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# Matching the Assessment Method to the Learning Target

## Presentation on theme: "Matching the Assessment Method to the Learning Target"— Presentation transcript:

Matching the Assessment Method to the Learning Target

Developed by… Dr. Ellen Vorenkamp Assessment Consultant Wayne RESA

Support The Michigan Assessment Consortium professional development series in common assessment development is funded in part by the Michigan Association of Intermediate School Administrators in cooperation with…

In this module you will learn about…
The various types of learning targets What each learning target assesses The different methods of assessment, and The best method of assessment for each type of learning target

Balance of Representation
Not all learning targets are created equal Some targets will require more test items than others and some will require different types of assessment methods Number of test items Types of test items Length of time to complete items or tasks

Types of Targets Knowledge Mastery Reasoning Proficiency Skills
Ability to Create Products Dispositions

Knowledge Mastery These targets are often stated using verbs such as knows, lists, names, identifies, and recalls. Targets can either be know outright or by reference. What we teach students to memorize vs. what we teach students to find.

Knowledge Standards Recognize Describe Understands Explains Knows
Identifies Comprehends Stiggins, R., Arter, J., Chappuis, S. & Chappuis, F. (2004) Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing It Right—Using It Well. Assessment Training Institute, Portland, OR.

Example Students will locate negative rational numbers (including integers) on the number line; know that numbers and their negatives add to 0, and are on opposite sides and at equal distance from 0 on a number line.

Reasoning Proficiency
Reasoning targets represent mental processes such as predicts, infers, classifies, compares, concludes, summarizes, evaluates, hypothesizes, and generalizes. 6 general types of reasoning taxonomies

Reasoning Proficiency
Reasoning Taxonomies Inductive/Deductive Reasoning Analytical Reasoning Comparative Reasoning Classifying Evaluative Reasoning Synthesis

Reasoning and Thinking Standards
Use Analyze Evaluate Make Decisions Formulates questions Make predictions Verifies Compares Contrasts Sets goals Strategize Distinguishes between Examines data and proposes meaningful interpretation Using insights and conclusions from data to generate potential solutions Stiggins, R., Arter, J., Chappuis, S. & Chappuis, F. (2004) Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing It Right—Using It Well. Assessment Training Institute, Portland, OR.

Example Students will compare their viewpoint about a classroom issue with the viewpoint of another person.

Skills Skill targets are objectives that must be observed or demonstrated in order to be assessed. Examples include oral fluency, speaking a second language, serving a volleyball, or playing a musical instrument. Knowledge targets always underlie skill targets; many reasoning targets also underlie skill targets.

Skill Standards Measures Reads aloud Dribbles and passes Participates
Uses simple equipment Demonstrates relationships Pronounces Collects Data Stiggins, R., Arter, J., Chappuis, S. & Chappuis, F. (2004) Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing It Right—Using It Well. Assessment Training Institute, Portland, OR.

Example Students will demonstrate skillful use of appropriate vocabularies, tools, instruments, and technologies of the visual, performing, or applied arts discipline.

Ability to Create Products
Certain targets require students to create a product, such as tables, graphs, essays, or data displays. There are differences between “tasks” and product targets.

Product/Performance Standards
Constructs graphs Develops a plan Creates a product to support a thesis Constructs models Creates a scripted scene Writes simple directions Generating a viable action plan to address the problem Stiggins, R., Arter, J., Chappuis, S. & Chappuis, F. (2004) Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing It Right—Using It Well. Assessment Training Institute, Portland, OR.

Example Students will construct simple charts from data and observations.

Dispositions These targets reflect attitudes and feelings.
They represent valuable affective outcomes we hope students attain as a result of their educational experiences.

Disposition Standards
Likes mathematics Chooses to read for enjoyment Plays basketball for fun Intends to vote in every election Looks forward to science Understands the ethics of the scientific method Wants to participate in community theatre Enjoys opportunities to converse in Spanish Commitment to active and sustained learning Exhibit a passion for learning Stiggins, R., Arter, J., Chappuis, S. & Chappuis, F. (2004) Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Doing It Right—Using It Well. Assessment Training Institute, Portland, OR.

Types of Methods Written Response Performance Assessment
Selected Response Short Answer Response Extended Response/Essay Performance Assessment Observation/Conversation

Example Students will be enthusiastic about writing and learning to write.

Classroom Assessment Strategies
Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Assessment Observations/ Conversations Multiple Choice True-False Matching Diagram Fill-in-the-blank (words, phrases) Essay Short answer (sentences, paragraphs) Web Concept Map Flowchart Graph Table Matrix Illustration Presentation Movement Science lab Athletic skill Dramatization Enactment Project Debate Model Exhibition Recital Performance Task Oral questioning Observation Interview Conference Process description Checklist Rating scale Journal sharing Thinking aloud a process Student self-assessment Peer review Adapted from the work of Dr. Robert Marzano

Classroom Assessment Strategies
Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Assessment Observations/ Conversations Multiple Choice True-False Matching Diagram Fill-in-the-blank (words, phrases) Essay Short answer (sentences, paragraphs) Web Concept Map Flowchart Graph Table Matrix Illustration Presentation Movement Science lab Athletic skill Dramatization Enactment Project Debate Model Exhibition Recital Performance Task Oral questioning Observation Interview Conference Process description Checklist Rating scale Journal sharing Thinking aloud a process Student self-assessment Peer review Adapted from the work of Dr. Robert Marzano

Classroom Assessment Strategies
Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Assessment Observations/ Conversations Multiple Choice True-False Matching Diagram Fill-in-the-blank (words, phrases) Essay Short answer (sentences, paragraphs) Web Concept Map Flowchart Graph Table Matrix Illustration Presentation Movement Science lab Athletic skill Dramatization Enactment Project Debate Model Exhibition Recital Performance Task Oral questioning Observation Interview Conference Process description Checklist Rating scale Journal sharing Thinking aloud a process Student self-assessment Peer review Adapted from the work of Dr. Robert Marzano

Classroom Assessment Strategies
Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Assessment Observations/ Conversations Multiple Choice True-False Matching Diagram Fill-in-the-blank (words, phrases) Essay Short answer (sentences, paragraphs) Web Concept Map Flowchart Graph Table Matrix Illustration Presentation Movement Science lab Athletic skill Dramatization Enactment Project Debate Model Exhibition Recital Performance Task Oral questioning Observation Interview Conference Process description Checklist Rating scale Journal sharing Thinking aloud a process Student self-assessment Peer review Adapted from the work of Dr. Robert Marzano

Classroom Assessment Strategies
Selected Response Constructed Response Performance Assessment Observations/ Conversations Multiple Choice True-False Matching Diagram Fill-in-the-blank (words, phrases) Essay Short answer (sentences, paragraphs) Web Concept Map Flowchart Graph Table Matrix Illustration Presentation Movement Science lab Athletic skill Dramatization Enactment Project Debate Model Exhibition Recital Performance Task Oral questioning Observation Interview Conference Process description Checklist Rating scale Journal sharing Thinking aloud a process Student self-assessment Peer review Adapted from the work of Dr. Robert Marzano

So now what? Types of learning targets What learning targets assess
Types of assessment methods Matching the most appropriate method of assessment with each type of learning target…

Target/Method Match

Target/Method Match Knowledge Yes!
Selected Response Extended Written Response Performance Assessment Observation/ Conversation Knowledge Yes! Yes-Understandings of relationships among elements of knowledge Nope- too time consuming Maybe (question, evaluate answers, infer mastery –but time consuming

Target/Method Match Product No Maybe-if product is written Yes! Target
Selected Response Extended Written Response Performance Assessment Observation/ Conversation Product No Maybe-if product is written Yes!

Wrap Up Determine the type of learning target
Determine the most effective assessment method for that learning target Determine the number of items for each assessment method Determine the amount of time required to answer each item type Determine the amount of points each item is worth

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