Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Preschool Curriculum: Ages 3 to 5"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 8 Preschool Curriculum: Ages 3 to 5 Language and Cognitive Developmentby Rina Lestari S
2 INTRODUCTIONIn 1930s to the 1970s, educators believed that the learning process to read began in the first grade (at 6 years old) using Gesell’s maturational theory.In 1950s and 1960s children play an active role in oral language acquisition.Piaget (1955): language development is similar to cognitive development.
3 INTRODUCTIONBloom, Brown, Cazden, Chomsky: the child construct language as the child construct knowledge.Dyson, Goodman, Snow & Tabors, Sulzby, Barnhart & Hieshima: understanding how young children learn to talk helps us to also understand how they learn to write and read.
4 CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT I. How young children develop languageSkinner: the behaviorist position is that language is learned through reinforcement.Slobin, McNeil, Chomsky: human are biologically equipped for language acquisition have an innate/natural capacity to learn language.
5 CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Jewell & Zintz, Spodek: the rules for the language are finite/limited, but children can generate an infinite number of sentences using the rules.Piaget: language development parallel the child’s ability to use thought they use their own style of thinking & language interaction to learn language.Vygotsky: human consciousness is develop through words.Genishi & Fassler: communicative competence includes the ability to speak appropriately in different social situations and to use knowledge of linguistic rules to communicate.
6 CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT II. Forms of LanguageThere are certain elements of languagethat all children acquire:Phonology: the sound systemSyntax: the grammarSemantics: the meaning of the communicationPragmatics: refers to what the speaker intends to communicate. It is related to effective communication. (the preschool child learns how to communicate politely & properly)
7 CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT III. Language differences in the Preschool YearsBy 4 or 5 years, young children have acquired abasic mastery of the language spoken at home.According to Genishi & Fassler:Language is an enormously complex system throughwhich people construct & convey meaning.Imitation is not the key to acquiring language.All normal children develop communicative competence within their own communities.
8 CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Important to remember:Many children come fromdifferent cultures and communities.(Those could be problems to teachers to treat those children)
9 PLANNING FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT The first purpose is to extend the child’sacquisition of oral language the mostactive period of development ofcommunicate through speech 3 through5.In planning for language program, teacher oral & written literacy.
10 PLANNING FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT I. The Role of Play in Language DevelopmentLanguage important in play, but play equally important role in the development oflanguage.According to Frost cited Levy’s:- Play stimulates innovation in language- Play introduces & clarifies new words & concepts- Play motivates language use and practice- Play develops metalinguistic awareness- Play encourages verbal thinking
11 PLANNING FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT II. The Role of the Teacher in Language Development and LiteracyFor Language development: teacher facilitator,instructor, and model.Facilitator: setting up the indoor & outdoor environment to support children’s play.Instructor: teacher-direct activities and structured experiences (concept, vocabulary, development written language)Model: for language development through all verbal interaction with children.
12 PLANNING FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT III. The Role of Parents in Language DevelopmentParents major role in their child’s development oflanguage.Strategies to facilitate language development:Get your children talk!Help your children understand the storyPraise your childrenRelate the book to your lifeAsk your children good question during storybook reading.Wait for answerWith your younger children, point to words when you readWith older children, point to words when you readChoose books carefullyHave fun!
13 PLANNING FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IV. The Role of the Environment in Language and LiteracyThe preschool classroom inviting environment for youngchildren.The class has both social (includes teacher) & physical(space & materials) aspects.According to Ostrosky & Kaiser in arranging language environment:Focus on making language a part of children’s routines.Provide access to interesting materials & activities.Provide adult & peer models who will encourage children to use language & respond.Establish a contingent relationship between access to materials.
14 PLANNING FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Language environment print-richEnvironment everywhere in the form oflabel, lists, signs, charts, and posters.The teacher’s role:Read to the childrenEngage in conversationDiscuss and share books and storiesUse poetry and finger plays
15 PLANNING FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT The child’s role:Write on a daily basisExplore new booksReview familiar booksListen to storiesEngage in drama/role play
16 DESIGNING CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Aware of activities that will facilitate the transition intowritten language.The curriculum for oral language development topromote the child’s expressive and receptive language.(expressive combination of the phonetic, syntactic, semantic,pragmatic;receptive elements that the child has heard & understood, butcannot yet use in the expressive language.)Literacy is develop when the child is able to use writtenlanguage that includes writing and reading.
17 DESIGNING CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT I. Experiences That Promote Expressive LanguageExpressive language development orallanguage.Morrow has developed objectives for thedevelopment of expressive language:Give children opportunities to use their language freely.Encourage children to pronounce words correctly.Help children to increase their speaking vocabularies
18 DESIGNING CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 4. Encourage children to speak in complete sentences.5. Give opportunities to expand their use of various syntactic structures.6. Encourage children to communicate with others so that they can be understood.7. Give children the opportunity to use language socially and psychology8. Give children opportunities to develop language that involve mathematical and logical relations.9. Give children the opportunity to talk in many different settings.
19 DESIGNING CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Classroom setting centers for learningand play.Children use expressive language todiscuss activities with teachers and peers.It occurs when children interact in themanipulative or science-math centers,asking for directions, giving suggestions,and describing activities.
20 DESIGNING CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT II. Experiences That Promote Receptive LanguageThe child’s receptive language will reflect thenature of the adult language that is heard.Objectives for receptive language (by Morrow):Provide children with an atmosphere which they will hear the language frequently.Children associate what they hear with pleasure and enjoyment.
21 DESIGNING CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 3. Children discriminate and classify sounds they hear.4. Children hear a rich source of new wordson a regular basis.5. Children listen to others & demonstrate that they understand what it said.6. Provide children with opportunities for following directions.
22 DESIGNING CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Telling and reading stories are major activities used with young children to help them develop listening skills and receptive vocabulary. Not only are the children being exposed to new words, but they are also acquiring new information (Genishi & Fassler, 1999)
23 DEVELOPING FOUNDATIONS FOR LITERACY Literacy is a continuous process thatbegins at birth and develops as childrenstrive to understand and use oral andwritten language.Interest in books and stories and usingConversations to communicate process.Adult facilitators for oral & writtenliteracy for children.
24 DEVELOPING FOUNDATIONS FOR LITERACY I. Resolving the Issues in Beginning LiteracyInstructionEmergent literacy: children begin the processbecoming literate very early in life.The role of the teacher: to guide, to instruct, andScaffold.The role of the children: to encounter,experience, represent accomplishment inbeginning literacy.
25 GOALS FOR LITERACY Rich teacher talk Storybook reading Phonological awareness activitiesAlphabet activitiesSupport for emergent readingSupport for emergent writingShared book experiencesIntegrated, content-focused activities
26 Emergent literacy is a process of literacy DESIGNING LANGUAGE CURRICULUM FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES AND LANGUAGE DIFFERENCESEmergent literacy is a process of literacyacquisition that is flexible and adaptable tovarious levels of development. Its flexiblenature is applicable to children who havespecial needs for learning in the preschoolyears. Little modification is needed inmany classroom experiences because noset level of participation is required.
27 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Young children are developing theircognitive capacities in problem solving,reasoning, and abstract conceptformation during the years fromage 3 to 5(Bredekamp & Copple, 1997).
28 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT I. How Young children Develop ConceptsBetween ages 3 to 5 children developtheir schema concepts repeatedexperiences with variety materials explore.Piaget disequilibrium/cognitive conflict:will challenge the child’s understanding.
29 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT II. Planning for Cognitive DevelopmentInformation sequence of concepts through manipulation, observation, &discovery.In setting curriculum educators familiar with nature of progress toorganize instruction, goals, & objectives forpreschool children.
30 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT The child’s ability to understandmathematics & science preoperationalperiod discrimination, classification andone-to-one correspondence.Math for preschool children should see:Child’s cognitive limitationMinimum of perceptual difficulties.According to Dutton and Dutton concretematerials must be available to manipulate, act on,arrange, and classify.
31 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Concepts of learning science:understanding the relationship betweenobjects, events, or situations (environment) generalization.3 process of forming concepts:DifferentiatingGroupingLabeling
32 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT III. Goals for Cognitive Development Mathematics and ScienceThe National Council of Teachers of Mathematics(2000) has develop standard for prekindergartenthrough 2nd grade:Numbers and operationPatterns, functions, and algebraGeometry and spatial senseMeasurementData analysis and probability
33 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Cognitive development in science slightly different process:ObservingThinkingReflecting
34 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT On experiences they have engage in withphenomena in the environment:HypothesesCollect dataMake decisions about the hypothesesMake generalization
35 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IV. The Role of the Teacher in Cognitive DevelopmentThe adult’s role making plans for teacherdirected and child-directed activities &experiences.The teacher’s role supporting/scaffolding see children’s ZPD.The ZPD: independent & needs assistance.
36 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Support setting up the environment can assist the child.In working with concepts in science teacher will include many opportunities forchildren sequence of experiencing &representing firstly, directly experiencethe concept.Teacher consider how best to organizelearning experiences.
37 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT V. The Role of the Environment and Play in Cognitive DevelopmentClassroom centers of math and science materials.Math centers object for working with numbers.Science centers insect cages, small animals cages,magnifiers, etc.Children need to explore physical properties explorations of water, sand, things that roll, and blocks(Sprung, 1996).
38 THE INTEGRATED CURRICULUM The curriculum exemplify the content oflanguage and cognitive development forpreoperational children.The activities require active interaction onthe part of the child manipulative/experiences meaningfulcontext.
39 DESIGNING COGNITIVE CURRICULUM FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES The nature of cognitive development forpreschool children: adaptable to a range ofdevelopment levels.Children who are developmentally delayedinteractions opportunities to use theirsenses & cognitive abilities to learn.The teacher should be sensitive adaptationsnecessary for children who have specialneeds.
40 Thank You for listening my loooooooooongggggpresentation…