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Kimberly Hosford, MS Ed. RTI Specialist/School Psychologist

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1 Interpreting Data for Effective Instructional Grouping: Early Childhood through First Grade
Kimberly Hosford, MS Ed. RTI Specialist/School Psychologist Southern Oregon ESD NWPBIS Conference, Corvallis, OR March 8, 2010

2 EBISS Effective Behavioral and Instructional Support Systems
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Intensive, Individual Interventions Small Group/Individual students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures 1-5% 1-5% 5-10% 5-10% Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Targeted Group Interventions Some students (some risk) High efficiency Rapid response Primary Prevention: to reduce the number of new cases (incidence) of severe difficulty learning to read Kaplan and Grunebaum, 1967 Secondary Prevention: to reduce the duration of existing cases (prevalence) of severe difficulty learning to read Tertiary Prevention:to reduce sequelae and complications from established cases of severe difficulty learning to read Essential component 1 is implementing a multi-tier model. In the literature, these are usually 3- or 4-tier models. The trend seems to be using a 3-tier models. Tiered Levels of Intervention Implementation of RtI requires the use of a tiered model of intervention. Tier I is the foundation and contains the core curriculum (both academic and behavioral). The core curriculum should be effective for approximately 80% -85% of the students. If a significant number of students are not successful in the core curriculum, RtI suggests that instructional variables, curricular variables and structural variables (e.g., building schedules) should be examined to determine where instruction needs to be strengthened, while at the same time addressing the learning needs of the students not being successful. Tier I interventions focus on group interventions for all students and are characterized as preventive and proactive. It is important to note that the core curriculum in one school or district may be different from that in another school or district in order to ensure that percent of the students are successful. Student performance and needs is quite variable across schools and a responsive core curriculum will reflect that variability. Tier II interventions serve approximately 15% of students. Interventions are targeted group interventions. Students at Tier II continue to receive Tier I instruction in addition to Tier II interventions. Based on performance data, students move fluidly between Tier I and Tier II. Tier III serves approximately 5% of students. Students at this tier receive intensive, individual interventions. Once students reach target skills levels, the intensity and/or level of support is adjusted. These students also move fluidly among and between the tiers. Figure 1 is a graphic depiction of this model. The percentages next to the sections of the triangle are not cut in stone. However, these numbers are approximately the parameters that educators should be striving for in order to allow our systems to be as effective as possible. One advantage of using this model as a standard is that it allows schools to evaluate the effectiveness of their core instruction. That is, they can see how many of their students who receive general education alone are becoming proficient. In cases where too few general education students are becoming proficient based on core instruction alone, a school can work on “robusting up” its core program instead of referring all of these “less than proficient students” for supplemental or intensive programming. This is a great improvement to our historical system where it was difficult to distinguish the difference between students with disabilities from students who were “instructional casualties.” One misinterpretation to guard against when thinking about this model is that tier 1 is general education, tier 2 is Title 1 and tier 3 is special education. This is a common misunderstanding and could lead to simply keeping the historical system and calling it RtI. General education, Title 1 and special education are resources for providing Universal interventions, supplemental interventions and intensive interventions. There are students, for example, who will need intensive instruction who will not qualify for special education (e.g., some English-language learners, some talented and gifted students, students who have missed out on significant instruction due to illness etc.). The focus of this model is primarily on the NATURE and INTENSITY of instruction that students need. Which funding source can be used to provide these resources is a secondary consideration. One of the most important organizing components of PBS is the establishment of a continuum of behavior support that considers all students and emphasizes prevention. This logic of this 3-tiered approach is derived from the public health approach to disease prevention. All students and staff should be exposed formally and in an on-going manner to primary prevention interventions. Primary prevention is provided to all students and focuses on giving students the necessary pro-social skills that prevents the establishment and occurrence of problem behavior. If done systemically and comprehensively, a majority of students are likely to be affected. Some students will be unresponsive or unsupported by primary prevention, and more specialized interventions will be required. One form of assistance is called secondary prevention, and is characterized by instruction that is more specific and more engaging. These interventions can be standardized to be applied similarly and efficiently across a small number of students. The goal of secondary prevention is to reduce/prevent the likelihood of problem behavior occurrences, and to enable these students to be supported by the school-wide PBS effort. If primary prevention is in place, a small proportion of students will require highly individualized and intensive interventions. The goal or tertiary level interventions is to reduce the intensity, complexity, and impact of the problem behaviors displayed by these students by providing supports that are (a) function-based, (b) contextually appropriate and person-centered, (c) strength-based and instructionally oriented, (d) continuously evaluated and enhanced, and (e) linked to the school-wide PBS approach. Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive 80-90% 80-90% 2

3 Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) Definition and Evidence-Base
CBM is a brief, standardized assessment that documents student achievement through a systematic sampling of skills that represent the annual curriculum (Fuchs, 2004; Shinn, 2002, 1998, 1989; Deno, 1986) Alternate passages are of equivalent difficulty, whereby each measure is represented by the same level of complexity, gaining an accurate measure of student growth Growth is measured by Universal Screening and Progress Monitoring

4 Types of CBM General Outcome Measures (GOM)
Application of skill to independent task Leveled passages that can be used for progress monitoring Skills-Based Measures (SBM) Leveled measures that assess proficiency on a specific set of skills that students are expected to perform per grade-level standards Most commonly seen in mathematics/mixed math computation Mastery Measures (MM) Focuses on student attainment of finite skills Not appropriate for progress monitoring

5 Utility of CBMs Screening Decisions Progress Monitoring Decisions
Identify which students may need instructional support Progress Monitoring Decisions Decide when to modify instruction, teach new skills, and/or revise goals Diagnostic Decisions To target specific skill(s) for support Outcome Decisions To modify instruction, change intervention, or reintegrate back into general education support

6 CBM as Convergent Data Technically reliable and valid GOMs and SBMs will be used for Universal Screening and Progress Monitoring of student performance MM will be used to determine if a student is able to present skills taught in a lesson or unit Student performance measures from these, and other relevant sources of information, will be used to determine student growth as aligned with standards

7 Big idea *DIBELS measure
Initial Sound Fluency Phonological Awareness Alphabetic Principal Fluency (& accuracy) with connected text Vocabulary Comprehension Phoneme Segmentation Nonsense Word Fluency DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF) DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (DORF) DIBELS: Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills DIBELS is an example of a measurement system AIMSweb: Letter Sound Fluency (LSF; Alphabetic Principle ) ________: Word Identification Fluency (WIF; Alphabetic Principle) McKenna & Hosford (2008)

8 Before Reading there was Oral Language…
Phonological and phonetic development were preceded by prelinguistic development from birth to 10 months and older cooing/laughter, vocal play, babbling Babbling leads to speech starting with protowords - sounds that resemble adult words Early pronunciation and development of common words, months (mama, dadi, dog, cookie) Skills of articulation, morpheme identification and the ability to orally and auditorily manipulate phonemes, ages 3-5 morpheme: smallest sound unit with meaning phoneme: smallest sound unit

9 National Institute for Literacy
Link for the Executive Summary of the National Early Literacy Panel’s report; Developing Early Literacy “A scientific synthesis of early literacy development and implications for intervention” Other resources can be found at including publications for parents and teachers, early childhood through adolescence

10 National Institute for Literacy: Birth to Early Childhood – Predictor Skills
Most Important Skills for the Later Development of Literacy Knowing the names of printed letters Knowing the sounds associated with printed letters Manipulating the sounds of spoken language Rapidly naming a sequence of letters, numbers, objects or colors Writing one’s own name and isolated letters Remembering the content of spoken language for a short time

11 Instructional Practices that Enhance Early Literacy Skills
Code-focused interventions Teach skills to ‘crack the code’, include PA instruction Shared-reading interventions Reading books to children, simple or interactive Parent and home programs Parents taught instructional techniques to use at home Preschool and kindergarten programs Various aspects including programs, curricula, policies, etc. Language-enhanced interventions Focus on improving language development

12 Effects of the Interventions
Code-Focused Instruction Statistically significant and moderate to large effects in improving the precursor skills most related to later literacy growth Book Sharing Moderate effects on print knowledge and oral lang. Home/Parent Programs Moderate to large effects on oral lang. and general cognitive abilities

13 Intervention Effects (continued)
Language-Enhancement Interventions Large effects on oral language skills Preschool and Kindergarten Programs Moderate to large effects on spelling and reading readiness

14 Additional Key Findings
Age appropriate interventions Only language interventions showed greater effectiveness early on Overall, large and significant effects noted across interventions were found in both younger and older children More research is needed to assess outcomes of instruction at various ages

15 Key Findings (continued)
In general, child characteristics including: SES Age Race/ethnicity Did not alter the effectiveness of the interventions More research is needed to determine if specific interventions would be effective with specific populations

16 Key Findings (continued)
Code-related interventions producing large, positive effects were typically conducted in one-on-one and small group activities Activities were teacher directed with students learning through using the skills Nearly all included some form of PA, which generally asked children to delete or blend sounds, few used rhyming as the primary approach Teaching letter names and sounds, and beginning phonics tasks (blending sounds) enhanced effects of PA training

17 Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs)
1996 Early Childhood Research Institute on Measuring Growth and Development was launched by the Universities of MN, KS, and OR The Institute developed a comprehensive, individualized measurement system for tracking the growth and development of children with and without disabilities from birth to age eight. Part of this system are assessments that allow families and teachers to monitor young children’s development and identify, as soon as possible, the need for more intensive intervention. Questions to be answered Are there benchmarks/norms to use for the IGDIs? There are not national norms per se for the IGDIs. Some districts/programs compute their own local norms, others use norms that are from other large districts. Minneapolis Public Schools, for example, has found that the average score for children entering kindergarten (i.e., five- to six-year-olds) for rhyming is 7, for picture naming is 25, and for alliteration is 5. Depending on your population, you could use the Minneapolis numbers as benchmarks or you can compute your own. The Minneapolis information includes a total group norm as well as breakouts by ethnic groups, including Spanish. Are there norms available with which to compare our students? The students we have access to are special education or at risk students - we won't know typical performance for non-handicapped preschool children. Once child data is entered into the system, our online tools do generate graphical reports that plot the child's trend line* for a given test and an aim line that is based on a study group of typically developing children. In this way, you can visualize how well a child is progressing compared to typically developing children. Because the assessments are sensitive to monitoring the growth of individual children over time, you should choose goals according to the individual needs of a child. This lets you adapt interventions to the individual child based on your knowledge of environmental and other factors. *A student must have at least three data points to create a graphical report.

18 IGDIs… Design a simple set of tests to graph a child’s progress and produce information that’s meaningful to parents and teachers. “This is the first application of general outcome measures to preschool children,” said educational psychologist Scott McConnell, one of the Institutes lead researchers. Early Childhood Research Institute on Measuring Growth and Development (1998). Research and development of individual growth and development indicators for children between birth and age eight (Tech. Rep. No. 4), Minneapolis, MN: Center for Early Education and Development, University of Minnesota.

19 IGDI Measures for Ages 3-5
Easiest to most difficult: (1) Picture Naming –expressive language (2) Rhyming – early literacy (3) Alliteration – early literacy Load heavily onto phonemic awareness and rapid naming from the National Early Literacy Panel’s report Go to the web address below to access the “Get it, Got it, Go!” for free registration, downloads, and data management system

20 IGDIs… Guidance provided for data interpretation
Tracking of individual student progress and groups of students available on-line; aim line set based on a group of English-speaking preschoolers without identified disabilities Guidance on creating a local standard Data used as part of the research project Links to intervention resources provided – however general and somewhat limited in utility

21 IGDIs and Intervention
Picture Naming Intervene with activities to develop vocabulary, consult with SLP Rhyming onset recognition (e.g. goat, boat, coat) build accuracy with pictures (e.g. matching items with same sounds) Alliteration initial sound matching listening activities: book that has many words with the same initial sounds Resources from National Early Literacy Panel

22 Early Literacy Skills of Phonemic Awareness assessed in fall, winter and spring of kindergarten and 1st grade Ability to manipulate sounds auditorily at the phoneme level Foundation skill set required to become a proficient reader Phoneme segmentation as capstone skill representing knowledge in rhyme, on-set rime, and blending General outcome measures include Initial Sound Fluency (ISF) and Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF)

23 Early Literacy Letter Naming Phonics / Alphabetic Principle
Adds confidence that a student is on track to be a successful reader Does not link to one of the five essential components of beginning reading Phonics / Alphabetic Principle The ability to link letters to their representative sounds in text General outcome measures (GOMs) include letter-sound fluency (LSF) and nonsense word fluency (NWF)

24 Guidelines for the Interpretation of Multiple Measures
Identify the GOMs that represent pre-requisite skills in order to build a foundation for the attainment of other skills as aligned with the big ideas of beginning reading Review performance across all measures within the benchmark period Identify how discrepant a student is from the benchmark or normative data (expected performance ÷ actual performance); validate concern Identify widely discrepant students, those who ‘jump off the page’ Extent of discrepancy and skill deficits indicates level of intensity of intervention required

25 Guidelines (continued)
What level of support is required for students to be successful? Grade-Level Intervention / Walk to Read Differentiate within core program Consider replacement core if enough students in grade level require support to be successful Widely Discrepant (Shinn, 1989) Provide intensive support with explicit and systemic intervention program Consider replacement core Specific Skill Instruction Re-teaching, practice and repetition of skills not mastered Phonics inventory to target skill instruction

26 Questions to Answer How effective is our Core program? 80/20?
For which students is the core program effective and not effective? Benchmark Strategic Intensive What skills need to be targeted for support? Enhancement of Core program for all students Small group skill instruction in core program Supplemental program and Intervention Intensive intervention

27 Questions (continued)
Identify specific populations of students English Language Learners Special Education Review Instructional Program for alignment of support to student needs Convergence of Evidence Validate need for support Do other measures of student performance also indicate skill deficit? Reassess student to confirm need for support and to more closely review patterns in student performance

28 Kindergarten – Fall DIBELS: Initial Sound Fluency (ISF) and Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) AIMSweb: Letter Naming Fluency (LNF )and Letter Sounds Correct (LSC) Focus on phonemic awareness (instruction in rhyme, onset-rime, blending, and segmenting) Low performance on both ISF and LNF indicates comprehensive intervention in area of phonemic awareness Low performance on LNF only suggests skill instruction in letter names through differentiation in the core program Class or group performance may indicate benefit from instruction in oral language development Fall Kinder: walking in the door with whatever previous experience and prior knowledge they’ve been exposed to; we need to understand our demographics and be prepared to deliver programming at a level of intensity to support student needs and to have students accelerating at a rate of performance that places students on a trajectory of performance toward that of being a successful reader. End of year Kinder: Goal is for students to read CVC words

29 Kindergarten - Winter DIBELS: ISF, PSF, NWF, LNF
AIMSweb: PSF, LSC, NWF, LNF Focus on skills of phonemic awareness PSF a capstone skill representing a set of prerequisite skills needed to perform task Low performance on ISF and PSF review instructional program intensify support Benchmark on ISF and not PSF Small group instruction Preteach Lesson LNF: additional support through preteaching lesson and skill instruction within workshop/core programming, in gen-ed classroom

30 Kindergarten - Winter Benchmark met for skills of phonemic awareness (ISF and PSF), not for phonics as indicated by NWF Analyze performance on NWF probe Are individual sounds read accurately? Are words being recoded? Are individual sounds being presented and words being recoded? Identify patterns in performance. Small group instruction on specific skills as indicated by error patterns Preteach Lesson that targets phonics instruction in core program

31 First Grade HUGE year for growth in the development of early literacy skills and beginning reading NWF benchmark doubles between fall and winter (24 to 50 cls); Oral Reading Fluency assessed in winter and doubles by spring (20 to 40 wcpm) Review NWF for skill deficit patterns vowel errors specific sound errors across nonsense words decoding accurately, not blending decoding accurately, blending incorrectly onset rime

32 First Grade - Fall DIBELS measures: LNF, PSF, NWF
Phoneme segmentation remains a building block and foundation in the development of skills for early literacy Ability to identify and blend letter-sounds is critical When students are solid in their ability to identify and blend letter-sounds, as demonstrated in their performance on NWF, they may not perform to the benchmark in PSF If students are not able to effectively segment sounds in words that are presented, they will struggle to accurately identify letter-sounds

33 First Grade - Fall If students are below benchmark yet not widely discrepant, differentiate within the core program and provide additional support This may be in more than one area, such as phonemic awareness and letter-sound correspondence If students are widely discrepant in all measures, consider a replacement core program

34 First Grade - Winter DIBELS: PSF, NWF, ORF AIMSweb: LSF, PSF, NWF, ORF
Phonemic Awareness If students have not met criterion on PSF, have they met benchmark on NWF and ORF? If so, maintain instructional program If not, determine if support through small group instruction in core program will be sufficient, or if comprehensive intervention will be required to meet student need With intervention, progress monitor with PSF, NWF and ORF (ORF may not be sensitive to growth yet)

35 First Grade - Winter Phonics
If students have not met benchmark on ORF, have they met the criterion on PSF (35) and NWF (50)? Take a look at the passages Low performance on ORF and NWF, review NWF for skill deficit patterns (collect more data if needed for accurate analysis) vowel errors specific sound errors across nonsense words decoding accurately, not blending decoding accurately, blending incorrectly onset rime

36 First Grade - Winter Low performance on ORF, criterion met on NWF and PSF Look at NWF for guidance on potential needs, particularly vowels and recoding If errors identified in NWF, validate concern, and teach to remediate error pattern(s) If student is not recoding at least 15 nonsense words, student may need instruction in blending If adequately producing sounds and blending on NWF, look at errors in ORF passages and consider sound-spellings and sight words taught to date in core

37 First Grade – Winter (continued)
If phonics errors on ORF passages - Highlight on a phonics screener the sound-spellings taught and assess student on those skills If sight word errors on ORF passages – Use list of sight words taught and ask student to read the words Provide remediation specific to skill deficit(s) through differentiation in the core if student is not widely discrepant; pre-teach skill(s) Consider replacement core if student is 2x + discrepant

38 Winter Data - Overall Summary of Effectiveness report per grade level
Student movement from fall to winter Summary of Effectiveness report for same skill Class list reports Data Team meets with grade-level teams to review student progress Progress Monitoring data for students receiving differentiated and targeted instruction and intervention

39 Questions to Answer when Progress Monitoring
Is the student/instructional group demonstrating gains in skill with progress monitoring? What is the current instructional program? Is the student responding? Some growth? No growth? Stable growth on aim line? Is the program being implemented as intended? Identify alterable variables of time, grouping and instruction to either intensify support, maintain support, or fade support/reintegrate Review data sources for Convergence of Evidence

40 Evidence-Based Supplemental and Intervention Programs

41 Outcomes Driven Model Good, Gruba, & Kaminski (2002)

42 Supplemental and Intervention Programs versus Replacement Core
To enhance core program for all students Prevent/remediate skills for students in core who are somewhat below grade level Intervention Prevent/remediate skills for students in core who are somewhat/significantly below grade level Intervention to replace core for students who are substantially below grade level Replacement core Addresses all 5 big ideas of reading More explicit instruction of finite skills, moves at slower pace with some exceptions

43 Phonemic Awareness Explicit instruction of essential skills for PA Blending, segmenting, rhyming SRA Phonemic Awareness (PreK-1) 110 lessons; 15 minutes each; continuum of PA Kindergarten Peer Assisted Literacy Strategies (K-PALS) 3 days/week, 20 minutes, for 20 weeks Direct instruction + ‘peer tutoring’ Scott Foresman Early Reading Intervention (ERI) At-risk kindergarten and 1st grade students 30 minutes daily; 126 lessons; small group Not enough growth following 6-8 weeks, switch to Reading Mastery

44 Phonics Peer Assisted Literacy Strategies (1st grade) Strong research; 30 minutes, 3 days/wk, wks Supports PA, Phonics and Fluency Phonics for Reading (grades 1-6 to ELL adults) Consistent with findings of National Reading Panel Phonics supplement Daily minutes or split lessons in 1/2 Explode the Code Independent work; no research See Florida Center on Reading Research and Oregon Reading First websites for reviews of other programs for phonics support

45 Fluency Peer Assisted Literacy Strategies (grade 1) Strong research, easy to implement in core Great Leaps (grades k-adult) Fluency-only, easy to implement, minutes daily Six Minute Solution (grades k-9) Derived from a strong research base; 3 levels Only 6 minutes of instructional time daily Read Naturally (50 words to adult) Primarily fluency-building; strong research 3, 30 minute lessons/week minimum

46 Vocabulary Embed instruction for specific words and teach word learning strategies in the core program, differentiate Language for Learning (PreK-1; 4-6 yr olds) Language for Thinking (grades 1-2) Training required for fidelity Particularly useful for students with any language needs Intended for small groups of 4-12 students in minute instructional sessions; 150 lessons

47 Replacement Core Programs
Reading Mastery Classic l, ll, lll (SRA) / Fast Cycle Modified orthography used in first level to emphasize the specific sounds of letters Particularly powerful for children with significant language as well as literacy deficits Horizons (SRA), can include Funnix (computer-based) A, B; A/B covers 2 years in 1 to catch kids up to peers Uses traditional orthography vs. Reading Mastery Read Well Used fairly often as a replacement core in classrooms Consider pace of instruction issues

48 Replacement Core: Critical Points
Continue to teach skills of vocabulary and comprehension from evidence-based core program Not meant to be a long-term solution for large groups of students e.g. use Reading Mastery Fast Cycle to MOVE students forward and to ACCELERATE their growth toward criterion and benchmark standards Use progress monitoring DATA to determine if students are gaining skills and generalizing them Define a plan for REINTEGRATION back into the core program (e.g. semester break in January)

49 Instructional Grouping Take Home Points
Use instructional recommendations as a guide, not as the sole means of decision making Look more closely at the data and specific skill areas of deficit and proficiency; be discerning Leave meetings with a plan for each grade level Think creatively, outside of the box Identify the smallest change that can be made to make the biggest impact in student performance

50 Thank you for supporting student literacy!


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