2Summary of PK – 4th TEKS for LA and Reading PK – S’ interact with responsive adults and peers in a language – and print-rich instructional environment that provides opportunities for development in the following areas:Listening comprehensionPhonological awarenessFunctions of printLetter KnowledgeKindergarten – s’ engage in instructional activities that promote development of oral language usage, conceptual knowledge, narrative and expository print forms, alphabet usage, and letter formation.
3Grade 1 – S’ engage in instructional activities that promote development of independent readers and writers by using various print forms, by providing reading materials that promote fluency and understanding and by demonstrating the conventions of writing and spelling.Grade 2 - S’ engage in instructional activities that promote development of independent readers by providing instruction that promotes sight vocabulary development, teaching and demonstrating a variety of word identification strategies, teaching comprehension skills, demonstrating graphic presentations, teaching note taking procedures, and teaching conventions of writing and spelling.
4Grade 3 - S’ engage in instructional activities that promote structural analysis skills, glossary skill, elements of the writing process, independent reading activities, and activities that provide a transition from manuscript writing to cursive writing.Grade 4 – S’ engage in instructional activities that demonstrate story structure analysis, produce narrative and expository writing products, practice the parts of speech n a variety of written forms, emphasize awareness of correct spelling and grammar, and demonstrate application of the elements of writing.
5Mr. Jones teaches a kindergarten class comprised of a diverse population of students with varying language proficiency levels. How can he encourage language development for all of his students?Mr. Jones can facilitate a story writing activity where all students contribute to the story as he writes the class story on chart paper. Class members can then act out the story they created.Students can memorize and chorally present a poem selected by the teacher to be shared with parents in a class presentation.Mr. Jones can create language centers for students to work at during different times of the day that include a listening center, a puppet center , and a grocery story center.A and C.
6Incorporates and includes the language and voice of all the students in the classroom. Because s’ also see the teacher writing down what they say, children can understand how reading and writing are associated. Additional language use and oral expression are reinforced through the retelling and acting out of the story at the end.Does not promote language proficiency less the students understand the words in the poem. There is an indication that, because it is a teacher-selected poem to present to parents, the message of the poem may have more meaning for the teacher and parents than for the students.Is also well rounded in the teacher’s attempt to meet the language needs of all students whether they can or cannot recognize rhyming words or whether their language proficiency level is highly communicative or weak.The activities described in the centers would promote the language development of all students at any level of proficiency. Therefore response D is correct.
7Language DevelopmentVocalizing sounds (crying or babbling) to obtain a response from a parent or caregiver.Recognizing a stimulus-producing sound (hears a barking sound and looks at the family’s dog)Generalizing a word to identify and object (parent asks for the ball and child responds by identifying the ball in a variety of ways such as looking at or touching the ball)Speaking by age 3 years in phrases and sentences containing approximately four words, understanding the concept of “yes” and “no,” asking and answering simple questions, and following directions such a “pick up the ball and give it to Mommy.”
8Developing language skills in preschoolers through focusing on using four to five words in a sentence, using a limited number of grammar rules, creating and orally presenting personal stories (about going to the zoo or to McDonald’s), asking and answering questions, and describing objects and personal events.Acquiring a speaking vocabulary of 2,000 to 3,000 words by kindergarten and continuing to develop oral language competencies.
9Developing a continuous ability to produce words that includes use of social talk correct grammar, and construction of oral and written complex sentences.
10Foster a language-rich environment by: Displaying charts showing pictures of objects or actually displaying concrete objects being discussed in voice-recognition class.Picture books to enhance oral language developmentProviding technology using word walls; displaying high frequency wordsIdentify colorsSymbols that explain directions
11Language experience approach (LEA) – is an instructional method that incorporates the various components of language arts by using children’s experience and backgrounds as the language structure for developing stories individually or in a heterogeneous group.Discuss ideas aboutSchoolfield tripstrade bookObservationsStructured wordsPersonal experiencesCreative storiesVariety of other topics
12LEA is connected to schema theory by using s’ experiences and backgrounds as a focus for developing stories.Allows children to observe the organization and mechanical functions of written language by observing the teacher print directionally from let to right and from top to bottom.They also see printed word organization and spacing, punctuation, letter formation, and sentence structure.LEP s’ can benefit because they are better able to comprehend reading material that they themselves dictate to the teacher.
13Teacher: Have you decided on a title for your story? Student: Yup. Me go write bout my cat are going to have kittens.Teacher: Oh! I think that is a great idea. You are going to write abut how your cat is going to have kittens. Let’s get started.Piaget’s word schema reminds us that it is easier to learn if we can attach new knowledge to something already known.
14Listening Active listeners can: Remember parts of a story Follow directionsRespond to purpose-setting questions set by the teacherParticipate in cooperative groupsImprove vocabulary development.
15When s’ listen critically: Practice in building on prior knowledgeLearning to synthesize information; more than one source.Solving problems
16Listening for appreciation: Emphasize the understanding of moodUse of figurative language
17Instructional components that can be used are note taking and questioning. Organize ideasIdentify main ideasProvide students pointsTeacher’s RoleModel developmentally appropriate not taking by:Present graphic organizersPartially filled outlinesNarrative storiesPicture booksOral presentations
18Expanding VocabularyHomographs (same letters) – words spelled the same but have different pronunciations and meanings.Ex. She is wearing a red bow.She will bow down to the queen.Homophones (same sounds) – words that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings:Ex. He is wearing a red shirt.He read the book.Idioms – Figurative sayings that have special meanings.Ex. “Keep your shirt on!” basically means “Don’t get angry”
19Metaphors – comparison of two unlike things without using as or like; an example is “The moon was a silver dollar against the night sky.”Semantic map (word cluster) – writing a word or concept in the center circle of a cluster, drawing rays, writing information about the word or concept and making connections between the word or concept and the related unit of study.
20Similes – comparison between two things of a defferent kind or quality using like or as. EX. “The rain came down like transparent sheets”Word sorts – sorting a collection of words taken from a word wall or other source into two or more categories.Word wall – a list of words children are learning or know posted on a poster (or an actual wall in a classroom) in a highly visible location.
21Mrs. Parlez has several pre-kindergarten students in her class who are reluctant to speak in class. What activities might she use to stimulate the development of their oral language?Have students use puppets to tell a familiar story.Have students role-play telephone conversations.Have students “read” aloud textless or wordless,books.All of the above.
22Puppet – young children will often speak using a puppet while they are too shy to speak face to face to an adult.Role-play – using a play telephone offers a familiar and comfortable way for a young child to express himself or herself.Textless or wordless books – is a framework for oral storytelling.Answer: D
23Mr. Cate, a fourth-grade teacher, has invited a guest speaker to discuss the important events related to the upcoming rodeo. Realizing that the speaker’s main objective is to present a wide range of information over a 30-minute time period, which of the following would be the best listening practice or practices for Mr. Cate to implement for the children to use as they listen to the speaker?Provide a list of purpose-setting questions.Arrange the children into cooperative groups.Provide a summary of the speaker’s discussion.Provide the children with an open note-taking sheet.
24Cooperative groups could be an effective practice for peer engagement to discuss aspects of the speaker’s ideas after the speaker has finished.Summary could provide ideas about the speaker’s presentation afterwards.Note taking does not provide a purpose (giving the children questions/statements at different levels of comprehension to establish purpose/reasons to listen) for listening to the speaker.Does having a purpose to listen to the speaker assist the children in focusing on the content of the speaker’s ideas, and does this knowledge allow them to have the information necessary to engage in other activities?A is the answer.
25Students in Miss Lucio’s urban kindergarten class dictated a story about their field trip to the fire station. What should she not expect in the content of their oral delivery?Standard English.Inconsistent grammar structure.Details about the field trip.Events highlighting the field trip.
26B, C, D are components of the LEA that are frequently found in dictated stories. A is what the teacher should not expect in a dictated story at this time in the young child’s development.However, Standard English, or “business” English, is the target teachers try to reach.
27Miss Chavez, a pre-kindergarten teacher, plans to provide a list of at-home activities for parents to use. Which parental activities should she suggest?Allow your child to assist in planning family activities.Read books to your child and allow your child to discuss the pictures.Clip pictures from magazines that represent the color of the week.All of the above.
28Miss Chavez could appropriately recommend each activity to parents as activities that could foster literacy concepts; therefore, D is the answer.
29Miss Fuentes, a kindergarten teacher, asks Alex, Mario, Mac, Armando, and Trenia to come to the literacy table. Miss Fuentes plans to use an oral activity to practice rhyming words. Below is the activity she uses with the children.I am going to say two words together. After I say the words, I will call on one of you to tell me if the words rhyme. If the words rhyme, say “yes.” If the words do not rhyme, say “no.” She uses the following list:1. top/pop 5. sun/man2. rag/big 6. make/take3. sack/bag 7. pig/peg4. look/book 8. could/should
30Identify the pre-reading skill the kindergarten teacher is using: Segmenting on rhyming sounds.Auditory discrimination of rhyming pairs of words.Visual discrimination of rhyming pairs of words.Blending
32Alliteration mostly begin with the same letter sound. Ex. Tall Tella took tiny toots to town.Blending – This task requires the young reader to blend a series of orally produced sounds to form a word.Ex. /t/, /o/, /p/ the reader is expected to say top.Segmenting beginning and ending sounds in a word.Ex. Identify the sound heard at the beginning of the word top and also the sound heard at the end.
33Components of the Texas Primary Reading Inventory GradeScreening SectionInventory SectionKindergartenGraphophonemic knowledgePhonemic AwarenessBook and print awarenessPhonemic awarenessGraphophonemic knowledgeListening comprehension1st GradeWord readingReading accuracy and fluency2nd Grade
34What is the purpose of this activity? Ms. Nguyen, a kindergarten teacher, ask students to “clap the number of syllables” heard in this list of words:Schoolhouse 5. MondayBuilding 6. hamburgerPony 7. wagonBlue 8. bookWhat is the purpose of this activity?To determine the development of sight words.To determine the ability to hear syllables.To determine the readiness for teaching reading.To determine the use of capital letters.
35Ms. Nguyen is determining how effectively her kindergarten children are hearing syllables in orally pronounced words.Therefore, Choice B is correct.
36Have first-grade students name the letters of the alphabet Have first-grade students name the letters of the alphabet. Have one sheet that lists the alphabet in sequence and one sheet that lists the alphabet in random order. Remember to present lowercase letters first in at least a 14-point print size. You may repeat the same activity using uppercase letters. What is the purpose of this activity?To determine alphabet letter recognition.To determine the use of uppercase and lowercase letter formation.To determine readiness for formal reading instruction.To determine alphabetizing.
37The purpose of this instructional activity is to determine letter recognition of both upper and lower case letters in sequential and random order.A is correct.
38Mr. Dwyer, a kindergarten teacher, places a teacher-made folder game in the literacy center. The directions ask students to match lowercase letters with the corresponding uppercase letters by pulling a length of yarn from one letter in the upper case column to its corresponding letter in the lowercase column. What is the purpose of this activity?To practice letter association.To play a game.To practice writing the alphabet.To practice writing conventions.
39Students are practicing association. Choice A is correct.Students are practicing association.Follow by repeated instruction and practice by usingGamesComputer activitiesVariety of tactile products employing:Sandpaper lettersPlastic lettersOther raised surfacesBooksOther literacy tools
40Which strategies can a teacher use to foster student’s enjoyment and appreciation of poetry? Reading poems, clapping out the rhymes and recording a “top ten” set of poems for use in a listening center.Making personal collections of students’ favorite poems, requiring memorization of poems, and dramatizing narrative poems.Illustrating Native American poetry, analyzing sections of poems, and sharing haiku with poetry pals in another classroom.Choral reading and peer editing.
41Decide which activities leads to appreciation and enjoyment. Use elimination.If it doesn’t promote enjoyment and appreciation cross it out.The answer is A.
42Mr. Chaparral is about to introduce a unit on the westward movement to his fourth-grade students. Which of the following strategies would be most effective in immersing his students into this subject?Have the students read the related chapter in their social studies textbook an answer the questions at the end of the chapter.Organize the class into groups and let each group choose a novel.Have the students read diaries, biographies, and nonfiction books about the westward movement and collaboratively create an illustrated timeline for the bulletin board.Assign everyone to read, with the teacher’s assistance, Laura Ingalls Wilder’s Little House on the Prairie. Then have the students write a response to the story.
43Which activity would give students the most understanding of the westward movement? A gives only one perspective (author’s perspective), and answering the questions at the end of the chapter is tedious, boring, and solitary.B does not provide a focus for a broader view of this lesson.D does not take into consideration that fourth-grade boys and girls prefer to read about characters that are the same sex they are.C gives students the responsibility by allowing them to schedule their reading, conduct their discussion, and plan their final presentations to the class. Reading diaries, biographies, and other nonfiction literature pertaining to the historical period gives students a truer perspective of what life was like then.
44Mitch, a second grader, reads a word incorrectly in a sentence as he is reading orally to his teacher. After reading two more sentences, he goes back and corrects the error. What strategy did Mitch’s teacher observe him using in determining his error?Application of onsets and rimes.Context clues.Structural analysis.Sight words.
45What clued him to the need to go back What clued him to the need to go back? Because Mitch is a second grader, he should have the ability to apply onsets. However, it cannot be determined if the used this strategy because his self-correction was delayed until after reading two additional sentences. Therefore, A is not correct.We know that he made a miscue in reading, and we know that his teacher did not stop his reading. He pronounced a word incorrectly in a previous sentence. Therefore, it can be determined that Mitch used context clues in determining the need to go back to reread the sentence that contained the error. B is correct.
46Considering Maria’s written responses on this worksheet, what assessment can the teacher make about her reading achievement?She can read words that contain consonant blends.She can read words that contain vowel digraphs.She can use structural analysis skills.All of the above.