Presentation on theme: "Designing and Implementing e-Government Strategy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Designing and Implementing e-Government Strategy Deepak Bhatia
2 Agenda E-government – brief introduction E-government strategy – componentsCase study – e-BharatWhat does all of this mean for the World Bank
3 Why e-government?“Everyone else is doing it, so its probably important and useful”“Its hype”“We don’t want to fall behind all others”“We think it will provide faster, more convenient government services”“We think it will reduce costs for individuals and businesses to deal with government””We think it will reduce costs for government (reduced data entry costs, lower error rates)”“We think it will improve democratic process”Before going into the question of strategies, you must be aware of WHY some country wants to put effort into e-government. Which are their motives? What driving forces make a country work with e-government?The motives could be multipliedNo matter what motive you have, you should be aware of it, because the answer to the question WHY do have a great impact on your strategy”To reduce corruption and fight poverty””We need to reach out to a broader part of population””We think it’s a tool for transformation of public administration from bureaucracy to service provider”
4 So what is E-Government? E-government is very simply about applying information and communication technology to all aspects of a government’s business where it makes sense to improve efficiency and effectiveness in the achievement of policy and program outcomes
5 So why an E-Government strategy? To pursue real economic development goals not just “technology push”To create the right policy and institutional frameworks from the start.To maximize effectiveness of ICT initiatives within Government.To manage the increasing costs of I&IT in governmentTo generate savings by applying I&IT in backend processes or other programmatic areasTo map path from pilot experiments to sustainable, scalable systemsTo design technology architecture (infrastructure, data, standards) for the public sectorTo integrate organizational silos and deliver citizen services through common channels.
6 What is an e-government strategy? Conceptual frameworkBusiness caseImplementation ProcessMeasurement of results
7 Conceptual Framework for E-Government Strategy OutputsDimensionsGoalsLeadershipE-Governance:Legal Framework,ICT Policies - StandardsTRANSPA-RENCYHuman Resource Dev.Connectivity & Data Processing infrastructureSERVICEPolicy & Institutional ReformInstitutional Infrastructure for Service DeliveryEFFICIENCYTechnologyClient-Oriented Service ApplicationsECONOMYBack-End Government ApplicationsFinancing
8 Making a business case for E-Government Strategy a. Defining worthwhile goalsb. Demonstrating financial feasibility and sustainabilityd. Developing incentive scheme
9 Business Case: Goals To extend the reach of government services To promote equal access to government servicesTo increase constituency satisfaction with government servicesin particular: to reduce transaction costs for citizensSurvey of citizens in Ontario indicated that citizens want – timeliness of response and right outcome (right information or completed transaction)To reduce government costs
10 Business Case: Financial Feasibility Incremental investment financing– Justified by public goods nature of outputs or market failures related to infrastructure-type investments. For example, it is clear that there will be no competition for providing training to public servants unless the government pays. The same about the CSC infrastructure; unless government is willing to provide some seed capital and selective operational subsidies the private sector will not deploy the centers needed.Cost sharing with business _ through PPPs based on real user fees or shadow transaction fees.Redirection of line ministry HRD and ITC budgets.Savings accrued over time from BPR, automation and outsourcing of client interface. Important to note that in initial stages costs to government may not be reduced (multiple channels, significant uptake)
11 Business Case: Incentives Individuals: skills upgrading, professional development, increased autonomy, international exposureDepartments: Increased budgetary control, organizational visibility, economic rewards, e.g. share of profits/savings, etc.
12 E-Government Strategy: Process (1) Define vision and goalsSet up high level leadership task forceEnsure consistency with economic development prioritiesAssess status quo andSecure political supportEstablish stakeholder participation mechanisms (including demand)
13 E-Government Strategy: Process (2) Put in place e-govt. management frameworkAssess priority needs for government servicesSecure fundingEstablish partnerships with private sector, where feasibleDesign technical, data sharing, and service delivery infrastructure.Prioritize projects (BPR first)
14 E-Government Strategy: Process (3) Develop time-bound implementation planSecure stakeholder buy-in of implementation planImplementation the strategy in phasesMeasure and publicize progressEvaluate results and make course corrections.
15 E-Govt. Strategy: Measurement of results Output IndicatorsInfrastructureImprovement in connectivity and data processing capacityGovernanceE-government management framework in placePolicy and regulatory framework in placeInstitutional CapacityGeographical reach of government servicesTraining impartedBusiness processes reengineeredNumber of Government systems operating at service standardsNote – illustrative examples – there are other measures of capabilitiy
16 Business Case: Measurement of results Impact IndicatorsConstituency satisfaction with government services (opinion surveys, citizen report cards)Access by the poor and rural populationClient orientation in public serviceData sharing across information systemstransparency of government organization to service recipients
17 Example of e-government strategy NEGP - E-Bharat under preparation
18 Example: NEGP - India’s e-Government strategy NEGP’s goal is the provision of improved, more convenient government services countrywide through on-line delivery at local service centers.NEGP is fully recognized as key part of national development plans.Involves central and all state governments. Will be led centrally and implemented locally.Will be implemented over an 8-year period (FY ) at a cost of roughly USD 4 billion.To be supported by proposed USD 1 billion Bank project in two phases
19 India’s NEGP : Scope of Outputs CentralStateIntegratedServices to Citizens (G2C)Income TaxPassport, visa and immigrationE-PostsLand recordsProperty registrationRoad transportAgricultureMunicipalitiesPanchayatsPoliceEmployment ExchangeEducationHealthFood Distribution & other welfare programsCommon Services Centres: Single-window public service delivery points eventually reaching all the 600,000 villages in IndiaState Wide Area Network SWAN: fiber optic connectivity up to block levelCountrywide State Data CentersAll India PortalNational E-Governance GatewayServices to Business (G2B)ExciseCompany affairsCommercial TaxesEDI (customs & foreigh trade)E-BIZE-ProcurementOtherNational IDNational GIS for planningTreasuriesE-Courts
20 India’s NEGP: Criteria for selection of MMPs Measurably improved citizen/business service deliveryOwnership by line ministry/ state departmentAcceptable BPR & change management planSolutions can be rolled out in 2-4 yearsemphasis on poor & rural communitiesUse of PPP solutions
21 India’s NEGP: Funding Sources Existing ministry budgets (3% national guideline for IT)Existing State fundsAdditional Central Assistance (ACA) from the central government to the states.External financing from the Bank and other donors, with harmonized administration procedures.Private financing through Public Private Partnerships (PPPs)User charges
22 India’s NEGP: Strategy for CSC Infrastructure To setup ICT- enabled CSCs in villages to deliver multiple services to the villagersTo deliver all possible G2C services through these CSCsTo promote public-private-partnerships (PPP) in ownership and operation of CSCsTo provide government subsidies calibrated to financial sustainability of CSCs
23 India’s NEGP: Strategy for Capacity Building Provide expert TA on project management and procurementSupport BPR plans of implementing departmentsFinance extensive training programNurture stakeholder/domain networks
29 But is our client interested? Strategic intent of a Government is signaled by:Formally expressed interestActive planning: documents are available and have been discussed internally; ICT deployment is a part of PRSPs; e-readiness assessment done e.g. through an Infodev grantEstablished government agency for ICT developmentStrategy implementation already started
30 Bank ICT Assistance Strategy Assistance must be country-specific depending on government commitment and country e-readiness.Given high risk of ICT investments, a careful implementation strategy is a mustFor laggard countries, target ‘low hanging fruit’ projects with high visibility, quick impact and easy implementation.For more advanced countries—i.e. have already implemented pilots-- the Bank can help in scaling up those systems that best fit within the CAS
31 In the Bank , all types of public sector projects, have e-Gov in them Improve administration structure and processes, civil service performance, public expendituremanagement de-concentration , revenue collection and accountability mechanisms.E-Gov???Really???Institutional Reform and Capacity Building ProjectsHealth SystemsModernizationEnhance efficiency of the Government’s decision-making process for public procurement and Documentation flow.Trade facilitation and market accessLay groundwork for effective health sector policy making & monitoringBefore going into the question of strategies, you must be aware of WHY some country wants to put effort into e-government. Which are their motives? What driving forces make a country work with e-government?The motives could be multipliedNo matter what motive you have, you should be aware of it, because the answer to the question WHY do have a great impact on your strategyAdministration Capacity Building ProjectsSupports improving the legal & regulatory framework for public financial management and newIntegrated IFMISCivil Service Reform andModernization
32 Why is this important for the Bank? Conservatively more than 50% of our projects involve significant investments in ICTMost ICT project components involve e-Government initiativesSeveral countries envisioning comprehensive projects: e- Lanka, India’s e-Bharat, e-Vietnam, e-Ghana, e-PeruSeveral regions working on an ICT strategy (SAR, EAP)Most of our clients are investing in this area anyway, it is better the Bank has a strategy to manage that investment and get better/wider impact from it
33 Who provides this support? ISG – e-government practice – applications, e-government strategiesGICT – telecom, policy, infrastructure, e-agendaLegal - legal frameworksWBI – client training, distance learningRegional units – AFTQK, ECSPESectors – for domain knowledge especially PREM
34 Closing thoughtsA country’s e-government strategy will need to be calibrated to the country's situation in terms ofPC & Internet penetration, (adequate technological infrastructure)software development capabilities available locally,literacy levels (both conventional & IT),economic level (ability to pay),Legal frameworklanguages prevalent, etc.preparedness and commitment of political, administrative and technical leadership.
35 And FinallyE-Govt is a multi year commitment. Even if technology can be rapidly implemented organizational change takes time and use patterns change even more slowly.E-Government offers tremendous opportunities for improving service delivery, efficiency and transparency in governmentHigh risk of e-government projects require careful designClient countries increasingly require this type of assistance from the World Bank Finally – while e-Govt is important it is a means to an end, and not an end in and of itself (its about the ‘g’ and not the ‘e’)
36 Credits – Contributors and Reviewers Subhash BhatnagarMark DutzTenzin Dolma NorbhuJoan McCallaEduardo TaleroGovernment of India - DITÅke GrönlundElisabet RosengrenSeda Pahlavooni
37 E-Government: Lessons of experience E-Government cannot perform as a substitute for governance reformE-Government must address the rural urban divideManage expectations: e-government is not a magic bulletTranslating promises to benefits involves difficult organizational changes.There is no “one size fits all” strategy: the context needs to be understoodBalance top direction and bottom up initiativeAvoid large failures; deliver early resultsOrganizations.Markets.Employment.Competitive Strategies.Innovation.Financial and other services.Regional Development.Human Development.
38 E-Government: Lessons of experience Identify priority interventions that are capable of exploring a country’s competitive advantage, delivering cross-cutting positive impactsPromote partnerships between government, private sector, civil society and donorsAvoid technology focus: ensure complementary investment; skills, organizational innovation and incentives are crucial for making technology workEmphasize training and capacity building
39 Country Experiences: UK Focus on improving government services for citizensPriority on ‘high impact’ areas - Take-up of services must be the key driver of investment and the key performance indicator.Create competitive pressureOpen up electronic delivery of government services to the private and voluntary sectors.Do not make exclusive contracts for front-end delivery Ð avoid private sector monopolies.Let electronic delivery compete with traditional delivery inside government.Make the Internet the backbone to ESD, but allow multiple entry routes.Reward innovation, accept some failureGet going quickly, and keep learning from mistakes.Set ambitious goals, informed by citizen preferences.Begin with prototypes that can be built quickly and tested.Quickly scale up successful prototypes for launch.Be ruthless in weeding out unsuccessful government e-venturePush for efficiency savingsWherever possible ESD should substitute rather than complement traditional delivery.Determine the trade-off between trust and income (e.g. advertising) for each service.
40 Country Experiences - Australia Agency e-government programs are more likely to be successful when:Executive-level support has been obtained from the CEO and senior agency staffAgency staff are committed to the broader concepts of e-governmentRecognition exists that people wish to deal with government through a variety of channels, and service delivery strategies are tailored accordinglyPotential awareness is heightened by promoting availability of online programs to peopleLegislation and authentication issues have been resolvedConfidence has been raised through electronic signaturesModels for effective inter-agency collaboration have been built and provenMomentum is maintained through better integration of enterprise, work, information, application and technology architectures with and among agencies
41 Country Experiences - Canada Canada regularly surveys citizens and businesses about their attitudes and needs--more so than any other country.Canada also actively markets its E-government services. It advertises on TV and radio, ad in airline magazines and newspapers to get citizens to use its portalCanada, like many nations, has a national CIO, given the necessary muscle to drive standards and create a common E-government offering
42 Country Experiences - Singapore To pull down silos, you need a big stickVision of "many agencies, one government" became mantraThe Ministry of Finance was sole authority in approving funding for e-government projectsIDA managed central IT and telecom infrastructure and defined national policy, standards and proceduresAll e-services followed same security, electronic payment and data exchange mechanisms, by regulatory and policy mandateWhile Internet technology was an enabler, people made it happen, through strong e-leadership Deputy prime minister launched the plan in 2000 "to be a leading e-government to better serve the nation in the digital economy."