3 II. Origins of the Cold War The Two PowersThe United States emerged from World War II as by far the world’s greatest powerThe only power that in any way could rival the United States was the Soviet Union
4 II. Origins of the Cold War (con’t) The Roots of ContainmentIt seems all but inevitable that the two major powers to emerge from the war would come into conflictMany Americans became convinced that Stalin was violating the promise of free election in Poland agreed to at the Yalta conference of 1945The Long Telegram advised the Truman administration that the Soviets could not be dealt with as a normal government“Containment”Iron Curtain speech
5 II. Origins of the Cold War (con’t) The Truman DoctrineTruman soon determined to put the policy of containment into effectTo rally popular backing for Greece and Turkey, Truman rolled out the heaviest weapon in his rhetorical arsenal—the defense of freedomThe Truman Doctrine created the language through which most Americans came to understand the postwar worldTruman’s rhetoric suggested that the United States had assumed a permanent global responsibility
6 II. Origins of the Cold War (con’t) The Marshall PlanGeorge Marshall pledged the United States to contribute billions of dollars to finance the economic recovery of EuropeThe Marshall Plan offered a positive vision to go along with containmentThe Marshall Plan envisioned a New Deal for EuropeThe Marshall Plan proved to be one of the most successful foreign aid programs in history
7 II. Origins of the Cold War (con’t) The Berlin Blockade and NATOIn 1945 the Soviets cut off road and rail traffic from the American, British, and French zones of occupied Germany to BerlinAn eleven-month allied airlift followedIn 1949 the Soviet Union tested its first atomic bombThe North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) pledged mutual defense against any future Soviet attackWarsaw PactCommunists won the civil war in China in 1949In the wake of these events, the National Security Council approved a call for a permanent military buildup to enable the United States to pursue a global crusade against communismNSC 68
8 II. Origins of the Cold War (con’t) The Korean WarIn June 1950, the North Korean army invaded the South, hoping to reunify the country under Communist controlAmerican troops did the bulk of the fighting on this first battlefield of the Cold WarGeneral Douglas MacArthurKorea made it clear that the Cold War, which began in Europe, had become a global conflictTaken together, the events of 1947–53 showed that the world had been divided in two
9 II. Origins of the Cold War (con’t) Cold War CriticsCasting the Cold War in terms of a worldwide battle between freedom and slavery had unfortunate consequencesWalter Lippmann objected to turning foreign policy into an “ideological crusade”The Free WorldAlthough America granted independence to the Philippines in 1946, much of Europe intended to keep their empireEconomics and geopolitical interests motivated American foreign policy, but the language of freedom was used to justify its actions
10 III. The Cold War and the Idea of Freedom The Cultural Cold WarOne of the more unusual Cold War battlefields involved American history and cultureHollywoodThe Central Intelligence Agency and Defense Department emerged as unlikely patrons of the arts
11 III. The Cold War and the Idea of Freedom (con’t) Freedom and TotalitarianismWorks produced by artists who considered themselves thoroughly nonpolitical became weapons in the cultural Cold WarJackson PollockThe New York SchoolAlong with freedom, the Cold War’s other great mobilizing concept was “totalitarianism”
12 III. The Cold War and the Idea of Freedom (con’t) Totalitarianism left no room for individual rights or alternative values and therefore could never change from withinMcCarran Internal Security ActJust as the conflict over slavery redefined American freedom in the nineteenth century, and the confrontation with the Nazis shaped understandings of freedom during World War II, the Cold War reshaped them once again
13 III. The Cold War and the Idea of Freedom (con’t) The Rise of Human RightsThe idea that rights exist applicable to all members of the human family originated during the eighteenth century in the Enlightenment and the American and French RevolutionsIn 1948, the United Nations General Assembly approved the Universal Declaration of Human RightsAfter the Cold War ended, the idea of human rights would play an increasingly prominent role in world affairsFreedom House
14 IV. The Truman Presidency The Fair DealTruman’s first domestic task was to preside over the transition from a wartime to a peacetime economyTruman moved to revive the stalled momentum of the New DealThe Postwar Strike WaveThe AFL and CIO launched Operation Dixie, a campaign to bring unionization to the SouthIn 1946, nearly 5 million workers went on strikePresident Truman feared the strikes would seriously disrupt the economy
15 IV. The Truman Presidency (con’t) The Republican ResurgenceRepublicans swept to control both houses of Congress in 1946Congress turned aside Truman’s Fair Deal programTaft-Harley ActPostwar Civil RightsImmediately after the war, the status of black Americans enjoyed a prominence in national affairs unmatched since ReconstructionThe Brooklyn Dodgers added Jackie Robinson to their team in 1947
16 IV. The Truman Presidency (con’t) To Secure These RightsA Commission on Civil Rights appointed by the president issued To Secure These RightsIt called on the federal government to abolish segregation and discriminationIn 1948, Truman presented an ambitious civil rights program to CongressTruman desegregated the armed forcesThe Democratic platform of 1948 was the most progressive in the party’s history
17 IV. The Truman Presidency (con’t) The Dixiecrat and Wallace RevoltsDixiecrats formed the States’ Rights PartyStrom ThurmondA group of left-wing critics of Truman’s foreign policy formed the Progressive PartyHenry WallaceThe 1948 CampaignTruman’s main opponent was the colorless Republican Thomas A. DeweyTruman’s success represented one of the greatest upsets in American political history
18 V. The Anticommunist Crusade The Cold War encouraged a culture of secrecy and dishonestyAt precisely the moment when the United States celebrated freedom as the foundation of American life, the right to dissent came under attackLoyalty and DisloyaltyThose who could be linked to communism were enemies of freedomHUAC hearings against Hollywood began in 1947
19 V. The Anticommunist Crusade (con’t) The Spy TrialsHUAC investigation against Alger HissThe Rosenbergs were convicted for spying and executed in 1953McCarthy and McCarthyismSenator Joseph McCarthy announced in 1950 that he had a list of 205 Communists working for the State DepartmentMcCarthy’s downfall came with nationally televised Army-McCarthy hearings in 1954
20 V. The Anticommunist Crusade (con’t) An Atmosphere of FearAnticommunism was as much a local as a national phenomenon“Red squads”Private organizationsLocal anticommunist groups forced public libraries to remove “un-American” books from their shelvesThe courts did nothing to halt the political repressionDennis v. United States
21 V. The Anticommunist Crusade (con’t) The Uses of AnticommunismAnticommunism had many faces and purposesAnticommunism also served as a weapon wielded by individuals and groups in battles unrelated to defending the United States against subversionThe anticommunist crusade promoted a new definition of loyalty—conformityHenry Steele CommagerAnticommunist PoliticsThe McCarran Internal Security Bill of 1950The McCarran-Walter Act of 1952
22 V. The Anticommunist Crusade (con’t) Cold War Civil RightsEvery political and social organization had to cooperate with the anticommunist crusade or face destructionOrganized labor rid itself of its left-wing officials and emerged as a major supporter of the foreign policy of the Cold WarThe civil rights movement also underwent a transformationThe NAACP purged Communists from local branches
23 V. The Anticommunist Crusade (con’t) The Cold War caused a shift in thinking and tactics among civil rights groupsDean Acheson’s speech to the Delta Council was filled with ironyAfter 1948, little came of the Truman administration’s civil rights flurry, but time would reveal that the waning of the civil rights impulse was only temporary
24 Cold War Europe, 1956 • pg. 902Cold War Europe, 1956
25 The Korean War, 1950–1953 • pg. 904The Korean War, 1950–1953
27 fig23_01.jpgPages : Students at the U.S. Army’s Artillery School at Fort Bliss, Texas, witness a demonstration of anti-aircraft artillery, a weapon used with great effectiveness by American troops in the Korean War of 1950–1953.Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
28 fig23_03.jpgPage 897: President Harry S. Truman delivering his Truman Doctrine speech before Congress on Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
29 fig23_05.jpgPage 900: Children in Berlin celebrate the arrival of a plane bringing supplies to counter the Soviet blockade of the city in 1948.Credit: Ullstein Bilderdienst, Berlin.
30 fig23_06.jpgPage 897: President Harry S. Truman delivering his Truman Doctrine speech before Congress on March 12, 1947.Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
31 fig23_07.jpgPage 903: Chinese communists carrying portraits of Mao Zedong, who took control of the country’s government in 1949 after a long civil war.Credit: Associated Press, AP.
32 fig23_08.jpgPage 907: A poster for The Red Menace, one of numerous anticommunist films produced by Hollywood during the 1950s.Credit: Michael Barson Collection.
33 fig23_15.jpgPage 915: Blacks, led by A. Philip Randolph (left), picketing at the 1948 Democratic national convention. The delegates’ adoption of a strong civil rights plank led representatives of several southern states to withdraw and nominate their own candidate for president, Strom Thurmond.Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
34 fig23_16.jpgPage 917: A crowd in Las Vegas, Nevada, watches a mushroom cloud rise from the test of an atomic bomb in the distance in The government publicized such tests and even broadcast one on television. It failed to issue warnings of the danger of nuclear fallout, and only years later did it admit than many onlookers had contracted diseases from radiation.Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
35 fig23_17.jpgPage 918: Movie stars, led by actors Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall, on their way to attend the 1947 hearings of the House Un-American Activities Committee, in a demonstration of support for those called to testify about alleged communist influence in Hollywood.Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
36 fig23_18.jpgPage 919: Demonstrators at a 1953 rally in Washington, D.C., demanding the execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.Credit: Copyright Elliott Erwitt / Magnum Photos.
38 Give Me Liberty! An American History End chap. 23W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-OwnedThis concludes the Norton Media LibrarySlide Set for Chapter 23Give Me Liberty!An American HistorybyEric Foner