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Drugs in Sport Monday 16th March.

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Presentation on theme: "Drugs in Sport Monday 16th March."— Presentation transcript:

1 Drugs in Sport Monday 16th March

2 Learning Objectives What drugs are and why people use them
Socially acceptable drugs: the effects of tobacco and alcohol Performance-enhancing drugs: the effects of stimulants, narcotic analgesics, diuretics, physical manipulation and anabolic agents. Blood doping and the laws and enforcers

3 Drugs A drug is a chemical substance that affects the way the body works. Sportspeople may take drugs to improve their performance. Some drugs are allowed, some are not. Illegal drug use is known as doping. Generally, drugs are developed for medical use. All drugs are dangerous when misused. Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation


5 Socially acceptable drugs
The two most important drugs that are considered to be socially acceptable are: Tobacco (nicotine) Nicotine is a legal drug, though it is slowly becoming less socially acceptable. Nicotine raises the heart rate and blood pressure. Alcohol Alcohol is socially acceptable in most sections of society. However it is banned in many sports for safety reasons – it acts as a sedative, slowing reactions and impairing judgement.

6 Smoking – what’s in a cigarette?
Nicotine is a mild poison. It makes your blood pressure and heart rate rise – this can make new smokers dizzy. It is highly addictive, which is why it is difficult to give up smoking. Tar is a mixture of chemicals (formaldehyde, arsenic and cyanide to name a few). When cigarette smoke is inhaled, tar is left behind in the lungs. It causes many serious diseases. healthy lungs smoker’s lungs

7 Smoking – what’s in a cigarette?
Carbon monoxide is an odourless, tasteless, poisonous gas. It bonds with red blood cells in the same way that oxygen does, except that the bond is permanent. Blood cells carrying carbon monoxide can no longer transport oxygen, therefore reducing the amount of oxygen the blood can carry. Up to 15% of a smoker's blood may be carrying carbon monoxide instead of oxygen. This means the heart has to work harder, putting strain on it and causing circulation problems. It also makes smokers tired and breathless, reducing cardiovascular endurance. Smokers tend to be at a disadvantage in sports that require an efficient and healthy cardio-respiratory system.

8 Alcohol All alcoholic drinks contain a chemical called ethanol. This is what makes people ‘drunk’. It doesn’t do much harm in small quantities, however larger quantities are dangerous. Alcohol puts strain on your body, making you unwell – that’s why heavy drinkers may be sick and later suffer from a ‘hangover’. However, alcohol also has more serious effects, both short- and long-term.

9 Alcohol – immediate effects
you relax and feel good dizziness and poor balance impaired judgement – you do and say things you normally wouldn’t trouble controlling how you move (poor coordination) slow reactions blurred vision impaired speech aggressive behaviour vomiting. How do you think drinking alcohol before sport affects performance? Think about a range of different activities.

10 Alcohol – immediate effects
As well as impairing physical and mental abilities, alcohol causes the blood vessels of the skin to dilate, so body heat is lost and blood is diverted from the muscles. Alcohol is a diuretic, so it causes dehydration. This is why people often get a headache. The extra urination also robs the body of essential minerals like magnesium and potassium. This can cause the heart to beat irregularly. Glucose is also excreted, lowering the levels of glycogen in the muscles. Drinking makes people feel tired and lethargic. After drinking, some performers may lose their drive to train and perform.

11 Alcohol – long-term effects
Drinking a lot of alcohol regularly over a period of time is likely to cause physical, emotional and social problems: skin problems liver and brain damage damage to reproductive organs memory loss / confusion heart and blood disorders stomach problems frequent infections weight gain depression relationship problems problems with money and work.

12 Performance-enhancing drugs
Drugs can be used to improve performance. This could give some performers an unfair advantage and undermine the integrity of sport. Sports governing bodies produce lists of banned substances, so that it is clear to both performers and coaches which substances they must avoid while training and competing. The IOC (International Olympic Committee) has identified five classes of banned substances: Stimulants Peptide, chemical & physical manipulation Diuretics Narcotics / analgesics Anabolic agents

13 Stimulants Stimulants excite the central nervous system (CNS) and raise the heart rate. They improve the reactions of a performer. Users usually feel more alert and display increased confidence in their level of ability. Performers using stimulants can work for longer periods without feeling tired. This means that they can both train harder and perform better on the day. Here are some common stimulants: Caffeine (not prohibited) Cocaine Ephedrine Mefenorex Amphetamines Nicotine

14 Stimulants – side effects
Stimulants can have some nasty side effects: Heavy usage can lead to high blood pressure, liver and brain damage. They can cause irritability and aggressive behaviour. Insomnia Irregular pulse A performer may feel low or depressed after the initial effects have worn off. Sensory feelings can be suppressed. Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation Do you think that the side effects are worth risking to get the performance benefits of using stimulants?

15 Narcotic analgesics Analgesics are pain killers.
Narcotics cause delirium and drowsiness. Narcotic analgesics do both. They are sometimes referred to as opioids because they often contain opium derivatives. These drugs are used by performers to suppress pain and enable them to carry on, even with an injury. The following are types of narcotic analgesics: Morphine Heroin Codeine Methadone Pethidine Fentanyl

16 Narcotic analgesics – side effects
Narcotic analgesics can have the following side effects: Narcotic analgesics are highly addictive – they are illegal in many countries unless administered by a doctor. The withdrawal symptoms are very unpleasant. Users may find it more difficult to concentrate. They lead to reduced coordination and poor balance. Pain is suppressed, causing performers injuries to worsen without realizing. They can cause mental apathy and lack of motivation. Narcotic analgesics can cause constipation. They can cause low blood pressure. Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation

17 Diuretics Diuretics increase the amount of water passed out of the body as urine. Performers sometimes use them to reduce their body weight very quickly before a competition. Diuretics can also be used as a masking agent – they flush out traces of banned substances in the body so that they don’t show up on doping tests. Examples of diuretics include: Some jockeys use diuretics to keep their weight down. Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation Frusemide Probenecid Acetazolamide Indapamide

18 Diuretics – side effects
Diuretics cause the body to rapidly lose water, so many of the side effects are the same as the symptoms of dehydration. They include: muscle weakness and cramps heart damage rashes loss of sodium and potassium salts dizziness and nausea kidney problems. Diuretics often do not enhance performance – they just help performers to meet weight restrictions. In some sports, carrying less weight will improve performance, but this advantage must be balanced against the side effects listed above. It is better to lose weight through balancing training and diet rather than using diuretics. Can diuretics really be described as ‘performance-enhancing’?

19 Anabolic steroids Anabolic agents (steroids) are the most commonly used performance-enhancing drugs. They are hormones which help build and repair muscle and bone. They mimic the male hormone “testosterone”. Anabolic agents occur naturally in the body. However, they are also made artificially and can be used by performers to illegally improve their performance. Examples include: Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation Nandrolone bodlenone Stanozonol Testosterone.

20 Anabolic steroids – side effects
The side effects of anabolic steroids are serious: heart disease, which can be fatal high blood pressure / anxiety Increased risk of muscle injury severe liver disorders aggressive behaviour facial hair growth and infertility in women. Worst case: Cause DEATH Emphasise the performance benefits possible with anabolic steroids – the performance gains are larger than for any of the other drugs. Image © 2006 Jupiterimages Corporation Why do you think that performers still take anabolic steroids despite the side effects?

21 Peptide, chemical & physical manipulation
These types of drugs are used to produce similar effects as steroids to increase muscle growth assist in recovery from injury and heavy training sessions increase the number of Red Blood Cells to carry extra O2 Human Growth Hormone (hGH) Fewer side effects than steroids No urine test, unreliable blood test

22 Erythropoietin (EPO) It increases the production of Red Blood Cells Therefore increasing the amount of haemoglobin available to take up O2 increasing aerobic capacity It thickens the blood, making it difficult for blood to pass through small capillaries Thus, there is the risk of heart attack and stroke

23 Blood Doping Is a banned process not a drug
Athletes train at high altitude increasing the O2 carrying capacity of their blood They withdraw blood and freeze it Just before a competition they undergo a blood transfusion This is thought to increase their performance by up to 20%

24 The Laws and the enforcers
The International Olympic Committee (IOC) have strict rules on prohibited substances – 4000! The IOC take random tests of athletes both in season and out of season Individual sporting associations also do this A urine sample is taken in front of a witness The sample is split into two and a test is conducted on the first sample If any drugs are shown, then the second sample is checked with the athlete present

25 Performance-enhancing drugs

26 Performance-enhancing drugs
For further information on all types of performance enhancing drugs visit: WORLD ANTI-DOPING AGENCY uk sport The 100% ME programme encourages athletes to believe that they don't need to use prohibited substances or methods to succeed in sport. For further information visit: Click on the hyperlinks to go to the WADA. The site contains the most up-to-date list of prohibited substances produced by WADA. Click on the hyperlink to go to UK Sport’s website. There is various information on this subject on this site along with information for students. 100% ME

27 Exam-style questions Richard plays doubles at his tennis club. He has noticed that his partner is often short of breath during long rallies despite being fit. Richard thinks this is to do with his partner’s regular smoking. Why might smoking affect performance in this way. Richard sometimes drinks alcohol before playing if the game is not important. Describe how the alcohol may affect his performance. a) Smoking would affect his partner’s breathing in the following ways: reduces the efficiency of the lungs, reduces the blood’s ability to carry oxygen, lowers resistance to illness, including respiratory infections. b) Alcohol may affect performance in the following way: lowers glycogen levels in the muscles so a performer can’t work as hard or for as long; reduces a performer’s coordination, balance and agility; can impair judgement, so tactics may suffer; can make a person aggressive; can cause dehydration; can damage the immune system; can cause heat loss as blood vessels dilate – a disadvantage in cold weather.

28 Exam-style questions Elite performers in a variety of sports are tempted into taking performance enhancing drugs. Anabolic steroids are a type of banned performance enhancing drug. Narcotic analgesics are also banned. What physical advantages would a performer gain from taking anabolic steroids? What types of sport would this kind of drug give the greatest advantage in? a) The physical advantages of using anabolic steroids are growth in muscle mass and strength. b) Anabolic steroids are most advantageous in power sports. Example may include: short distance events e.g. 100m running, sprint cycling, swimming sprints, bobsleigh; throwing events (shot, javelin, hammer and discus; weightlifting). c) An athlete may use a narcotic analgesic in order to help them continue to perform if suffering from the pain of an injury. It can also relieve muscle pain due to fatigue, enabling a performer to work for longer. d) They are potentially harmful as a performer may make the initial injury worse whilst using them and not realise. They are also addictive and cause severe withdrawal symptoms. Narcotic analgesics can also cause constipation and low blood pressure. Users may become apathetic. Why might an athlete take this type of drug? Why are narcotic analgesics thought to be potentially harmful to athletes?

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