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Copyright 2008-12 1 COMP 3410 – I.T. in Electronic Commerce eSecurity Mobile Security Roger Clarke Xamax Consultancy, Canberra Visiting Professor, A.N.U.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2008-12 1 COMP 3410 – I.T. in Electronic Commerce eSecurity Mobile Security Roger Clarke Xamax Consultancy, Canberra Visiting Professor, A.N.U."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright COMP 3410 – I.T. in Electronic Commerce eSecurity Mobile Security Roger Clarke Xamax Consultancy, Canberra Visiting Professor, A.N.U. and U.N.S.W. ETSecy4 {.html,.ppt} ANU RSCS, 16 October 2012

2 Copyright Mobile Security Agenda 1.Mobile Technology Devices Wireless Comms 2.Mobile Technology Users 3.Mobile Payments 4.Risk Assessment for Mobile Payments 5.Risk Assessment for Contactless Chips

3 Copyright Mobile Devices 'Any device that provides users with the capacity to participate in Transactions with Adjacent and Remote devices by Wireless Means' Mobiles / Smartphones Handheld Computing Devices PDAs, games machines, music-players, 'converged' / multi-function devices, Tablets esp. iPad but now many followers Processing Capabilities in Other 'Form Factors' Credit-cards, RFID tags, subcutaneous chips Wearable Computing Devices Watches, finger-rings, key-rings, glasses, necklaces, bracelets, anklets, body-piercings ? Nomadic / Untethered PCs

4 Copyright Wireless Comms and Mobile Security in 2011 Wide Area Networks – Satellite Geosynchronous (2 second latency) Low-Orbit (Iridium) Wide Area Networks – WiMax / IEEE ; iBurst Wide Area Networks – Cellular (0.5 to 20km per cell) 1 – Analogue Cellular, e.g. AMPS, TACS 2 – Digital Cellular, e.g. GSM, CDMA 3 – GSM/GPRS/EDGE, CDMA2000, UMTS/HSPA 4G – LTE, with preliminary versions imminent Local Area Networks – WiFi / x (10-100m radius) Personal Area Networks – Bluetooth (1-10 m radius) Contactless Cards / RFID Tags / NFC (1-10cm radius)

5 Copyright Mobile Technology Users Dimensions of Differentiation Education, Income, Wealth Infrastructure Availability Technical Capability

6 Copyright Mobile Technology Users Dimensions of Differentiation Education, Income, Wealth Infrastructure Availability Technical Capability Opportunity-Awareness Leadership / Followership Risk-Awareness, Risk-Aversion

7 Copyright Mobile Technology Users Dimensions of Differentiation Education, Income, Wealth Infrastructure Availability Technical Capability Opportunity-Awareness Leadership / Followership Risk-Awareness, Risk-Aversion Age / 'Generation'

8 Copyright The 'Generations' of Computing Consumers Indicative Indicative GenerationBirth-YearsAge in 2011 Silent / Seniors Baby Boomers – Early Baby Boomers – Late Generation X Generation Y The iGeneration

9 Copyright Generational Differences Baby Boomers (45-65) Handshake/phone, PCs came late, had to adapt to mobile phones Work is Life, the team discusses / the boss decides, process-oriented GenXs (30-45) Grew up with PCs, and mobile phones, hence multi-taskers Work to Have More Life, expect payback from work, product-oriented GenYs (15-30) Grew up with IM/chat, texting and video-games, strong multi-taskers Life-Work Balance, expect fulfilment from work, highly interactive iGens (to 15) Growing up with texting, multi-media social networking, networked games, multi-channel immersion / inherent multi-tasking ?Life before Work, even more hedonistic, highly (e-)interactive

10 Copyright Mobile Payments Commerce Purchases of physical goods and services, at physical POS, road tolls (Contactless Chips, NFC)

11 Copyright Mobile Payments Commerce Purchases of physical goods and services, at physical POS, road tolls (Contactless Chips, NFC) eCommerce Purchases of physical goods and services at virtual points of sale (Internet, Cellular phone)

12 Copyright Mobile Payments Commerce Purchases of physical goods and services, at physical POS, road tolls (Contactless Chips, NFC) eCommerce Purchases of physical goods and services at virtual points of sale (Internet, Cellular phone) MCommerce Purchases of digital goods and services, such as image, audio and video, and location-specific data

13 Copyright Mobile Payments Commerce Purchases of physical goods and services, at physical POS, road tolls (Contactless Chips, NFC) eCommerce Purchases of physical goods and services at virtual points of sale (Internet, Cellular phone) MCommerce Purchases of digital g&s, such as image, audio and video, and location-specific data Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) Transfers of value between individuals

14 Copyright Risk Assessment for Mobile Payments (0)The Mainstream Security Model (1)The Technical Architecture (2)The Commercial Architecture (3)The Transaction Process Aspect (4)The Harm Aspect (5)The Vulnerability Aspect (6)The Threat Aspects (7)The Safeguards Aspect

15 Copyright (0)The Mainstream Security Model Abstract Threats Become Actual Threatening Events, Impinge on Vulnerabilities, Overcome Safeguards & Cause Harm Security is a (desirable) condition in which Harm does not arise because Threats are countered by Safeguards

16 Copyright (1)The Technical Architecture Indicative Model

17 Copyright (2)Commercial Architecture Customer/Payer Seller/Payee Payment Handler Delivery Handler Customer Support Internet Online Trading Protocol (IOTP):

18 Copyright (2)Commercial Architecture Customer/Payer Seller/Payee Payment Handler Delivery Handler Customer Support BUT ALSO... Internet Access Providers (IAPs) Carriage Service Providers (CSPs) Commercial Intermediaries, e.g. Paypal Transaction Service Providers e.g. banks and credit-card companies Payment Services Providers, e.g. deposit-holders, lenders and insurers Regulators and complaints bodies e.g. financial services ombudsmen Consumer Rights representative and advocacy organisations Consumer Segments, e.g. the mobility- disadvantaged, the sight-impaired, people with limited financial assets Internet Online Trading Protocol (IOTP):

19 Copyright (3)The Transaction Process Aspect From Herzberg (2003), p. 56

20 Copyright (4)The Harm Aspect Injury to Persons Damage to Property Loss of Value of an Asset

21 Copyright (4)The Harm Aspect Injury to Persons Damage to Property Loss of Value of an Asset Breach of Personal Data Security, or Privacy more generally Financial Loss

22 Copyright (4)The Harm Aspect Injury to Persons Damage to Property Loss of Value of an Asset Breach of Personal Data Security, or Privacy more generally Financial Loss Inconvenience and Consequential Costs arising from Identity Fraud Serious Inconvenience and Consequential Costs arising from Identity Theft Loss of Reputation and Confidence

23 Copyright (5)The Vulnerability Aspect The Environment Physical Surroundings Organisational Context Social Engineering The Device Hardware, Systems Software Applications Server-Driven Apps (ActiveX, Java, AJAX, HTML5) The Device's Functions: Known, Unknown, Hidden Software Installation Software Activation Communications Transaction Partners Data Transmission Intrusions Malware Vectors Malware Payloads Hacking, incl. Backdoors, Botnets

24 Copyright (5)Threat Aspects – Second-Party Situations of Threat: Banks Telcos / Mobile Phone Providers Toll-Road eTag Providers Intermediaries Devices Safeguards: Terms of Contract Risk Allocation Enforceability Consumer Rights

25 Copyright (6)Threat Aspects – Third-Party, Within- System (Who else can get at you, where, and how?) Points-of-Payment Physical: Observation Coercion Points-of-Payment Electronic: Rogue Devices Rogue Transactions Keystroke Loggers Private Key Reapers Network Electronic Interception Decryption Man-in-the- Middle Attacks Points-of-Processing Rogue Employee Rogue Company Error

26 Copyright (6)Threat Aspects – Third-Party, Within-Device Physical Intrusion Social Engineering Confidence Tricks Phishing Masquerade Abuse of Privilege Hardware Software Data Electronic Intrusion Interception Cracking / Hacking Bugs Trojans Backdoors Masquerade Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) Infiltration by Software with a Payload

27 Copyright (6)Threat Aspects – Third-Party, Within-Device Infiltration by Software with a Payload Software (the Vector) Pre-Installed User-Installed Virus Worm... Payload Trojan: Spyware Performative Communicative Bot / Zombie Spyware: Software Monitor Adware Keystroke Logger...

28 Copyright Key Threat / Vulnerability Combinations Unauthorised Conduct of Transactions Interference with Legitimate Transactions

29 Copyright Key Threat / Vulnerability Combinations Unauthorised Conduct of Transactions Interference with Legitimate Transactions Acquisition of Identity Authenticators e.g. Cr-Card Details (card-number as identifier, plus the associated identity authenticators) e.g. Username (identifier) plus Password/PIN/ Passphrase/Private Signing Key (id authenticator) e.g. Biometrics capture and comparison

30 Copyright Key Threat / Vulnerability Combinations Unauthorised Conduct of Transactions Interference with Legitimate Transactions Acquisition of Identity Authenticators e.g. Cr-Card Details (card-number as identifier, plus the associated identity authenticators) e.g. Username (identifier) plus Password/PIN/ Passphrase/Private Signing Key (id authenticator) e.g. Biometrics capture and comparison Use of a Consumer Device as a Tool in a fraud perpetrated on another party

31 Copyright Risk Assessment of Contactless Chips RFID / NFC chip embedded in card Wireless operation, up to 5cm from a terminal Visa Paywave and MasterCard PayPass Up to $100 (cf. original $25)

32 Copyright Contactless Chip-Cards as Payment Devices RFID / NFC chip embedded in card Wireless operation, up to 5cm from a terminal Visa Paywave and MasterCard PayPass Up to $100 and $35 resp. (cf. original $25) Presence of chip in card is not human-visible, but Logo / Brand may be visible No choice whether it's activated Operation of chip in card is not human-apparent No action required when within 5cm range, i.e. automatic payment No receipt is the norm Used as Cr-Card: Unauthenticated auto-lending Used as Dr-Card: PIN-less charge to bank account

33 Copyright Authentication – None / A Non-Secret / / For Higher-Value Transactions Only / Always UK RingGo Parking Payment Scheme – last 4 digits Act of Consent – None / Unclear / Clear e.g. Tap the Pad in Response to Display of Fare Notification – None / Audio / Display If 'None', then enables surreptitious payment extraction Receipt / Voucher – None / Option or Online / Y Octopus, Drive-Through eTags for Road-Tolls UK RingGo Parking Payment Scheme Key Safeguards for Chip Payment Schemes

34 Copyright Authentication – None / A Non-Secret (but Yes, for Transactions >$100 Only) Act of Consent – None? / Unclear? / Clear? If the card is within 5cm of a device, whether seen or not Notification – None? / Audio? / Display? If 'None', then enables surreptitious payment extraction Receipt / Voucher – None? / Option? / Y? Visa PayWave and MCard Paypass

35 Copyright The (In)Security Profile of Contactless Chip-Card Payment Transactions Non-Authentication, or mere possession: presentation of the card within a device's field, when that device is ready to charge money for something Vulnerable to card-capture, rogue devices, rogue transactions by legitimate devices,... Relies on: general levels of honesty among merchants and FIs (consumer reconciliation is infeasible – no vouchers, and either very long statements or no statements) (fraudulent transactions are obscured) self-insurance by consumers

36 Copyright Key Safeguards Required Choice of Activation or Not Two-Sided Device Authentication, i.e. by Payees Chip of Payers Chip by Payers Chip of Payees Chip Notification to Payer of: Fact of Payment (e.g. Audio-Ack) Amount of Payment At least one Authenticator Protection of the Authenticator(s) A Voucher (Physical and/or Electronic) Regular Account Reconciliation by Payers

37 Copyright The Status of Consumer Protection EFT Code of Conduct – phasing out as-amended-from-1-July-2012.pdf ePayments Code – phasing in by 30 March Code?openDocument Soft regulation of such things as receipts, risk apportionment, complaints, privacy,... The banks have sought to weaken the protections (In NZ they succeeded, but were beaten back by the tide of public opinion, and withdrew the changes) The Code's provisions apply to contactless-card transactions – but with a lot of 'buts'

38 Copyright Payments in the Network Era Initially Wired, Increasingly Unwired Secure Models ATMs EFTPOS – Dr Tx Internet Banking Debit Tx over the Internet Insecure Models EFTPOS – Cr Tx Credit Card Tx over the Internet (CNP / MOTO) Highly Insecure Models Contactless-Chip/ RFID / NFC

39 Copyright Mobile Security Agenda 1.The Motivation 2.Mobile Technology 3.Mobile Technology Users 4.Mobile Payments 5.Risk Assessment for Mobile Payments 6.Risk Assessment for Contactless Chips

40 Copyright COMP 3410 – I.T. in Electronic Commerce eSecurity Mobile Security Roger Clarke Xamax Consultancy, Canberra Visiting Professor, A.N.U. and U.N.S.W. ETSecy4 {.html,.ppt} ANU RSCS, 16 October 2012


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