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The Art of Lecturing Paul Sutton, PhD, MD Associate Professor General Internal Medicine University of Washington.

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Presentation on theme: "The Art of Lecturing Paul Sutton, PhD, MD Associate Professor General Internal Medicine University of Washington."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Art of Lecturing Paul Sutton, PhD, MD Associate Professor General Internal Medicine University of Washington

2 The “Art of Lecturing”…really?The “Art of Lecturing”…really?

3 “Where facts are few, experts are many.” Donald Gannon “An expert is a person who has made all the mistakes that can be made in a very narrow field.” Niels Bohr

4 Overview Public speaking tipsPublic speaking tips Tips for effective PowerPoint presentationsTips for effective PowerPoint presentations Presentation of dataPresentation of data “The 10 Minute Talk”“The 10 Minute Talk”

5 Public Speaking Tips Tell ‘emTell ‘em Tell them what you are going to tell themTell them what you are going to tell them Tell themTell them Tell them what you have told themTell them what you have told them

6 Overview Public speaking tipsPublic speaking tips Tips for effective PowerPoint presentationsTips for effective PowerPoint presentations Presentation of dataPresentation of data “The 10 Minute Talk”“The 10 Minute Talk”

7 Public Speaking Tips Know your subjectKnow your subject Know your audienceKnow your audience –What’s in it for me? StructureStructure –Particularly crucial for shorter talks Your styleYour style –Find your own voice –But seek to entertain as well as educate

8 Your Style “Good teaching is one fourth preparation and three fourths theater.” Gail Godwin“Good teaching is one fourth preparation and three fourths theater.” Gail Godwin Use eye contact, voice modulation, and animation (yours, not PowerPoint’s)Use eye contact, voice modulation, and animation (yours, not PowerPoint’s) Take chances (but be tasteful)Take chances (but be tasteful)

9 Public Speaking Tips Limited recallLimited recall –“The magical number seven, plus or minus two”. Miller GA. Psychol Rev : Emphasize key pointsEmphasize key points –Don’t attempt the Vulcan mind meld –“If you only remember one thing…”

10 Effective Habits Outline the talk before opening any presentation softwareOutline the talk before opening any presentation software Scientific PresentationScientific Presentation –Background –Objective –Methods –Data –Discussion

11 Effective Habits: outlines Topic-based Lecture IntroIntro EpidemiologyEpidemiology Clinical FeaturesClinical Features DiagnosticsDiagnostics TreatmentTreatment Areas of studyAreas of study ReviewReview Case-based Lecture IntroIntro Case 1Case 1 Teaching pointTeaching point Case 2Case 2 Teaching pointTeaching point Lather & repeatLather & repeat ReviewReview

12 Effective Habits Prepare in advance!Prepare in advance! –“It usually takes more than three weeks to prepare a good impromptu speech.” Mark Twain PracticePractice –Particularly the introduction Peer reviewPeer review –Is the story coherent? –Is the presentation of data clear? –Eliminate ypographical errors

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14 PowerPoint Tips Use PowerPointUse PowerPoint –95% market share –Presentation software options: PC/Mac/UNIX: OpenOffice by SunPC/Mac/UNIX: OpenOffice by Sun Mac: KeynoteMac: Keynote –Can be difficult to share –Potential for formatting surprises Most conferences require.pptMost conferences require.ppt

15 Savvy Slides (K.I.S.S.) Dark background, light textDark background, light text Consider using bold for all fontsConsider using bold for all fonts Shadowed text is more readableShadowed text is more readable Use font size 24 or greaterUse font size 24 or greater Use easy to read fontsUse easy to read fonts –Arial –Times New Roman –Comic Sans MS –English 111 Vivace BT

16 Savvy Slides (44 point) Arial 36Arial 36 Arial 28Arial 28 Arial 20Arial 20 Comic Sans MS 36Comic Sans MS 36 Comic Sans MS 28Comic Sans MS 28 Comic Sans MS 20Comic Sans MS 20 Times New Roman 36Times New Roman 36 Times New Roman 28Times New Roman 28 Times New Roman 20Times New Roman 20

17 Backgrounds Readable, classicReadable, classic But, fatiguing over timeBut, fatiguing over time

18 Backgrounds Annoying, pointless backgroundAnnoying, pointless background Poor contrastPoor contrast High contrast is minimally betterHigh contrast is minimally better Wow, what a great lectureWow, what a great lecture

19 Slide Content About one minute per slideAbout one minute per slide –This ratio increases as the length of the talk increases 5-8 lines of text per slide5-8 lines of text per slide Simplify information (on the slide!)Simplify information (on the slide!) –More Hemingway than Bulwer-Lytton –More haiku than Dante

20 Slide Content For goodness sakes, don’t read your slides!For goodness sakes, don’t read your slides! Avoid STDsAvoid STDs –Speaker/text dissonance Use animations sparinglyUse animations sparingly

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22 “Death by PowerPoint” accessed 4/14/09

23 Accessed 7/2/2009

24 PowerPoint Tips Don’t forget to stretch/change gearsDon’t forget to stretch/change gears Attention span may be minutesAttention span may be minutes –Perhaps less in the age of Twitter Various techniques to re-engage the audienceVarious techniques to re-engage the audience

25 Overview Lecture tips and effective habitsLecture tips and effective habits Tips for effective PowerPoint presentationsTips for effective PowerPoint presentations Presentation of dataPresentation of data “The 10 Minute Talk”“The 10 Minute Talk”

26 So…Now I’m thinking about taking my cousin downtown when she visits next month…

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28 Presentation of Data PowerPoint conveys data at relatively low bandwidthPowerPoint conveys data at relatively low bandwidth

29 Flather MD, et al. Lancet : 1575

30 Tables, Charts, and Graphs Avoid tables & figures from journals – they do not project wellAvoid tables & figures from journals – they do not project well Tables & figures should be clearly labeled, and make sense at a glanceTables & figures should be clearly labeled, and make sense at a glance Orient the audience & walk them through the dataOrient the audience & walk them through the data

31 Tables, Charts & Graphs You’ve failed if you have to begin with an apologyYou’ve failed if you have to begin with an apology Limit data to what is necessary to convey your pointLimit data to what is necessary to convey your point –But don’t deceive Highlight key pointsHighlight key points

32 TrialTrialACEIACEIControlsControls RR (95% CI) CONSENSUS I SOLVD (Treatment) SOLVD (Prevention) Chronic CHF Post MI SAVESAVE TRACETRACE AIREAIRE 39%39%54%54% 0.56 (0.34–0.91) 40%40%35%35% 0.82 (0.70–0.97) 15%15%16%16% 0.92 (0.79–1.08) 25%25%20%20% 0.81 (0.68–0.97) 17%17%23%23% 0.73 (0.60–0.89) SMILESMILE6.5%6.5% 8.3% 8.3% 0.78 (0.52–1.12) 0.78 (0.67–0.91) 35%35%42%42% ACE Inhibitors and Mortality Reduction MortalityMortality Garg R et al. JAMA. 1995;273:1450–1456. AverageAverage21%21%27%27% Make another point with text box or highlighting

33 Placebo (n = 398) Carvedilol (n = 696 ) Placebo (n = 398) Carvedilol (n = 696 ) US Carvedilol Heart Failure Program: Effect on Hospitalizations *P <.05 Fowler MB et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;37:1692–  29%*  28%*  38%* All Hospitalizations Cardiovascular Hospitalization Heart Failure Hospitalizations % % Duration of therapy: 6.5 months (median) Duration of therapy: 6.5 months (median)

34 Age-Adjusted Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality from the SEER database, accessed 4/12/08 FDA approves PSA

35 “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not one bit simpler.” Einstein

36 The 10 Minute Talk The research equivalent of the oral case presentationThe research equivalent of the oral case presentation –Structure is incredibly important Background/significanceBackground/significance ObjectiveObjective MethodsMethods ResultsResults Discussion/futureDiscussion/future

37 The 10 Minute Talk Very little timeVery little time Make every word countMake every word count Seek early feedbackSeek early feedback Memorize the beginning (first impressions)Memorize the beginning (first impressions) Practice, practice, practicePractice, practice, practice

38 The Delivery RedundancyRedundancy –Computer, webmail, USB flash drive, CD –Include all files necessary for any animation (e.g. video) Get there early, check out the room, controls, waterGet there early, check out the room, controls, water Ask a friend/colleague for feedbackAsk a friend/colleague for feedback –Learn something from every talk

39 Overview (“Tell ‘em”) Lecture tips and effective habitsLecture tips and effective habits Tips for effective PowerPoint presentationsTips for effective PowerPoint presentations Presentation of dataPresentation of data “The 10 Minute Talk”“The 10 Minute Talk”

40 Take Home Points Be knowledgeable, enthusiastic, and animatedBe knowledgeable, enthusiastic, and animated Focus on a few take home pointsFocus on a few take home points Legible slides (and don’t read them!)Legible slides (and don’t read them!) Pay particular attention to the presentation of dataPay particular attention to the presentation of data 10 minute talk is like an oral case presentation – structure counts10 minute talk is like an oral case presentation – structure counts

41 “Make sure you have finished speaking before your audience has finished listening.” Dorothy Sarnoff

42 Suggested Reading Federman D. How do you give a great lecture? Parts I and II. SGIM Forum, June and July Accessed at D. How do you give a great lecture? Parts I and II. SGIM Forum, June and July Accessed at –Very practical, expert opinion Tufte ER. The cognitive style of PowerPoint: pitching out corrupts within. 2 nd edition. Graphics Press (Cheshire, CT) Tufte ER. The cognitive style of PowerPoint: pitching out corrupts within. 2 nd edition. Graphics Press (Cheshire, CT) –An essay on the limitations and cognitive shackles of PowerPoint –Available at the bookstore for $7 Keller J. Killing me microsoftly with PowerPoint. Chicago Tribune, January 5, Accessed at january-2003.htmKeller J. Killing me microsoftly with PowerPoint. Chicago Tribune, January 5, Accessed at january-2003.htm january-2003.htm january-2003.htm –Martin Luther King and Robert Frost à la PowerPoint Collins J. Giving a PowerPoint presentation: the art of communicating effectively. Radiographics : Collins J. Giving a PowerPoint presentation: the art of communicating effectively. Radiographics :


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