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English Language Arts & Reading 1 Language Arts In Early Childhood.

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Presentation on theme: "English Language Arts & Reading 1 Language Arts In Early Childhood."— Presentation transcript:

1 English Language Arts & Reading 1 Language Arts In Early Childhood

2 English Language Arts & Reading 2 Inner Language 1. Listening 2. Reading 3. Speaking 4. Writing Language Arts Language Development

3 English Language Arts & Reading 3 Learner Centered Communication Teacher communicates with Students Families Professional Colleagues Community

4 English Language Arts & Reading 4 Mechanical Automatic Skills Sensory Perception Memory Motor Spatial – Temporal

5 English Language Arts & Reading 5 Conceptual Thinking Skills Environment Meaning Problem-Solving Organization Survival

6 English Language Arts & Reading 6 Normal Language Development Student in Grade 4 Reads on Grade Level 4 Listens on Grade Level 6 Speaks on Grade Level 5 Writes on Grade Level 2

7 English Language Arts & Reading 7 Language Arts Study of Language Handwriting Spelling The Writing Process Creative Writing Literature Study Skills

8 English Language Arts & Reading 8 Objectives The intern will know the development of the four areas of normal language and their relationships; know the developmental process of oral language; design age-appropriate instruction in listening and oral language skills; know the components of phonological and phonemic awareness and the relationship to reading and writing;

9 English Language Arts & Reading 9 Objectives know the elements of the alphabetic principle and the relationship to the spoken word, reading, and writing; know that literacy acquisition develops in a pattern through the use of oral language, reading, and writing; know the importance of word analysis to reading and provide a variety of activities to develop those abilities; and know the basic principles of assessment and use a variety of appropriate on-going assessment tools to assist in planning instruction.

10 English Language Arts & Reading 10 Auditory Components of Language Auditory-Visual Association Auditory Language Classification Auditory Language Association Auditory Discrimination Auditory Closure Auditory Memory

11 English Language Arts & Reading 11 Visual Components of Language Visual-Motor Visual Figure-Ground Visual Discrimination Visual Closure Visual Memory Visual Language Classification Visual Language Association

12 English Language Arts & Reading 12 Visual What do you see?

13 English Language Arts & Reading 13 Visual Motor

14 English Language Arts & Reading 14 Visual Discrimination Mark the figure that looks like the first AREAIRFIREAREART

15 English Language Arts & Reading 15 Visual Closure Point to the figure that will close the picture.

16 English Language Arts & Reading 16 Visual Closure What is missing?

17 English Language Arts & Reading 17 Level II p i t f or fu n b y soo n bab y r i d e d ow n he ad Pre-Primer – Response Teacher says, Read the words as I point to them. m other ope n ve ry y e a r ha ppy lett er n ext mor ning wi th Response

18 English Language Arts & Reading 18 Level IV aw ake gif t mi xed shir t tu rn in g fa sten lar ge st r ained ta lks Up to 5 th Grade Teacher says, Read the words as I point to them. ca rry ing cof fee ju ice s torm co r ners wri tes doll ar hour s pe nn ies Response

19 English Language Arts & Reading 19 Visual Memory After the teacher covers the pictures, the students will tell exactly what pictures they saw in the row. Response _________ ________

20 English Language Arts & Reading 20 Visual Memory Response _________ ________

21 English Language Arts & Reading 21 Visual Memory Response _________ ________

22 English Language Arts & Reading 22 Visual Memory Response _________ ________

23 English Language Arts & Reading 23 Visual Language Association Teacher points to the first picture, then student points to the picture that goes with it. Response _________ ________

24 English Language Arts & Reading 24 Visual Language Association Point to the first picture and say, Fish goes with fish bowl as dog goes with ________? Response _________ ________

25 English Language Arts & Reading 25 Manual Language Expression Show the pictures and ask students, Show me what you can do with them. Response ________

26 English Language Arts & Reading 26 Manual Language Expression Show the pictures and ask students, Show me what you can do with them. Response ________

27 English Language Arts & Reading 27 Verbal Language Expression Show the pictures and ask students, Tell me all you can about this.

28 English Language Arts & Reading 28 Verbal Language Expression Show the pictures and ask students, Tell me all you can about this.

29 English Language Arts & Reading 29 Verbal Language Expression Show the pictures and ask students, Tell me all you can about this.

30 English Language Arts & Reading 30 Receptive Language Skills Grade level listed for introducing concepts. Concepts can be introduced earlier if material being studied requires it. Listening Skills 1) Auditory Processing (K) 2) Understanding – words, concepts (K), sentences (1), elements (2) 3) Memory – recall (K), sequence, academic concepts (3) 4) Processing speed – simple (1), complex (3), longer texts (5) 5) Sound discrimination – environment (K), musical, letter (1), complex (3) 6) Closure – blends (2), patterns (3) 7) Association – opposite (3), completion (4), judgment (5)

31 English Language Arts & Reading 31 Receptive Language Skills Active Listening 8) Comprehension main idea (3), directions (K), sequencing, details (3), questions (4), summarize (4) 9) Critical absurdities, propaganda (5), correcting (6), completion (4), fact/opinion (5), emotive/report (6), bias, inference, repetition (7), evaluate (6), problem solving (4) Appreciative Listening 10) Attention visualize, rhythms (K), tone/mood (3) 11) Effect style (4), character (7), effect/speaker (5), effect audience (4)

32 English Language Arts & Reading 32 Expressive Language Skills Personal Speaking/Oral Language Skills 1) Concept – uniqueness (K), personality (3), creativity (4) 2) Confidence – experiences (K), comfort (3), enjoyment (3) 3) Mannerisms – voice (K), body (K) 4) Feelings – types (K), words (2), personal (3)

33 English Language Arts & Reading 33 Expressive Language Skills Elements of Oral Language Skills 5) Word meaning – categories (K), technical (4), creative (5) 6) Context meaning – purposes (2), information (3), complex ideas (5) 7) Comprehension – main idea (3), detail (3), direction (K), relevant (5), inference (7) 8) Organization – guidelines (4), sequence (6)

34 English Language Arts & Reading 34 Expressive Language Skills Fluency of Oral Language 9) Vocabulary – naming (K), word power (2), abstract (3), social (K), convergent (4), divergent (5) 10) Syntax – correct structure (K), transition (4), complex structure (5)

35 English Language Arts & Reading 35 Expressive Language Skills Purpose of Oral Language 11) Appropriate – adaptations (K), creative (2), organized (4) 12) Error recognition – grammar (4), vocabulary (5), organization (5) 13) Elaboration – simple topic (4), word variety (5), reasons (5) 14) Audience rapport – people (4), purpose (5), speech (5), logic (6) 15) Spontaneous – creativity (K), jokes (6), talking (K), sharing (K), experiences (2), conversation (K), telephone (4)

36 English Language Arts & Reading 36 Expressive Language Skills Formal Oral Language 16) Creative – dramatics (K), storytelling (2), choral speaking (K) 17) Informative – discussion, directions, reporting (3), announcements, interviewing (5), parliamentary procedures (6)

37 English Language Arts & Reading 37 Expressive Language Skills Attitude Toward Written Language Skills 1) Blocks – (K) 2) Motivation – (K)

38 English Language Arts & Reading 38 Expressive Language Skills Content of Written Language Skills 3) Reflective – description (K), reports (2), procedures (5), retelling (4), summaries (5) 4) Relationships – comparison (3), contrast (3), classification (4), analysis, cause/effect (5), explanation (6) 5) Explanatory – hypothesis (5), schemes (7), design (5) 6) Personal view – feelings, preferences (K), opinions (6), judgment (7) 7) Creative writing – creativity, topics, formats (K) 8) Research/Report writing – library skills, formats (K), effective writing (3), English class (4), content areas (5) 9) Technological support – Franklin Speller (3), tape recorder (K), computer (K)

39 English Language Arts & Reading 39 Experiences that Foster Pro-Social Development Positive Feelings About Self Result in higher frequency of cooperative behaviors. Age-Appropriate Responsibilities Foster a sense of being a contributing part of the family or group. Opportunities to Interact with Other Children Opportunities to Engage in Socio-dramatic Play Enhances perspective-talking.

40 English Language Arts & Reading 40 Developmentally Appropriate Practice First Characteristic Age Appropriateness Universal and predictable patterns of growth and development which occur in children from birth through age eight

41 English Language Arts & Reading 41 Developmentally Appropriate Practice Second Characteristic Individual Appropriateness Individual rates and patterns of physical/motor, psychosocial, cognition, language, and literacy development, personality and learning style, and family and cultural background of each young child

42 English Language Arts & Reading 42 Language Arts Phonemic Awareness Alphabetic Principle Phonics Spelling Language (Grammar) Early Childhood through Grade 4 Concepts About Print Creative Writing Poetry Literature as a Connection Integrated Thematic Instruction

43 English Language Arts & Reading 43 Phonological Awareness Is the ability to recognize the sounds in a spoken language and how they can be segmented (pulled apart), blended (put back together), and manipulated (added, deleted, and substituted). Is a strong predictor of later reading success. Is an important component of beginning reading programs for ALL students. Is particularly important for students identified as dyslexic or with other reading difficulties.

44 English Language Arts & Reading 44 Instruction in Phonological Awareness Focuses on individual sounds (or phonemes) in spoken words. Is auditory and does NOT involve print. Helps students understand the alphabetic principle.

45 English Language Arts & Reading 45 Differences Phonological Awareness Phonics Is the ability to recognize the sounds of spoken language and how they can be blended, segmented, and manipulated. Is an instructional approach that links the sounds of spoken language to printed letters.

46 English Language Arts & Reading 46 Differences Phonological Awareness Phonics Is auditory. Does NOT involve print. Activities can be done with eyes closed. Is Graphophonemic. Involves print. Activities require looking at print.

47 English Language Arts & Reading 47 Differences Phonological Awareness Phonics Focuses on sounds of spoken language and how they can be blended, segmented, and manipulated. Shows how the sounds of spoken language are represented by letters and spelling (i.e. letter r represents the phoneme /r/).

48 English Language Arts & Reading 48 Differences Phonological Awareness Phonics Provides basis for understanding alphabetic principle and lays the foundation for phonics and spelling. Begins before students have learned a set of letter-sounds correspondences by using manipulatives. Helps students understand how sounds in words relate to their corresponding written symbols or letters. Helps students to begin identifying words in print by sounding out phonemes, blending them together, and saying the word.

49 English Language Arts & Reading 49 Phonological Awareness Continuum Phoneme Blending, Segmenting, and Manipulating Blending phonemes into words, segmenting words into individual phonemes, and manipulating phonemes in spoken words (most complex) Onset-rime blending and segmenting Blending and segmenting the initial consonant or consonant cluster (onset) from the vowel and consonant sounds spoken after it (rime)

50 English Language Arts & Reading 50 Phonological Awareness Continuum Syllable blending and segmenting Blending syllables to say words or segmenting spoken words into syllables Sentence segmentation Segmenting sentences into spoken words Rhyme/alliterationMatching the ending sounds of words/ producing groups of words that begin with the same initial sound (simplest)

51 English Language Arts & Reading 51 Activities for Phonological Awareness should be scheduled regularly; can be done throughout the curriculum and school day; and can be done with eyes closed!

52 English Language Arts & Reading 52 Phonological Awareness Continuum Example of Levels PhonemesBlending: /h/ /a/ / t/ = hat Segmenting: boat = /b/ /o/ /t/ Manipulating: change /c/ to /f/ in car = far Onset-rimeBlending: /h/ + /il/ = hill Segmenting: hill = /h/ + /il/ SyllablesBlending: dog + house = doghouse Segmenting: doghouse = dog + house Counting: clapping, snapping, … to break words

53 English Language Arts & Reading 53 Phonological Awareness Continuum Example of Levels Sentence Segmentation The car is red AlliterationShe sells seashells by the seashore. Rhymemean seen green lean bean

54 English Language Arts & Reading 54 Guidelines for Teaching Phonological Awareness 1.Model each activity when it is first introduced. 2.Review the examples of the activities. Number of sounds in a word (sip is easier than hand) Position of phoneme in words (initial sounds of words are easier than final and medial) Sounds of letters (continuants /m/ are easier than clipped sounds /b/)

55 English Language Arts & Reading 55 Guidelines for Teaching Phonological Awareness 3.Include a wide range of different types of activities when teaching the whole class. Begin with easier tasks that everyone can succeed in doing. Extend activities to challenge all students. Activities that entail identification of sounds are easier than those requiring production of sounds.

56 English Language Arts & Reading 56 Guidelines for Teaching Phonological Awareness 4.Use concrete objects such as fingers, counters, picture cards, etc., to manipulate sounds. These are essential for struggling readers! 5.Provide many opportunities for practice and review. Small group instruction for struggling readers. Include workstations/centers.

57 English Language Arts & Reading 57 Monitoring Progress for Phonological Awareness Use brief, planned instructional assessments. Collect students work to show progress and growth. Observe and note students interactions while talking, reading, and writing. Use checklists to compile and analyze information quickly and easily. Keep anecdotal (narrative) records of students actions, reactions, and interactions. * Difficulty with development of phonological awareness is one of the characteristics associated with dyslexia.

58 English Language Arts & Reading 58 Using Reading Inventories to Monitor Progress In TPRI, phonological awareness is assessed in the screening and inventory sections called Phonemic Awareness Blending onset-rimes Rhyming Blending word parts Blending phonemes Detecting initial and final sounds

59 English Language Arts & Reading 59 Alphabetic Principle Understanding that the sequence of letters in written words represents the sequence of sounds (or phonemes) in spoken words

60 English Language Arts & Reading 60 Letter Recognition Goals Recognize, name, and produce the letters of the alphabet. Identify and distinguish upper and lowercase letters of the alphabet. A a B b

61 English Language Arts & Reading 61 Goal of Letter Recognition Activities To rapidly and accurately identify letters of the alphabet both sequentially and randomly.

62 English Language Arts & Reading 62 Letter-Sound Correspondence Refers to the common sounds (sound that a letter represents most frequently) of letters and letter combinations in written words. Predicts later reading success.

63 English Language Arts & Reading 63 Guidelines Introduce in a sequence based on frequency of use in text and spelling. (In English/Spanish - introduce M before X.) Establish a logical order of introduction. (Order varies based on beginning reading programs.) For Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondences

64 English Language Arts & Reading 64 Guidelines Begin with letter-sound correspondences that can be combined to make words that students can read and understand. (In English, letters m, s, t, and a can be made into several easy words.) For Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondences

65 English Language Arts & Reading 65 Guidelines Separate introduction of letters that sound similar. (/n/ and /m/) Begin with continuous sounds then add stop (or clipped) sounds. Continuous = sounds can be stretched out when pronounced Stop/Clipped = sounds that are not easily pronounced in isolation without a vowel sound; however, vowel sound is clipped (i.e., b should be pronounced /b/ and not /buh/ ) For Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondences

66 English Language Arts & Reading 66 Guidelines Introduce a few at a time with plenty of opportunities for practice. (In Spanish, vowels are introduced first then followed by most commonly used consonants.) For Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondences

67 English Language Arts & Reading 67 Introducing Letter-Sound Correspondence In English i/ i /it t/ t /table p/ p /pig n/ n /nest s/ s /sock a/ a /apple

68 English Language Arts & Reading 68 Introducing Letter-Sound Correspondence In English l/ l /leaf d/ d /dog f/ f /fish h/ h /house g/ g /goat o/ o /octopus

69 English Language Arts & Reading 69 Introducing Letter-Sound Correspondence In English k/ k /kite c/ k /cup m/ m /mitten r/ r /rabbit b/ b /bat e/ e /elephant

70 English Language Arts & Reading 70 Introducing Letter-Sound Correspondence In English y/ y /yarn j/ j /jam u/ u /umbrella w/ w /wagon v/ v /valentine x/ ks /box

71 English Language Arts & Reading 71 Introducing Letter-Sound Correspondence In English z/ z /zipper qu/ kw /queen

72 English Language Arts & Reading 72 When Children Know Sounds They can begin to make and decode words. They can learn how to blend sounds together. They can practice reading and making 2 to 3 letter words.

73 English Language Arts & Reading 73 Words Using First 11 Letter-Sound Corresp. I, t, p, n, s, a, d, l, f, h, g ItIfIn TipNipSip PipLipPit SitFitLit HitTinPin SinFinLid

74 English Language Arts & Reading 74 Words Using First 11 Letter-Sound Corresp. I, t, p, n, s, a, d, l, f, h, g ListLispGasp StandGlandPlant SlantSplitSplat SplintPassLass GlassPillHill GillStillStiff

75 English Language Arts & Reading 75 Creative Writing Print-Rich Environment Link Literature to Writing Concepts of Print Fluency Teacher Read Aloud Teacher Writes

76 English Language Arts & Reading 76 Think Aloud … the ability to put words to ones thinking process. Im demonstrating knowledge of standard usage!

77 English Language Arts & Reading 77 Graphic Organizer Web For The Important Book The important things about Is that It Main Idea Topic Sentence

78 English Language Arts & Reading 78 An Integrated Thematic Instruction (ITI) Plan Remember that Language Arts is the key content area. 1) Choose a theme appropriate for time of year, curriculum topic, or interest. 2) If curriculum, check scope and sequence of local and state curriculum. 3) Make a mind map to include the topics and timeline. 4) Identify key points to be experienced and/or learned. Steps to Development

79 English Language Arts & Reading 79 An Integrated Thematic Instruction (ITI) Plan 5) Develop inquiries and activities that provide experiences for students that will allow them to understand concepts/skills of the key points. 6) Set up an assessment system for each activity. Steps to Development

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