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Chapter 8 Preschool Curriculum: Ages 3 to 5 Language and Cognitive Development by Rina Lestari S 69080059.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Preschool Curriculum: Ages 3 to 5 Language and Cognitive Development by Rina Lestari S 69080059."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Preschool Curriculum: Ages 3 to 5 Language and Cognitive Development by Rina Lestari S

2 INTRODUCTION In 1930s to the 1970s, educators believed that the learning process to read began in the first grade (at 6 years old) using Gesells maturational theory. In 1950s and 1960s children play an active role in oral language acquisition. Piaget (1955): language development is similar to cognitive development.

3 INTRODUCTION Bloom, Brown, Cazden, Chomsky: the child construct language as the child construct knowledge. Dyson, Goodman, Snow & Tabors, Sulzby, Barnhart & Hieshima: understanding how young children learn to talk helps us to also understand how they learn to write and read.

4 CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT I. How young children develop language - Skinner: the behaviorist position is that language is learned through reinforcement. - Slobin, McNeil, Chomsky: human are biologically equipped for language acquisition have an innate/natural capacity to learn language.

5 CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT - Jewell & Zintz, Spodek: the rules for the language are finite/limited, but children can generate an infinite number of sentences using the rules. - Piaget: language development parallel the childs ability to use thought they use their own style of thinking & language interaction to learn language. - Vygotsky: human consciousness is develop through words. - Genishi & Fassler: communicative competence includes the ability to speak appropriately in different social situations and to use knowledge of linguistic rules to communicate.

6 CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT II. Forms of Language There are certain elements of language that all children acquire: - Phonology: the sound system - Syntax: the grammar - Semantics: the meaning of the communication - Pragmatics: refers to what the speaker intends to communicate. It is related to effective communication. (the preschool child learns how to communicate politely & properly)

7 CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT III. Language differences in the Preschool Years By 4 or 5 years, young children have acquired a basic mastery of the language spoken at home. According to Genishi & Fassler: - Language is an enormously complex system through which people construct & convey meaning. - Imitation is not the key to acquiring language. - All normal children develop communicative competence within their own communities.

8 CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Important to remember: Many children come from different cultures and communities. (Those could be problems to teachers to treat those children)

9 PLANNING FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT The first purpose is to extend the childs acquisition of oral language the most active period of development of communicate through speech 3 through 5. In planning for language program, teacher oral & written literacy.

10 PLANNING FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT I. The Role of Play in Language Development Language important in play, but play equally important role in the development of language. According to Frost cited Levys: - Play stimulates innovation in language - Play introduces & clarifies new words & concepts - Play motivates language use and practice - Play develops metalinguistic awareness - Play encourages verbal thinking

11 PLANNING FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT II. The Role of the Teacher in Language Development and Literacy For Language development: teacher facilitator, instructor, and model. - Facilitator: setting up the indoor & outdoor environment to support childrens play. - Instructor: teacher-direct activities and structured experiences (concept, vocabulary, development written language) - Model: for language development through all verbal interaction with children.

12 PLANNING FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT III. The Role of Parents in Language Development Parents major role in their childs development of language. Strategies to facilitate language development: 1. Get your children talk! 2. Help your children understand the story 3. Praise your children 4. Relate the book to your life 5. Ask your children good question during storybook reading. 6. Wait for answer 7. With your younger children, point to words when you read 8. With older children, point to words when you read 9. Choose books carefully 10. Have fun!

13 PLANNING FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IV. The Role of the Environment in Language and Literacy The preschool classroom inviting environment for young children. The class has both social (includes teacher) & physical (space & materials) aspects. According to Ostrosky & Kaiser in arranging language environment: 1. Focus on making language a part of childrens routines. 2. Provide access to interesting materials & activities. 3. Provide adult & peer models who will encourage children to use language & respond. 4. Establish a contingent relationship between access to materials.

14 PLANNING FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Language environment print-rich Environment everywhere in the form of label, lists, signs, charts, and posters. The teachers role: 1. Read to the children 2. Engage in conversation 3. Discuss and share books and stories 4. Use poetry and finger plays

15 PLANNING FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT The childs role: 1. Write on a daily basis 2. Explore new books 3. Review familiar books 4. Listen to stories 5. Engage in drama/role play

16 DESIGNING CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Aware of activities that will facilitate the transition into written language. The curriculum for oral language development to promote the childs expressive and receptive language. (expressive combination of the phonetic, syntactic, semantic, pragmatic; receptive elements that the child has heard & understood, but cannot yet use in the expressive language.) Literacy is develop when the child is able to use written language that includes writing and reading.

17 DESIGNING CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT I. Experiences That Promote Expressive Language Expressive language development oral language. Morrow has developed objectives for the development of expressive language: 1. Give children opportunities to use their language freely. 2. Encourage children to pronounce words correctly. 3. Help children to increase their speaking vocabularies

18 DESIGNING CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 4. Encourage children to speak in complete sentences. 5. Give opportunities to expand their use of various syntactic structures. 6. Encourage children to communicate with others so that they can be understood. 7. Give children the opportunity to use language socially and psychology 8. Give children opportunities to develop language that involve mathematical and logical relations. 9. Give children the opportunity to talk in many different settings.

19 DESIGNING CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Classroom setting centers for learning and play. Children use expressive language to discuss activities with teachers and peers. It occurs when children interact in the manipulative or science-math centers, asking for directions, giving suggestions, and describing activities.

20 DESIGNING CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT II. Experiences That Promote Receptive Language The childs receptive language will reflect the nature of the adult language that is heard. Objectives for receptive language (by Morrow): 1. Provide children with an atmosphere which they will hear the language frequently. 2. Children associate what they hear with pleasure and enjoyment.

21 DESIGNING CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 3. Children discriminate and classify sounds they hear. 4. Children hear a rich source of new words on a regular basis. 5. Children listen to others & demonstrate that they understand what it said. 6. Provide children with opportunities for following directions.

22 DESIGNING CURRICULUM FOR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Telling and reading stories are major activities used with young children to help them develop listening skills and receptive vocabulary. Not only are the children being exposed to new words, but they are also acquiring new information (Genishi & Fassler, 1999)

23 DEVELOPING FOUNDATIONS FOR LITERACY Literacy is a continuous process that begins at birth and develops as children strive to understand and use oral and written language. Interest in books and stories and using Conversations to communicate process. Adult facilitators for oral & written literacy for children.

24 DEVELOPING FOUNDATIONS FOR LITERACY I. Resolving the Issues in Beginning Literacy Instruction Emergent literacy: children begin the process becoming literate very early in life. The role of the teacher: to guide, to instruct, and Scaffold. The role of the children: to encounter, experience, represent accomplishment in beginning literacy.

25 GOALS FOR LITERACY 1. Rich teacher talk 2. Storybook reading 3. Phonological awareness activities 4. Alphabet activities 5. Support for emergent reading 6. Support for emergent writing 7. Shared book experiences 8. Integrated, content-focused activities

26 DESIGNING LANGUAGE CURRICULUM FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES AND LANGUAGE DIFFERENCES Emergent literacy is a process of literacy acquisition that is flexible and adaptable to various levels of development. Its flexible nature is applicable to children who have special needs for learning in the preschool years. Little modification is needed in many classroom experiences because no set level of participation is required.

27 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Young children are developing their cognitive capacities in problem solving, reasoning, and abstract concept formation during the years from age 3 to 5 (Bredekamp & Copple, 1997).

28 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT I. How Young children Develop Concepts Between ages 3 to 5 children develop their schema concepts repeated experiences with variety materials explore. Piaget disequilibrium/cognitive conflict: will challenge the childs understanding.

29 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT II. Planning for Cognitive Development Information sequence of concepts through manipulation, observation, & discovery. In setting curriculum educators familiar with nature of progress to organize instruction, goals, & objectives for preschool children.

30 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT The childs ability to understand mathematics & science preoperational period discrimination, classification and one-to-one correspondence. Math for preschool children should see: 1. Childs cognitive limitation 2. Minimum of perceptual difficulties. According to Dutton and Dutton concrete materials must be available to manipulate, act on, arrange, and classify.

31 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Concepts of learning science: understanding the relationship between objects, events, or situations (environment) generalization. 3 process of forming concepts: 1. Differentiating 2. Grouping 3. Labeling

32 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT III. Goals for Cognitive Development Mathematics and Science The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000) has develop standard for prekindergarten through 2 nd grade: 1. Numbers and operation 2. Patterns, functions, and algebra 3. Geometry and spatial sense 4. Measurement 5. Data analysis and probability

33 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Cognitive development in science slightly different process: 1. Observing 2. Thinking 3. Reflecting

34 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT On experiences they have engage in with phenomena in the environment: Hypotheses Collect data Make decisions about the hypotheses Make generalization

35 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IV. The Role of the Teacher in Cognitive Development The adults role making plans for teacher directed and child-directed activities & experiences. The teachers role supporting/scaffolding see childrens ZPD. The ZPD: independent & needs assistance.

36 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Support setting up the environment can assist the child. In working with concepts in science teacher will include many opportunities for children sequence of experiencing & representing firstly, directly experience the concept. Teacher consider how best to organize learning experiences.

37 CURRICULUM FOR COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT V. The Role of the Environment and Play in Cognitive Development Classroom centers of math and science materials. Math centers object for working with numbers. Science centers insect cages, small animals cages, magnifiers, etc. Children need to explore physical properties explorations of water, sand, things that roll, and blocks (Sprung, 1996).

38 THE INTEGRATED CURRICULUM The curriculum exemplify the content of language and cognitive development for preoperational children. The activities require active interaction on the part of the child manipulative/experiences meaningful context.

39 DESIGNING COGNITIVE CURRICULUM FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES The nature of cognitive development for preschool children: adaptable to a range of development levels. Children who are developmentally delayed interactions opportunities to use their senses & cognitive abilities to learn. The teacher should be sensitive adaptations necessary for children who have special needs.

40 Thank You for listening my loooooooooonggggg presentation…

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