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Anatomy and Physiology for Emergency Care Chapter 8 Neural Tissue and the Central Nervous System.

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy and Physiology for Emergency Care Chapter 8 Neural Tissue and the Central Nervous System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy and Physiology for Emergency Care Chapter 8 Neural Tissue and the Central Nervous System

2 The Nervous System Central Nervous System Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Afferent division Afferent division Efferent division Efferent division Somatic Nervous system Somatic Nervous system Autonomic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System

3 Functional Overview of the Nervous System

4 Anatomy of a Multipolar Neuron

5 Cellular Organization in Neural Tissue Neurons Neurons Functional Classification of Neurons Functional Classification of Neurons Sensory Neurons Sensory Neurons Motor Neurons Motor Neurons Interneurons Interneurons General Structure of Neurons General Structure of Neurons Structural Classification of Neurons Structural Classification of Neurons Neuroglia Neuroglia Astrocytes Astrocytes Oligodendrocytes Oligodendrocytes Microglia Microglia Ependymal cells Ependymal cells Schwann cells Schwann cells

6 Structural Classification of Neurons

7 Neuroglia in the CNS

8 Schwann Cells and Peripheral Axons

9 Neurophysiology The Membrane Potential The Membrane Potential Factors Responsible for the Membrane Potential Factors Responsible for the Membrane Potential Changes in the Membrane Potential Changes in the Membrane Potential Graded Potentials Graded Potentials Action Potential Action Potential The Generation of an Action Potential The Generation of an Action Potential Conduction of an Action Potential Conduction of an Action Potential Demyelination Demyelination

10 The Cell Membrane at the Resting Potential

11 An Action Potential

12 Conduction of Action Potentials over Unmyelinated and Myelinated

13 Synaptic Communication Structure of a Synapse Structure of a Synapse Presynaptic neurons Presynaptic neurons Postsynaptic neurons Postsynaptic neurons Synaptic cleft Synaptic cleft

14 Synaptic Events and Neurotransmitters Step 1 Step 1 Step 2 Step 2 Step 3 Step 3 Step 4 Step 4 Acetylcholine (Ach) Acetylcholine (Ach) Norepinephrine Norepinephrine Dopamine Dopamine GABA GABA Serotonin Serotonin

15 Neuronal Pools Divergence Divergence Convergence Convergence Parallel Processing Parallel Processing

16 Introduction to Reflexes The Reflex Arc The Reflex Arc

17 Anatomical Organization of the Nervous System

18 Anatomy of the Nervous System The Meninges The Meninges Dura mater Dura mater Arachnoid Arachnoid Pia mater Pia mater Blood Brain Barrier Blood Brain Barrier

19 The Spinal Cord Gross Anatomy Gross Anatomy Sectional Anatomy Sectional Anatomy

20 Sectional Anatomy of the Spinal Cord

21 The Brain Major Divisions of the Brain Major Divisions of the Brain Ventricles of the Brain Ventricles of the Brain Cerebrospinal Fluid Cerebrospinal Fluid The Cerebrum The Cerebrum Structure of the Cerebral Hemispheres Structure of the Cerebral Hemispheres Motor and Sensory Areas of the Cortex Motor and Sensory Areas of the Cortex Association Areas Association Areas Cortical Connections Cortical Connections Cerebral Processing Centers Cerebral Processing Centers General interpretive Area General interpretive Area Speech Center Speech Center Prefrontal Cortex Prefrontal Cortex Memory Memory Hemispheric Specialization Hemispheric Specialization Electroencephalogram Electroencephalogram

22 The Brain

23 Ventricles of the Brain Ventricles of the Brain

24 The Brain Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulation of Cerebrospinal Fluid

25 The Brain Cerebral Hemisphere Cerebral Hemisphere

26 The Brain Hemispheric Specialization Hemispheric Specialization

27 The Brain Cerebral nuclei Cerebral nuclei Caudate nucleus Caudate nucleus Amygdaloid body Amygdaloid body

28 The Brain Limbic System Limbic System

29 The Brain The Diencephalon The Diencephalon Thalamus Thalamus Hypothalamus Hypothalamus The Midbrain The Midbrain The Pons The Pons The Cerebellum The Cerebellum The Medulla Oblongata The Medulla Oblongata

30 Aging and the Nervous System Reduction in brain size and weight Reduction in brain size and weight Reduction in the number of neurons Reduction in the number of neurons Decrease in blood flow to the brain Decrease in blood flow to the brain Changes in synaptic organization of the brain Changes in synaptic organization of the brain Intracellular and extracellular changes in the CNS neurons Intracellular and extracellular changes in the CNS neurons

31 Summary

32 Emergency Care Applications Chapter 8

33 Medical Disorders of the Nervous System Cerebrovascular Accident (Brain Attack) Cerebrovascular Accident (Brain Attack) Transient Ischemic Attacks Transient Ischemic Attacks Seizure Disorders Seizure Disorders

34 Nervous System Infections Meningitis Meningitis Viral Meningitis Viral Meningitis Unusual Forms of Meningitis Unusual Forms of Meningitis Parasitic Brain Infections Parasitic Brain Infections Brain Abscess Brain Abscess Encephalitis Encephalitis Prion Disease Prion Disease

35 Headache Migraine Headache Migraine Headache Cluster Headache Cluster Headache Tension Headache Tension Headache

36 Neurological Trauma Blunt Trauma Blunt Trauma Diffuse Injuries Diffuse Injuries Focal Injuries Focal Injuries Penetrating Trauma Penetrating Trauma Spinal Cord Injuries Spinal Cord Injuries Cord concussion Cord concussion Cord contusion Cord contusion Cord compression Cord compression Cord laceration Cord laceration Complete transection Complete transection Incomplete transection Incomplete transection Cord hemorrhage Cord hemorrhage Spinal Cord Syndromes Anterior cord syndrome Central-cord syndrome Brown-Sequard syndrome Spinal shock

37 Neurological Trauma

38 Focal Injuries

39 Penetrating Trauma

40 Spinal Cord Injuries

41 Summary


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