Presentation on theme: "What does your portfolio say about you? 2/10/2013 Apurv Jain Capital Markets Group MSFT."— Presentation transcript:
What does your portfolio say about you? 2/10/2013 Apurv Jain Capital Markets Group MSFT
Definitions Systematic Risk – Something that affects everyone- the whole economy Can explain this in a factor model framework like CAPM as the market portfolio Idiosyncratic Risk – Something particular to an individual (company) Investing – Expecting rewards for bearing “systematic risk” Speculation – Expecting to win by bearing “non systematic risk” Beta – I AM WITH THE CROWD – Investing in one asset class or type of risk every time Alpha – I AM SPECIAL and BETTER THAN YOU – Beating the market consistently but not taking any one direction in one asset consistently Rest as we go along
What do we know? Taking risk has generally been rewarded – Triumph of the optimists – Linear relationship according to most asset pricing models Usually No free lunch – No Arbitrage can be used to get to Black Scholes Not easy to beat the market – i.e. predict short term returns and beat transaction costs – Market efficiency studies (Fama 1970) Diversification generally helps
What we sort of know Central banks matter Asset volatility is higher than macroeconomic volatility Different periods in Business cycles produce different returns Value stocks and small stocks outperform the market Blindly trusting equations can blow you up – “good traders” can help avoid that… Human being have many cognitive biases… – models can help you avoid those….
What I believe Collecting various kind of risk premium is smart You can beat the market but it is hard – Always ask what the “edge” is? Structural Factors can be big edges – People overpay for leverage – Pension funds invest in suboptimal portfolios due to regulation Growth, inflation and credit creation can help think about what asset classes to invest in Growth highGrowth Low Inflation HighCommodities Real Estate IL Bonds Inflation LowStocks Credit Nominal Bonds
What is the debate about? Physics => Laws Finance => Generalizations! Finance is a noisy social science but it matters There is no perfect agreement on anything in finance – Unlike Physics humans don’t follow laws when it comes to consumption vs. Statistical significance vs. Economic Significance – 16 years of data to know if stocks STATISTICALLY (at 95% confidence level) outperform bonds – Economic significance of a winning portfolio is big! A 4.5% higher return over 16 years means doubling your money!
Investing choices we will talk about Stock Mutual Funds – With active management – Passive management Bond Managers – Govt. Bonds – Corporate Bonds CTA – Trend Followers Hedge Funds – Absolute return – Exotic beta types – Global Macro Private Equity Venture Capital Real Estate
Stock Mutual Fund If you invest in actively managed stock mutual fund- GENERALLY – Reasonable risk tolerance – Longer investing horizon – Are Naïve Have NOT taken a finance course since you are OVERPAYING Believe your manager can beat the market => do NOT know how to run regressions!* – Optimistic Low fee Index Funds – sophisticated *Some managers do beat the market consistently but it more style predicated so if you don’t know much don’t give them your money! *It may also be harder to get into their funds at lower cost if you are not an institutional investor
Bond Managers Characteristics – Older – Lower risk tolerance – Known liabilities Market Beliefs – Pessimistic on growth (nominal and inflation linked bonds) – Optimistic on inflation (For Inflation linked bonds) – Optimistic on low defaults if buying corporate bonds
CTA Characteristics – Richer than simply mutual fund investor – Short/long time horizon – Moderate risk tolerance (around 10% vol but may have jump losses) Market Beliefs – Believe “Trend Following” works – Believe in “Technical Analysis” – Price and volume contain information about the future prices My Comments – Momentum trading does seem to help outperform with stocks but have to be careful about small, illiquid stocks – Momentum and trends also work on FX, commodities and most markets. – Could it be something to do with human nature? My current research topic
Hedge Funds Characteristics – Rich – Risk Taking – Sophisticated investor or Naïve rich fool? If you are paying 2 and 20 for beta you are naïve If you got into a top hedge fund that has an edge, then sophisticated – Have a good network Market Beliefs – Believe that markets have inefficiencies – Micro Absolute return funds – Macro Global Macro Funds – Mispriced risk exotic beta funds
Absolute Return Hedge Funds Equity Market Neutral, Fixed Income Arb Really believe in your manager – Likely overpaying for illiquidity beta (more likely) or unknown beta – Really have a manager that has a better mousetrap (less likely but possible) Believe market is inefficient and can be consistently exploited Crowded positions is a big risk
Exotic Beta generating Hedge Funds Believe bearing complex risks have more reward – Merger Arbitrage, Convertible Arbitrage, Emerging Markets – Be careful that returns are not only coming from lack of mark to market accounting – Exposure to illiquidity Naïve if paying 2 and 20 – Can do exotic beta cheaper – Hopefully not paying for fund of funds type of structure – An organization I know invests in 100 hedge funds! That basically delivers the market portfolio
Private Equity Characteristics – Rich – Risk taking – Long horizon (money locked in for years) Market Beliefs – Believe that public markets force management to make suboptimal decisions (esp. on restructuring) – => better alignment of interest between investor board and management by taking the company private – Adding debt enforces manager discipline – Useful to invest in something illiquid due to accounting treatment
Venture Capital Characteristics – Rich – Risk taking – Long horizon (money locked in for years) – “Adventurous”/”Futurist”/ Seek to invest in innovation Market Beliefs – Complex technologies can be better valued by experts – The best return is taking on the option like risk of new technologies until the public market values them – Beyond that they become growth companies!
Real Estate Characteristics – Many types of real estate investing Ordinary people buy it for consumption (or a substitution for rent) or easiest way to get leverage on something illiquid Big investors buy it for inflation hedge or to own their land – Long time horizon – Decent risk tolerance if investing Beliefs about the market – Inflation likely to happen – Easy to borrow money =>Levering up is a good idea – Have information about land use change or expect population to grow
Are these beliefs true? A look at performance
Hedge Funds have done well since 1990 but post 2004 has been more challenging
Hedge Fund Performance 2004 to today (CS TASS Database)
Private Equity and VC vs. index correlations have been rising
Like in most specialized things top guys continue to do well
Conclusion Know yourself – What are my characteristics Try to know the market – Do your research on the market and see what you believe Questions – What is my edge? – What is the person to whom I am handing over the money’s edge? This is a really cool problem so hopefully some of you wil do research on it!