands of one person might lead to. In the end, with a system of checks and balances included in the Constitution, a single president to manage the executive branch of government was adopted.  The executive branch of the Government is responsible for enforcing the laws of the land. When George Washington was president, people recognized that one person could not carry out the duties of the President without advice and assistance. The Vice President, department heads (Cabinet members), and heads of independent agencies assist in this capacity. Unlike the powers of the President, their responsibilities are not defined in the Constitution but each has special powers and functions.  President: Leader of the country and Commander in Chief of the military.  Vice President: President of the Senate and becomes President if the President is unable to serve.  Departments: Department heads advise the President on policy issues and help execute those policies.  Independent Agencies: Help execute policy or provide special services.

41 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke The next president of the United States of America?

42 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke President: Requirements and Term  The President and the Vice-President are the only officials elected by the entire country.  Requirements for these positions:  at least 35 years old  natural-born U.S. citizen  have lived in the U.S. for at least 14 years  The President serves a term of four years. At most, a President may serve two terms.  Before 1951, the President could serve as many terms as he wanted. However, every President had followed George Washington’s example of stepping down after two terms. Franklin D. Roosevelt broke with tradition. Roosevelt successfully ran for office four times. Early in his fourth term, in 1945, he died. Six years later, Congress passed the 22nd Amendment, which limits Presidents to two terms.  The President can be removed from office through the process of impeachment. If the House of Representatives feel that the President has committed acts of "Treason, Bribery, or other High Crimes and Misdemeanors" they can impeach him with a majority vote. An impeachment is very similar to a legal indictment. It is not a conviction, however, and not enough to remove the President from office alone.  The case then goes to the Senate. Overseen by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, the Senate reviews the case and votes whether or not to convict the President. If they vote in favor of conviction by a two- thirds margin, then the President is removed from office.

43 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke President: Requirements and Term  The President and the Vice-President are the only officials elected by the entire country.  Requirements for these positions:  at least 35 years old  have lived in the U.S. for at least 14 years  natural-born U.S. citizen  The President serves a term of four years. At most, a President may serve two terms.  FDR – 4 terms,  The 22nd Amendment limits Presidents to two terms.  The President can be removed from office through the process of impeachment.

44 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke What does the president do?  Generally viewed as the head of the U.S. Government  His power is limited by the Constitution. Constitutional Powers of the President:  Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces  Make treaties, with two-thirds consent of the Senate  Receive ambassadors and other public ministers from foreign countries  Appoint ambassadors, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, and any officials as provided for by the Congress, with the approval of the Senate  Give an annual State of the Union Address to Congress  Recommend legislation to Congress  Convene Congress on extraordinary occasions  Adjourn Congress, in cases of a disagreement about adjournment  "Take care that the laws be faithfully executed"  Fill in administrative vacancies during Congressional recesses  Grant reprieves and pardons for offences against the U.S.

45 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke If something were to happen to the president, who would take over the office? What is this order called? Order of Succession

46 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Order of Succession  According to the Presidential Succession Act of 1947, if the President of the United States is incapacitated, dies, resigns, is for any reason unable to hold his office, or is removed from office (impeached and convicted), people in the following offices, in this order, will assume the office of the President, provided they are qualified as stated by the Constitution to assume the office of the President, which means they have to be must be at least 35 years old, must be a natural-born U.S. citizen, and have lived in the U.S. for at least 14 years.  Vice President  Speaker of the House  President Pro Tempore of the Senate  Secretary of State  Secretary of the Treasury  Secretary of Defense  Attorney General  Secretary of the Interior  Secretary of Agriculture  Secretary of Commerce  Secretary of Labor  Secretary of Health and Human Services  Secretary of Housing and Urban Development  Secretary of Transportation  Secretary of Energy  Secretary of Education  Secretary of Veterans Affairs  Secretary of Homeland Security

47 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Judicial Branch Source: eral%20Courts.jpg

48 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Judicial Branch  Article III of the Constitution established the judicial branch of government with the creation of the Supreme Court. This court is the highest court in the country and vested with the judicial powers of the government. There are lower Federal courts but they were not created by the Constitution. Rather, Congress deemed them necessary and established them using power granted from the Constitution.  Courts decide arguments about the meaning of laws, how they are applied, and whether they violate the Constitution. The latter power is known as judicial review and it is this process that the judiciary uses to provide checks and balances on the legislative and executive branches. Judicial review is not an explicit power given to the courts but it is an implied power. In a landmark Supreme Court decision, Marbury v. Madison (1803), the courts' power of judicial review was clearly articulated.

49 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Judicial Branch  Article III of the Constitution established the judicial branch of government with the creation of the Supreme Court.  This court is the highest court in the country.  Courts decide arguments about the meaning of laws, how they are applied, and whether they violate the Constitution.

50 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke

51 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke

52 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke

53 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Election Process

54 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Voter Registration  Any citizen of the United States over the age of 18, and who meets certain state requirements, may vote in Federal elections. This has not always been the case. When the United States first won its independence, there were many restrictions on who could vote. In some states, only white male landowners over the age of 21 could vote. Beginning in 1870, however, a series of Constitutional Amendments (15th, 17th, 19th, 23rd, 24th, and 26th) and passage of certain pieces of legislation have extended voting privileges to more and more citizens.  It is everyone's civic responsibility to vote, but in order to do so you must be registered. Requirements for registration and registration deadlines vary from state to state and the District of Columbia. North Dakota is the only state that does not require voters to register.

55 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Voter Registration  Any citizen over the age of 18, and who meets certain state requirements, may vote in Federal elections.  In the past, there were many restrictions on who could vote.  Only white male landowners over the age of 21  Constitutional Amendments (15th, 17th, 19th, 23rd, 24th, and 26th) and passage of certain pieces of legislation have extended voting privileges to more and more citizens.  It is everyone's civic responsibility to vote, but in order to do so you must be registered.  Requirements for registration and registration deadlines vary from state to state and the District of Columbia.

56 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Voter Registration Card

57 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Electing the President and the Vice President  How does one become President of the United States? The following steps outline the general process for presidential elections. Step I: Primaries and Caucuses  There are many people who would like to become President.  In these elections (primaries and caucuses), party members vote for the candidate that will represent their party in the upcoming general election.

58 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Step 2: National Conventions  After the primaries and caucuses, each party holds a national convention to finalize the selection of one Presidential nominee.  Each Presidential candidate chooses a running-mate (or Vice-Presidential candidate). John Kerry, 2004 Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush, 1984

59 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Step 3: The General (or Popular) Election  Candidates campaign throughout the country in an attempt to win the support of voters.  In November, the people vote for one candidate.  Indirect Election:  When a person casts a vote in the general election, they are not voting directly for an individual Presidential candidate. Instead, voters in each state actually cast their vote for a group of people, known as electors.  These electors are part of the Electoral College and are supposed to vote for their state’s preferred candidate

60 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Step 4: The Electoral College  In the Electoral College system, each state gets a certain number of electors, based on each state's total number of representation in Congress. Each elector gets one electoral vote. For example, a large state like California gets 54 electoral votes, while Rhode Island gets only four. All together, there are 538 Electoral votes.  In December (following the general election), the electors cast their votes. When the votes are counted on January 6th, the Presidential candidate that gets more than half (270) wins the election. The President-elect and Vice President-elect take the oath of office and are inaugurated two weeks later, on January 20th.

61 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Step 4: The Electoral College  Each state has a certain number of electors, based on each state's total number of representation in Congress.  Each elector gets one electoral vote. (A large state like California has 54 electoral votes, while Rhode Island has only four. All together, there are 538 Electoral votes.)  In December (following the general election), the electors cast their votes. When the votes are counted on January 6th, the Presidential candidate that gets more than half (270) wins the election. The President-elect and Vice President-elect take the oath of office and are inaugurated two weeks later, on January 20th.

62 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Electoral Votes for the 2008 Election Source: i/United_States_Electoral _College

63 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Source: s/26ELECTORAL_COLLEGE.gif

64 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke How states currently select electors:  Presidential elector candidates are nominated by their state political parties in the summer before the Election Day. (Each state provides its own means for the nomination of electors.)  All states require the names of all Electors to be filed with the Secretary of State (or equivalent) at least a month prior to election day. Source: tates_Electoral_College#How_state s_currently_select_electors

65 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke

66 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke How can the loser of the popular vote win the election? Source: wiki/United_States_El ectoral_College

67 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke How states currently select electors:  Presidential elector candidates are nominated by their state political parties in the summer before the Election Day. Each state provides its own means for the nomination of electors. In some states, such as Oklahoma, the Electors are nominated in primaries the same way that other candidates are nominated. Other states, such as Virginia and North Carolina, nominate electors in party conventions. In Pennsylvania, the campaign committees of the candidates name their candidates for Presidential Elector (an attempt to discourage faithless Electors). All states require the names of all Electors to be filed with the Secretary of State (or equivalent) at least a month prior to election day.  Two states do not elect the Presidential Electors as a single slate. Maine and Nebraska elect two electors by a statewide ballot and choose their remaining Electors by congressional district. The method has been used in Maine since 1972 and Nebraska since 1991, though neither has split its electoral votes in modern elections. Source: tates_Electoral_College#How_state s_currently_select_electors

68 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke National versus State Government

69 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke National versus State Government  After the American colonies won their independence from England, the thirteen colonies became thirteen states. The new states formed a league so they could work together. Their system of government was described in a document called the Articles of Confederation. In this system, the state governments had most of the power. The national government was very weak. This was very different from the government under the King.  The Founding Fathers saw that this system left the nation too weak. They decided to develop a new system of government. They wrote a new document, the Constitution, to replace the Articles of Confederation. The Constitution made a stronger national government. It divided power between the national government and the state governments. This system is called federalism.

70 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke National versus State Government  After the American colonies won their independence from England, the thirteen colonies became thirteen states.  Their system of government was described in a document called the Articles of Confederation.  In this system, the state governments had most of the power.  The national government was very weak.  The Founding Fathers saw that this system left the nation too weak.  They wrote a new document, the Constitution, to replace the Articles of Confederation.  The Constitution made a stronger national government.  It divided power between the national government and the state governments.  Federalism

71 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke National versus State Government  The first type of government in America was based primarily on state government. Prior to the signing of the Constitution, America had been made up of thirteen colonies, which had been ruled by England. Following the Revolutionary War, these colonies, although they had formed a league of friendship under the Articles of Confederation, basically governed themselves. They feared a strong central government like the one they lived with under England's rule. However, it was soon discovered that this weak form of state government could not survive and so the Constitution was drafted. The Constitution:  defines and limits the power of the national government,  defines the relationship between the national government and individual state governments, and  guarantees the rights of the citizens of the United States.  This time, it was decided that a government system based on federalism would be established. In other words, power is shared between the national and state (local) governments. The opposite of this system of government is a centralized government, such as in France and Great Britain, where the national government maintains all power.  Sharing power between the national government and state governments allows us to enjoy the benefits of diversity and unity. For example, the national government may set a uniform currency system. Could you imagine having 50 different types of coins, each with a different value? You would need to take along a calculator to go shopping in another state. By setting up a national policy, the system is fair to everyone and the states do not have to bear the heavy burden of regulating their currency.  On the other hand, issues such as the death penalty have been left up to the individual states. The decision whether or not to have a death penalty, depends on that state's history, needs, and philosophies.

72 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke State Government

73 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke Questions ???

74 U.S. Government Rachelle Renee Rinke


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